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The Author, Missionary from the Society and Sandwich Islands. 



The Advertiser Historical Series 
No. 2 



A Narrative of a Tour through Hawaii, or 

Owhyhee; with remarks on the History, 

Traditions, Manners, Customs and 

Language of the Inhabitants 

of the Sandwich Islands. 



By William JEllis 

Missionary from the Society and Sandwich Islands 
(Reprint of the London 1827 Edition) 



With an Introduction 

By Lorrin A. Thurston 



Hawaiian Gazette Co., Ltd, 
Honolulu, Hawaii, 1917 



' INTEODTTCTIOKT BY LOEEIN A. THUESTON 



There lias recently been a growing demand, both on the part of 
permanent residents of and visitors to Hawaii, for specific informa 
tion concerning the history of Hawaii, more particularly of the period 
of transition from the ancient feudal system when the King and 
Chiefs had supreme and absolute power of life and death and the 
common people had no rights of person or property, to the era when 
constitutional guaranty of protection and the laws of civilization be 
came established. 

A comprehensive history of Hawaii has yet to be written. Its 
compilation will involve a vast amount of investigation and study, as 
the material is scattered through governmental and court records, pri 
vate correspondence and journals, newspapers and magazine articles; 
while many matters, especially regarding the events leading up to an 
nexation, rest in the personal and unwritten knowledge of leading 
participants. 

Alexander's History, written for public school purposes, the best 
Hawaiian history now available, is necessarily condensed. 

Other books bearing upon various phases of Hawaiian life, were 
issued in limited editions, and moreover, are mostly out of print. 

Under these circumstances, it has been decided by the Hawaiian 
Gazette Co., Ltd., publishers of the Pacific Commercial Advertiser, to 
meet the public desire for information by reprinting the more valuable 
of the out-of-print books and by collecting and publishing the per 
sonal memoirs, reminiscences and writings of some of the older resi 
dents of Hawaii, who are able to give first-hand evidence of what they 
have seen and heard, or to relate the traditions and evidence of what 
had previously transpired, obtained by them from those who have 
gone before. 

In pursuance of this decision the "Eeminiseences of Old Hawaii," 
by Sereno Edwards Bishop, have been published in The Advertiser, 
and also published in book form, as "No. 1 of The Advertiser His 
torical Series." 

This has been followed by the like publication in The Advertiser 
of "A Tour Through Hawaii," with incidental remarks by Eev. Wil 
liam Ellis, an English Missionary to the South Pacific Islands, who 
visited Hawaii in 1822 and 1823 and lived here for about two years. 
This volume is the publication of the "Tour" in book form. 

The following is a resumS of the facts incident to the visit of Mr, 
Ellis to Hawaii, and of the publication of the "Journal" and the 
several editions of the "Tour." 

The extension of missionary effort to Hawaii, by the American 

6316065 




Board of Foreign Missions, in 1820, was preceded, in the South. Pacific, 
by the London Mission Society, who, in 1796 despatched an expedition 
to, and early in 1797 established mission settlements at the Marquesas, 
Friendly and Society Islands. 

These missionaries suffered great hardship, assaults upon them being 
numerous and some were murdered. Owing to the frequent inter-tribal 
wars, some of the stations were abandoned, and it was not until the 
discouraging struggle had been carried on for fifteen years that a 
change for the better took place; after which progress at some of the 
stations was rapid. 

In 1822, a deputation from the home society visited the English 
Missions, and, in company with Bev. William Ellis, who had for six 
years been a missionary at the Society Islands, and two natives, 
extended their observations to Hawaii, where they intended to spend 
a few weeks. Owing to the exigencies of transportation, their stay 
was extended for four months. The American missionaries at Hawaii 
and the Hawaiian chiefs were so much pleased with Mr. Ellis and his 
native assistants, that they were invited to remain permanently, 
which invitation was accepted. Mr. Ellis returned to Huahine for 
his family, arriving back in Hawaii in February, 1823. 

The American Mission had, at that time, established permanent sta 
tions on Oahu and Kauai only. It was thereupon decided that an 
exploration of the Island of Hawaii should be made, for the purpose 
of learning more of the country and people, with a view to establish 
ing mission stations there. Mr. Ellis and three of the American mis 
sionaries, Asa Thurston, Artemas Bishop and Joseph Goodrich, were 
despatched for the purpose, in June, 1823, landing at Kailua and 
spending two months in making the circuit of the island. So far as 
the records show, they were the first white men to accomplish this, 
being also the first white men to visit the volcano of Kilauea. 

Upon the return of the party to Honolulu, a joint journal of their 
journey and observations was prepared. A copy of this, together with 
a report by the American missionaries, was printed in Boston in 1825. 

Mr. Ellis returned to England in 1824 and after rewriting the jour 
nal in the form of a personal narrative, and adding thereto a larg 
number of his own observations, together with comparisons of life and 
customs in Hawaii with those in the Society Islands, published five 
editions in London between 1825 and 1828. Later, in 184=2, the same 
niaterial, as a whole, was published by him, in connection with other 
material concerning the South Sea Islands, under the title of "Poly 
nesian Researches. ' ' This also went through several editions. 

A number of these many editions differ more or less from each 
other. 

For the purposes of this publication, one of the English editions of 



1827 lias been followed, there being added thereto the preface and 
report of the American missionaries, from the American edition, and 
illustrations from all of them. 

The combination constitutes the clearest, most accurate and de 
tailed account extant, of the physical and social conditions existing in 
Hawaii in 1823. 

The information secured by Mr. Ellis from the natives concerning 
a great number of subjects, and here recorded, also constitutes a 
mine of information concerning Polynesian lore, which, but for Mm, 
would have been lost or known in much less detail. 

The poet, Coleridge, is reported to have stated that he considered 
Ellis' "Tour Through Hawaii 7 ' to be the most interesting and in 
structive book of travel that he had ever read. 

All of the many editions of this book have been out of print for 
many years, and are only to be found in a few libraries, or at rare 
intervals second-hand and at prohibitory prices in a few book stores. 

The sub-headings throughout the book are inserted by myself as a 
convenience in referring to the contents. Some of the longer para 
graphs have been broken into shorter ones, but no change has other 
wise been made, I have also added an index. 

Honolulu, November 11, 1916. 



6 
PEEFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION OF 1825. 



In the year 1819, Tamehameha, Mug of the Sandwich Islands, died, 
and Ms son Rihoriho succeeded to Ms dominions; and immediately 
afterwards, the system of idolatry, so far as it was connected with 
the government, was abolished. This measure seems to have been 
owing to three causes: First, a desire on the part of the king to 
improve the condition of his wives, who, in common with all the 
other females of the islands, were subject to many painful incon 
veniences from the operation of the tabu; secondly, the advice of 
foreigners, and of some of the more intelligent chiefs; and thirdly, 
and principally, the reports of what had been done by Pomare, in 
the Society Islands. A war, which this act occasioned, was suppressed 
by a decisive battle described in this volume. At this time, and be 
fore intelligence of the death of Tamehameha reached the United 
States, missionaries, sent forth by the American Boar,d of Commis 
sioners for Foreign Missions, were on their way to the islands, where 
they arrived, a few months afterwards, with the Gospel of Jesus 

Christ. 

SETTLEMENT OF MISSIONARIES IN HAWAII. 

After some hesitation on the part of the rulers of the islands, the 
missionaries, so opportunely arrived, were allowed to remain and com 
mence their work. Some took up their abode on Hawaii, where the 
king then resided; others went to Tauai, under the patronage of 
Taumuarii, king of that island; but the main body settled at Hono- 
turu, on the island of Oahu, where is the principal harbour for ship 
ping. This was in April, 1820. At the close of the year, the king 
and the missionaries removed from Hawaii, and the latter joined 
their brethren at Honoruru. 

During the following year, some progress was made in settling the 
orthography of the language, a task, which the great prevalence of 
liquid sounds rendered extremely difficult. The alphabet adopted, was 
that proposed by the Hon. John Pickering, of Salem, Mass., in his 
"Essay on a Uniform Orthography for the Indian languages of North 
America/' published in the Memoirs of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences; excepting that the Hawaiian language requires 
a less number of letters than that alphabet contains. Every sound 
has its appropriate sign; every word is spelled exactly as it is pro 
nounced; and thus the art of reading and writing the language, ia 
rendered to the natives simple and easy. A press being at the com 
mand of the missionaries, the first sheet of a Hawaiian spelling-book 
was printed in the beginning of 1822. This work was soon in great 
demand. Other works in the native language have since been pub 
lished. 



AEBITAL OF REV. WILLIAM ELLIS. 

In the spring of this year, the Bev. William Ellis, an English Mis 
sionary, who had resided several years at the Society Islands, eame 
to the Sandwich Islands, on his way to the Marquesas. He was accom 
panied by the Bev. Daniel Tyennan and George Bennet, Esq., two 
gentlemen who had been sent by the London Missionary Society as 
deputies to their missions in the South Seas; and, also, by two Tahi- 
tian chiefs, who were sent, with theif wives, by the church of Hua- 
hine, as missionaries to the Marquesas. 

This company having been detained at the Sandwich Islands for a 
considerable period, and Mr. Ellis and the two Tahitians being almost 
immediately able to use the Hawaiian language with facility, the 
natives became so muck interested in them, as to invite them to re 
main permanently at the Sandwich Islands. This invitation being 
strongly seconded by the American Missionaries, was accepted. At 
the close of the year, Mr. Ellis went to Huahine for his family, and 
returned in the February following. 

ORGANIZATION" OF THE EXPEDITION. 

In April, the mission received a further accession of strength by the 
arrival of new labourers from the United States. This called for an 
enlargement of operations. Two missionaries were sent to Mam, and, 
as soon as circumstances would permit, arrangements were made for 
surveying Hawaii, with a view to the judicious occupation of that 
large and populous island. Mr. Ellis, the English missionary, the Bev. 
Asa Thurston, the Bev. Charles S. Stewart, the Bev. Artemas Bishop, 
and Mr. Joseph Goodrich, (a licensed preacher,) American mission 
aries, were selected for this purpose. 

Mr. Stewart was detained from the service by ill health. The rest 
commenced the tour of the island early in the summer of 1823, and 
completed it in a little more than two months. The results of the 
tour form the subject matter of this volume. 

DEPARTURE OF KING- TO ENGLAND. 

A short time after the return of the Deputation from Hawaii, the 
king, Bihoriho, embarked in a whaling ship for England. His object 
seems to have been chiefly to increase Ms knowledge of the world. 
Accompanied by his favourite queen, a chief, and some other native 
attendants, he arrived in London early in the following summer; but, 
in the course of a few weeks, both he and his wife sickened and 
died. The remains of these two personages were sent back to the 
islands in the Blonde, an English Frigate, commanded by Lord 
Byron, brother (cousin L. A. T.) to the poetj and upon their arrival, 



8 

the funeral rites were performed, in a Christian manner, "by their affec 
tionate and sorrowing people. A younger brother succeeds to the gov 
ernment, which seems to rest upon a solid basis. 

The progress of the missionaries in attracting the attention of the 
natives to religious instruction, and in teaching them to read and 
write their own language, especially of late, has been truly surprising. 
Schools, managed by natives themselves, have become quite numerous, 
and are constantly increasing in number, popularity, and effect. 

AUTHOBSHIP OF JOUKNAL. 

The following Journal was drawn up by Mr. Ellis, from minutes 
kept by himself, and by hist associates on the tour, who subsequently 
gave it their approbation. The Eeport of the Deputation, which 
forms a convenient introduction to the main work, was written by 
another hand. 

The Appendix was prepared by the Assistant Secretary of the 
Board of Foreign Missions, who performed the duties of an editor, 
while the work was passing through the press: but, as those duties 
were performed amidst numerous cares and frequent interruptions, it 
will not be surprising if inaccuracies should exist. 



BEPOBT OP THE DEPUTATION. 

To The Members and Patrons of the Sandwich Island Mission. 

Brethren and Friends: Having, by favour of Providence, per 
formed, in the period of ten weeks, the interesting service, for which 
we were lately appointed, it is with no small satisfaction, that we 
lay "before you a brief outline of our proceedings. 

AN APPRECIATION OF KUAKINI. 

By sea and by land we have enjoyed the protection of God, and 
the countenance and patronage of the king and chiefs. Especially 
would we notice the kindness of Kuakini, the Governor of Hawaii, 
more known in this country by the name of John Adams, who re 
ceived us with great hospitality, and freely lent his influence and 
authority to aid us in the attainment of our immediate objects; and 
with a view to the permanent establishment of a missionary station 
there, has promptly commenced the erection of a chapel at Kairua 
for the worship of Jehovah, whose rightful and supreme authority 
he has publicly acknowledged. 

We would early and devoutly acknowledge our obligations of grati 
tude to the Great Lord of the harvest, who has enabled us, without 
opposition or material disaster, so fully to investigate the moral state, 
and comparative claims, of that portion of our field of labour, and 
so freely and frequently to proclaim to its perishing thousands the 
unsearchable riches of Jesus Christ. While we have endeavored 
steadily to pursue these grand objects of our enterprise with reference 
to a permanent maintenance of ,the Gospel on that island, we have 
been enabled to collect considerable information on a variety of sub 
jects, which, though of secondary moment in the missionary's account, 
are, nevertheless, interesting and important; such as the natural 
scenery, productions, geology, and curiosities; the traditionary legends, 
superstitions, manners, customs, &c. 

In the prosecution of our design to explore and enlighten the long 
benighted Hawaii, we have ascended its lofty and majestic mountains, 
entered its dark caverns, crossed its deep ravines, and traversed its 
immense fields of rugged lava. We have stood with wonder on the 
edge of its ancient craters, walked tremblingly along the brink of its 
smoking chasms, gazed with admiration on its raging fires, and wit 
nessed, with no ordinary feelings of awe, the varied and sublime 
phenomena of volcanic action, in all its imposing magnificence and 
terrific grandeur. 

We have witnessed, too, with sorrow, the appalling darkness, which 
has hitherto over-spread the land; have wept over the miseries of its 
untutored inhabitants; have sighed for their speedy emancipation 



10 

from the bondage of iniquity; and through their fertile vales, barren 
wastes, and clustering villages, have proclaimed the Lord Jesus 
Christ, as the Hope and Deliverer of man. 

COURSE OF THE EXPLORATION. 

Commencing our tour at Kairua, on the western shore of Hawaii, we 
travelled to the south, the east, and the north; twice crossed the in 
terior in different parts; remained a night and a day at the great 
volcano of Kirauea; visited all the principal settlements, both on the 
coast, and in the interiour; spent a Sabbath in each of the five 
large divisions of the island; and have endeavored to convince the 
inhabitants, that the objects of the mission are benevolent and dis 
interested, intended to lead them to the enjoyment of the lights of 
science, and the blessings of Christianity. 

We have not forgotten the command of our Saviour, "As ye go, 
preach; " and it has been our comfort, in obedience to that command, 
to hold the cup of his salvation to the parched lips of those, who had 
never tasted the heavenly draught, and whom we found most em 
phatically without hope and without God in the world. Strengthened 
by the divine pxomise, "Lo, I am with you alway," we have on our 
tour preached in more than sixty different places, to collections of 
people of from fifty to one thousand in number, and in most cases 
have been heard with attention. 

CENSUS AND CAUSES OF DECREASE OF POPULATION. 

We have also carefully numbered the habitations of the natives, 
and have estimated the inhabitants of Hawaii to be 85,000; a num 
ber much greater than the population of all the other islands of the 
group; but far less than the estimate of its celebrated discoverer, and 
of reputable subsequent voyagers. To contemplate the waste of 
population here indicated, whether we attribute it to the ravages of 
war, whose restless spear is scarcely restrained by the approach of 
the cross; to the desolating pestilence, which has more than once 
swept through these isles; to the cruel superstition, which has but 
recently abolished her immolating rights; to that most unnatural of 
all crimes, that gain admittance to "the habitations of cruelty, " in 
fanticide; or to the prevalence of vice, rendered doubly destructive 
by foreign causes, cannot but be deeply affecting to the feelings 
of philanthropy. 

The light of the G-ospel has broken the gloom, which, like a long 
and cheerless night, has, from time immemorial, rested on the hills and 
vallies of Hawaii; and a jubilee has, we trust, dawned upon its miser 
able inhabitants. 



11 

IDOLATBY BENOOTCED BUT SUPEBSTITIOtf REMAINS. 

But though the chiefs have renounced their ancient idolatry, and 
the priests no longer perform the mystic and bloody rites of the 
heiau, (Temple ), and though on the ruins of their temples, altars are 
now erecting for the worship of the living God, yet the deep im 
pressions made in childhood, by the songs, legends, and horrid rites 
connected with their long established superstitions, and the feelings 
and habits cherished by them in subsequent life, are not, by the 
simple proclamation of a king, or the resignation of a priest, to be 
removed at once from the mind of the unenlightened Hawaiian, who, 
in the sighing of the breeze, the gloom of night, the boding eclipse, 
the meteor's glance, the lightning's flash, the thunder's roar, the 
earthquake's shock, is accustomed to recognize the dreaded presence 
of some unpropitious deity. 3STor must we be surprised, if the former 
views which the Hawaiian has been accustomed to entertain respect 
ing Pele, the goddess he supposes to preside over volcanoes, should 
not at once be eradicated; as he is continually reminded of her power, 
by almost every object that meets his eye, from the rude cliffs of 
lava, against which the billows of the ocean dash, even to the lofty 
craters, her ancient seat amid perpetual snows. Nor is it to be ex 
pected, that those who feel themselves to have been released from 
the oppressive demands of their former religion, will, until they are 
more enlightened, be in haste to adopt a substitute, which presents 
imperious claims in direct opposition to all their unhallowed affec 
tions; especially since, while thus ignorant of the nature of Chris 
tianity, their recollections of the past must awaken fears of evil, 
perhaps not less dreadful than those from which they have just 



PEOPLE OF A RECEPTIVE DISPOSITION 
But though we found the people generally ignorant of Jehovah and 
indifferent to his worship, and many of them retaining their house 
hold gods, and cherishing a sort of veneration for the bones of their 
chiefs, and relatives, yet not a few, when they heard of the love of 
God in the gift of his Son, desired to be more fully instructed, and 
"intreated that the word might be spoken to them again." 

"The harvest is plenteous, but the labourers are few." Nine 
preachers only are employed in the Sandwich Islands; and such is 
the importance of the stations occupied in Oahu, Maui and Tauai, 
(heretofore written Woahoo, Mowee and Atooi. -Ed.), that but four 
at most can be spared for Hawaii, or one to every 21,000 inhabitants, 
a number more than equal to the whole population of the Society 
Islands, where twelve missionaries are advantageously employed. But 
to furnish Hawaii even with one missionary to every 4,200 souls, six 
teen more than the mission can now assign to it, would be required. 



12 

LOCATION OF MISSION STATIONS RECOMMENDED. 

We are happy to state, that, on different parts of the island, there 
are eight eligible stations, Kairua, Kearakekua, Honaunau, Honuapo, 
Kaimu, Waiakea, Waipio, and Towaihae. These we earnestly* recom 
mend for early and permanent occupation, as affording to the mis 
sionary encouraging prospects, not of freedom from privation, but of 
extensive usefulness. 

Kairua, on the west, claims, doubtless, our earliest attention. Not 
less than 60 of its 3,000 inhabitants, including the governor, have 
been taught to read and write their own language, and have been 
made acquainted with the first principles of Christianity. (Kairua,, 
Kearakekua, and Waiakea, have since been occupied. Ed.) 

Near Kearakekua, memorable for the lamented fall of Captain 
Cook, we were surprised and delighted to find a friendly chief, Ka- 
makau, who espouses with lively interest, the cause of the Gospel, 
and earnestly desires to be taught himself, and to teach his people, 
the word of God. The expected residence here of Naihe and Kapio- 
lani, interesting chiefs, renders it still more desirable that missionaries 
should reside here. 

Honaunau, the frequent residence of former kings, where a de 
pository of their bones, and many images of their gods, still remain, 
has a dense population waiting for Christian instruction. 

Including these three places, the coast, for twenty miles, embraces 
more than forty villages, containing a population of perhaps 20,000' 
souls, to whom missionaries, stationed at these posts, might convey 
instruction. 

Honuapo, on the southern shore, is an extensive village, with a con 
siderable population in its vicinity. 

Kaimu is a pleasant village on the southeast shore, with 700 inhabi 
tants, and with twice that number of people in its vicinity. 

At most of the above places, unless wells can be obtained, the mis 
sionaries will often experience the want of good water. 

Waiakea, on the east, well watered, fertile and beautiful, having a 
commodious harbour, with an extensive population, demands, next to* 
Kairua, our earliest arrangements for permanent missionary opera 
tions. 

Waipio, little less fertile and beautiful, having in its immediate- 
neighbourhood Waimanu, a valley of similar beauty and importance, 
is waiting to receive the precious seed. 

Towaihae on the north-west, a considerable village, presents nearly 
equal claims. 

Several other places, which have not been named, are scarcely les 
inviting. 



13 

DETAILS US JOINT JOURNAL. 

The whole field is open to spiritual cultivation, "and lie that 
goeth forth, and weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubtless come 
again with rejoicing, bringing Ms sheaves with Mm." 

Such is the general view, which we proposed to lay before you. 
But for more particular information on the various subjects of our 
inquiry; for detailed descriptions of the places eligible for missionary 
operations, and of the recently established and flourishing station 
visited by one of us at Maui; and for minute and copious accounts 
of Hawaii, and of the sentiments, characters, and employments, of its 
ingenious inhabitants; we beg leave respectfully to refer you to our 
joint journal of the tour. Believing that you will rejoice with us in 
the cheering prospect of the early and ultimate success of missionary 
operations there, and encouraged as we are with the assured hope of 
the complete and glorious triumph of the Gospel in every island, 
permit us affectionately to invite you to unite with us, "even as also 
ye do/' in humble and earnest prayer for this interesting portion of 
our race; that the seed already sown among them may be as "the 
handful of corn upon the tops of the mountains, the fruit whereof 
shall shake like Lebanon;" that the promise to the Redeemer of the 
nations may be remembered for their good; and that divine mercies 
may descend from heaven upon them in rich and joyful profusion, 
*'as the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the 
mountains of Zion, for there the Lord commanded the blessing, even 
life forever more." 



14 
PREFACE TO 1827 ENGLISH EDITION. 



The greater part of the following Narrative was written in the 
Sandwich Islands, from notes taken lay my fellow-travellers and my 
self, while engaged in the Tour it describes. At my request, a mem 
ber of the American Mission was associated in preparing it; but cir 
cumstances requiring his presence in another island, the task devolved 
on myself alone. 

The journal, when prepared, was submitted to most of the mis 
sionaries, and approved. As the chief object of the Tour, a survey 
of the religious state of the inhabitants of the island, was one in 
which the American Society had an equal interest with the London 
Missionary Society, with which I am connected, a copy of the journal 
approved in the islands, was, according to previous agreement be 
tween the American missionaries and myself, left by me in America, 
and I believe will be published there. 

ADDITIONS TO JOURNAL. 

The continued narrative form, as more agreeable than that of a 
daily journal, has been adopted in the present publication,' and the 
writer appears in the first person, instead of the third. I have not 
felt it incumbent on me to confine myself to the mere contents of 
the document left in America,' but have, in various parts, made large 
additions from my own private observations. 

The biographical accounts of various important persons, many 
descriptions of the superstitions, manners, customs, and traditions of 
the people, the nature of their government, and the remarks on their 
language, are taken from my own memoranda, which a knowledge 
of their language enabled me to make, during my daily intercourse 
with the natives for the space of two years. 

I have occasionally illustrated my remarks by allusions to the 
Society Islands, where I spent six years in missionary occupations. 
I have invariably represented the natives as we found them, exhibit 
ing freely the lights and shades of their character, without exagge 
ration; and can assure my readers, that it has been my constant aim 
to offer nothing, the accuracy of which may not be relied upon; and, 
in many descriptions, have rather diminished than enlarged the 
objects described. 

PIOTXJBES AND MAPS. 

The drawings were sketched on the spot. The outline of the map is 
from Vancouver's survey, unaltered, except slightly in two places, 
viz. Kairua and Waiakea. The geographical divisions, &c. were in- 



15 

serted during the Tour; and specimens brought to this country, of 
the lava, &e. described in the narrative, have been inspected by in 
dividuals of eminence in the study of mineralogy. 

It is hoped, that in various points of view, the following narrative 
will be found interesting. It will introduce to the more accurate 
knowledge of our country a portion of the human race, with which 
they have been hitherto very imperfectly acquainted; and tend to 
remove some prejudices which may have existed respecting the sup 
posed invincible ferocity of the Sandwich Islanders. It will prove 
that they are rapidly emerging from their former condition, and pre 
paring to maintain a higher rank in the scale of nations. Above all, 
it will furnish a decisive and triumphant illustration of the direct 
tendency of Christian principles, and Christian institutions, to pro 
mote the true amelioration of mankind in all the relations of social 
life. 

POWER OF OHEISTIANITT. 

Without depreciating the value of those efforts, which mere political 
philanthropists may employ for the interests of humanity; such facts 
as those presented to the world, in the recent history of the Society 
and Sandwich Islands, prove, that CHRISTIANITY ALONE supplies 
the most powerful motives, and the most effective machinery, for 
originating and accomplishing the processes of civilization. While 
the spiritual welfare and the eternal destinies of men are the primary 
objects of its solicitude, it provides for all their subordinate interests 
on true and permanent principles, and thus lays a solid foundation 
for personal happiness, domestic comfort, and national prosperity. 
These are the legitimate triumphs of the gospel; these are moral 
demonstrations of its efficiency and its origin; these are proofs, in 
perfect harmony with other illustrations of the fact, that "the foolish 
ness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger 
than men;" and that "godliness hath the promise of the life that 
now is, and of the life which is to come. ' ' 

The candid reader will pass over all the defects in the execution 
of the work, when assured, that every pretension, except to a simple 
narrative of facts, is disclaimed; that it was prepared amidst a variety 
of engagements, and under the pressure of severe domestic affliction, 
and that the last ten years of my life have been so much devoted 
to the study of the uncultivated languages of the Pacific, that when 
most of it was written, they were more familiar than my native 
tongue. 

London, February 23, 1826. 



Missionary Tour Through Hawaii 



By WILLIAA ELLIS 

It is nearly half a century since- Captain Cook, in search of a north 
ern passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic, discovered a group of 
islands, which, in honour of his patron the Earl of Sandwich, first 
lord of the Admiralty, he called the SANDWICH ISLANDS. The 
importance he attached to this discovery may be gathered from his 
own words; for, when speaking of the circumstances under which the 
vessels anchored for the first time in Kearake'kua bay, the appear 
ance of the natives, &e. he remarks, "We could not but be struck 
with the singularity of this scene; and, perhaps, there were few on 
board who now lamented our having failed in our endeavours to find 
a northern passage homeward last summer. To this disappointment 
we owed our having it in our power to revisit the Sandwich Islands, 
and to enrich our voyage with a discovery, which, though last, seemed, 
in many respects, to be the most important that had hitherto been 
made by Europeans throughout the extent of the Pacific ocean." 

These are the last words recorded in the journal of that enter 
prising and intelligent navigator; a melancholy event shortly after 
wards occurred on the shores of this very bay, which arrested his 
career of discovery, and terminated Ms existence. 

On the return of the survivors, a detailed account of the islands 
and their inhabitants was given to the world, and excited no small 
degree of interest, not only in England, but throughout the continent 
of Europe. 

CHARACTER OF COOK'S REPORTS 

The descriptions which Captain Cook's Voyages contained, of the 
almost primitive simplicity, natural vivacity, and fascinating man 
ners, of a people who had existed for ages, isolated, and unknown 
to the rest of the world, were so entirely new, and the accounts 
given of the mildness and salubrity of the climate, the spontaneous 
abundance of delicious fruits, and the varied and delightful appear 
ance of the natural scenery in the Sandwich and other islands of the 
Pacific, were so enchanting, that many individuals were led to imagine 
they were a sort of elysium, where the highly favoured inhabitants, 
free from the toil and care, the want and disappointment, which mar 
the happiness of civilized communities, dwelt in what they called a 
state of nature, and spent their lives in unrestrained gratification and 
enjoyment. 

These descriptions, were, I am convinced, faithful transcripts of the 
first impressions made on the minds of Captain Cook and his com- 



18 

panions, and in every respect correct, so far as their partial observa 
tion extended. 

A residence of eight years in the Society and Sandwich islands, 
has afforded me an opportunity of becoming familiar with many of 
the scenes and usages described in their voyages, and I have often 
been struck with the fidelity with which they are uniformly portrayed. 
In the inferences they draw, and the reasons they assign, they are 
sometimes mistaken; but in the description of what they saw and 
heard, there is throughout a degree of accuracy, seldom if ever ex 
ceeded in accounts equally minute and extended. Still their acquain 
tance with the islands and the people was superficial, and the state of 
society which they witnessed was different from what generally 
existed. 

EFFECT ON NATIYES OF COOK'S ARRIVAL, 

An event so important and surprising as their arrival, the ships 
and the foreigners, the colour, dress, arms, language, manners, &c, 
of the latter, whom they regarded at first as superior beings, so power 
fully affected the minds of the natives, that the ordinary avocations 
of life were for a time suspended. The news of such an event 
rapidly spread through the island and multitudes flocked from every 
quarter to see the return of Orono, or the motus, (islands) as they 
called their ships. 

The whole island was laid under requisition, to supply their wants, 
or contribute to their satisfaction. Hence the immense quantity of 
provisions presented by Taraiopu; the dances, &c with which they 
were entertained. The effect also produced on the minds of those 
early visitors, by what they saw during their transient stay among 
the islands, was heightened by all the attractions of novelty, and all 
the complacency which such discoveries naturally inspire. 

IMPRESSION OF MISSIONARIES DIFFERENT FROM COOK'S. 

Far different are the impressions produced on the minds of the 
missionaries who have resided for some years in the islands. Having 
acquired their language, observed their domestic economy, and be 
come acquainted with the nature of their government, the sanguinary 
character of their frequent wars, their absurd and oppressive system 
of idolatry, and the prevalence of human sacrifice, they are led, from 
the indubitable facts which have come under their notice, to more 
just^ and accurate conclusions in awful accordance with the faithful 
testimony of divine revelation. 



19 
DESCRIPTION OP ISLANDS. 

Although ten in number, only eight of the Sandwich Islands are 
inhabited, the other two being barren rocks, principally resorted to by 
fishermen. They lie within the tropic of Cancer, between 18 50' and 
22 20' north latitude, and between 154 53' and 160 15' west 
longitude from Greenwich, about one-third of the distance from the 
western coast of Mexico, towards the eastern shores of China. The 
Sandwich Islands are larger than the Society Islands, or any of the 
neighbouring clusters. 

HAWAII, the principal island of the group, resembles in shape an 
equilateral triangle, and is somewhat less than three hundred miles in 
circumference, being about ninety-seventy miles in length, seventy- 
eight in breadth, two hundred and eighty miles in circumference, and 
covering a surface of 4000 square miles. It is the most southern of 
the whole, and, on account of its great elevation, is usually the first 
land seen from vessels approaching the Sandwich Islands. Its broad 
base and regular form renders its outline different from that of any 
other island in the Pacific with which we are acquainted. 

The mountains of Hawaii, unlike the peak of Teneriffo in the 
Atlantic, the mountains of Eimeo, and some other islands of ihe 
Pacific, do not pierce the clouds like obelisks or spires, but in most 
parts, and from the southern shore in particular, the ascent is gradual, 
and comparatively unbroken, from the sea beach to the lofty summit 
of Mouna Eoa. 

HAWAII COMPARED WITH TAHITI. 

The whole appearance of Hawaii is less romantic and picturesque 
than that of Tahiti, the principal of the Society Islands, but more 
grand and sublime, filling the mind of the beholder with wonder and 
delight. 

On approaching the islands, I have more than once observed the 
mountains of the interior long before the coast was visible, or any of 
the usual indications of land had been seen. On these occasions, the 
elevated summit of Mouna Kea, or Mouna Boa, has appeared above 
the mass of clouds that usually skirt the horizon, like a stately pyra 
mid, or the silvered dome of a magnificent temple, distinguished from, 
the clouds beneath, only by its well-defined outline, unchanging posi 
tion, and intensity of brilliancy occasioned by the reflection of the 
sun's rays from the surface of the snow. 

The height of these mountains has been computed by some navi 
gators who have visited the Sandwich Islands, at 12,000, and by others 



20 

at 18,000 feet. The estimate of Captain King,* we think, exceeds 
their actual elevation, and the peaks of Mouna Kea, in the opinion 
of those of our number who have ascended its summit, are not more 
than 1000 feet high. But admitting the snow to remain permanent on 
tne mountains of the torrid zone at the height of 14,600 feet, the 
altitude of Mouna Kea and Mouna Boa is probably not less than 15,000 
feet. 

The "base of these mountains, is, at the distance of a few miles from 
the sea shore, covered with trees; higher up, their sides are clothed 
with bushes, ferns, and alpine plants; but their summits are formed 
of lava, partly decomposed, yet destitute of every kind of verdure. 

FEW INLAND SETTLEMENTS. 

There are a few inland settlements on the east and north-west parts 
of the island, but, in general, the interior is an uninhabited wilder 
ness. 

The heart of Hawaii, forming a vast central valley between Mouna 
Boa, Mouna Kea, and Mouna Huararai, is almost unknown, no road 
leads across it from the east to the western shore, but it is reported, 
by the natives who have entered it, to be "bristled with forests of 
ohia," or to exhibit vast tracts of sterile and indurated lava. 

The circumstance of large flocks of wild geese being frequently 
seen in the mountains, would lead to the supposition that there must 
fee large ponds or lakes to which they resort; but if any exist, they 
have hitherto remained undiscovered. 

The greatest part of the land capable of cultivation, is found near 
the sea shore; along which, the towns and villages of the natives are 
thickly scattered. The population at present is about 85,000, and will 
most probably be greatly increased by the establishment of Christian 
ity, whose mild influence, it may reasonably be expected, will effect 
a cessation of war, an abolition of infanticide, and a diminution of 
those vices, principally of foreign origin, which have hitherto so mate 
rially contributed to the depopulation of the islands. 



, V S s Yoyages, Captain King, speakmg of Mouna-Kaah, (Kea,) remarks 
that it "may be clearly seen at fourteen leagues' distance " Describing Mouna- 
Roa, and estimating it according to the tropical line of snow he observes 'This 
mountain must be at least 16 020 feet high? which exceeds The ^he?ght7f the Pico 
de Teyde, or Peak of Teneriffe, by 724 feet, according to Dr. Heberden's com 
putation, or 3680 according to that of Chevalier de Borda. The peaks of MouZ- 
5?ff ^ ea * d *?*% V* ?*^ a mil - e hlffh; and as the ^ are entirely covered 
i+ii IUi +* I v Hi? * summits cannot be less than 18,400 feet. But 
it is probable that both these mountains may be considerably higher; for in 
insular situations, the effects of the warm sea air must necessarily remove the 
^ K 11 ? ' n *?* latitudes, to a greater height, than where the atmosphere 
is chilled on all sides by an immense tract of perpetual snow ' * 



21 

IMPORTANCE OF HAWAII. 

Hawaii is by far tlie largest, most populous, and important island 
of the group, and, until within a few years, was the usual residence 
of the Mug, and the frequent resort of every chief of importance in 
the other islands. Foreigners, however, having of late found the har 
bours of some of the leeward islands more secure and convenient than 
those of Hawaii, have been induced more frequently to visit them; 
and this has led the king and principal chiefs to forsake, in a great 
degree, the favourite residence of their ancestors, and excepting the 
governor, and the chiefs of Kaavaroa, to spend the greater part of 
their time in some of the other islands. 

MAUI DESCRIBED. 

Separated from the northern, shore of Hawaii by a strait, about 
twenty-four miles across, the island of MAUI is situated in la?. 20 N. 
and Ion. 157 W. This island is forty-eight miles in length, in the 
widest part twenty-nine miles across, about one hundred and forty 
miles in circumference, and covers about 600 square miles. At a dis 
tance it appears like two distinct islands, but on nearer approach a 
low isthmus, about nine miles across, is seen uniting the two penin 
sulas. The whole island is entirely volcanic, and was probably pro 
duced by the action of two adjacent volcanoes, which have ejected 
the immense masses of matter of which it is composed. The appear 
ance of Maul resembles Tahiti more than the neighbouring island of 
Hawaii. The southern peninsula, which is the largest of the two, is 
lofty; but though its summits are often seen above the clouds, they 
are never covered with snow. The high land is steep and rugged, 
and frequently marked with extinct craters, or indurated streams of 
lava; yet whenever the volcanic matters have undergone any degree 
of decomposition, the sides of the mountains, as well as the ravines 
by which they are intersected, are covered with shrubs and trees. 

In the northern peninsula there are several extensive tracts of level 
and well-watered land, in a high state of cultivation; and although 
this part of the island is evidently of volcanic formation, the marka 
of recent eruption, so frequent in the southern peninsula, are seldom 
seen here. The population of Maui has been estimated at 18,000 or 
20,000, and the number of inhabitants do not probably fall short of 
that number. 

MISSION ESTABLISHED AT &AHAINA 

In the month of May, 1823, a Christian Mission was commenced at 
Lahaina, the most important and populous district in the island, and 



22 

the endeavors of Messrs. Stewart and Kichards and the native teach 
ers "by whom they were accompanied, have been attended with the 
most decisive and extensive success. Public preaching on the Sabbath 
is regularly attended by numerous audiences, and thousands of the 
people are daily receiving instruction in useful knowledge, and the 
principles of Christianity, in the various native schools, which are 
patronized by the young Prince Kauikeouli, younger "brother and 
successor to the late Mng, by his sister NaMenaena, and by all the 
principal chiefs of Maui. The most lasting benefits may be expected 
to result, not only to the present race, but to every future generation 
of the inhabitants. 

EAHOOLAWE AND MOLOKENI DESCRIBED. 

To the south of Maui, and only a few miles distant from its southern 
peninsula, is situated the small island of TAHAURAWE, about eleven 
miles in length, and eight across. It is low, and almost destitute of 
every kind of shrub or verdure, excepting a species of coarse grass. 
The rocks of which it is formed are volcanic, but we are not aware 
of the existence of any active or extinct craters on the island; and 
from its shape and appearance, it is not improbable that it once 
formed a part of Maui, from which it may have been detached by 
some violent convulsion connected with the action of the adjacent 
volcanoes of Maui or Hawaii. There are but few settled residents 
on the island, and these are considered as under the authority of the 
governor of Maui. 

MOBOKDSTI, a barren rock, lies between these two islands, and 
would render the navigation of the strait exceedingly dangerous, were 
it not so much elevated above the sea as to be at all times visible 
from vessels passing between the islands. Morokini is only visited 
by fishermen, who on its barren surface spread their nets to dry, and 
for this purpose it may be considered a convenient appendange to 
the adjacent islands. 

LANAI DESCBIBED. 

BA1STAI, a compact island, seventeen miles in length and nine in 
breadth, lies north-west of Tahaurawe, and west of Lahaina, in Maui; 
from which it is separated by a channel, not more than nine or ten 
miles across. Though the centre of the island is much more elevated 
than Tahaurawe, it is neither so high nor broken as any of the other 
islands: great part of it is barren, and the island in general suffers 
much from the long droughts which frequently prevail; the ravines 
and glens, notwithstanding, are filled with thickets of small trees, and 
to these many of the inhabitants of Maui repair for the purpose of 
<mtting posts and rafters for their small houses. The island is vol- 



23 

eanic; tlie soil shallow, and "by no means fertile; the shores, however, 
abound with shell-fish, and some speeies of medusae and cuttle-fish. 
The inhabitants are but few, probably not exceeding two thousand. 
Native teachers are endeavouring to instruct them in useful knowl 
edge and religious truth, but no foreign missionary has yet laboured 
on this or the neighboring island of Morokai, which is separated from 
the northern side of Ranai, and the eastern end of Maui, by a channel, 
which, though narrow, is sufficiently wide for the purposes of navi 
gation. 

MOLOKAI DESCRIBED. 

Morokai is a long irregular island, apparently formed by a chain of 
volcanic mountains, forty miles in length, and not more than seven 
miles broad; the mountains are nearly equal in elevation to those of 
Maui, and are broken by numerous deep ravines and watercourses, the 
sides of which are frequently clothed with verdure, and ornamented 
with shrubs and trees. There is but little level land in Morokai, and 
consequently but few plantations; several spots, however, are fertile, 
and repay the toils of their cultivators. The population is greater 
than that of Eanai, though it does not probably exceed three thou 
sand persons. Native teachers are engaged in the instruction of the 
people; many of the natives also occasionally visit the missionary sta 
tions in the adjacent islands of Oahu and Maui, and participate in 
the advantages connected with these institutions. 

OAHU DESCRIBED. 

OAHU, the most romantic and fertile of the Sandwich Islands, 
resembling in the varied features of its natural scenery, several of 
the Society Islands, lies nearly west-north west of Morokai, from 
which it is between twenty and thirty miles distant. This beautiful 
island is about forty-six miles long, and twenty- three wide; its appear 
ance from the roads off Honoruru, or Waititi is remarkably pic 
turesque: a chain of lofty mountains rises near the centre of the east 
ern part of the island, and, extending perhaps twenty miles, reaches 
the plain of Eva, which divides it from the distant and elevated moun 
tains that rise in a line parallel with the north-west shore. The plain 
of Eva is nearly twenty miles in length, from the Pearl River to 
Waiarua, and in some parts nine or ten miles across: the soil is fertile, 
and watered by a number of rivulets, which wind their way along the 
deep water-courses that intersect its surface, and empty themselves 
into the sea. Though capable of a high state of improvement, a very 
small portion of it is enclosed, or under any kind of culture; and in 
travelling across it, scarce a habitation is to be seen. The whole 
island is volcanic, and, in many parts, extinguished craters of large 



24 

dimensions may be seen; but, from the depth, of mould with which 
they are covered, and the trees and shrubs with which they are 
clothed it may be presumed that many ages have elapsed since any 
eruption took place. 

HONOLULU GEOLOGICALLY DESCRIBED. 

The plain of Honoruru exhibits in a singular manner the extent 
and effects of volcanic agency; it is not less than nine or ten miles in 
length, and, in some parts, two miles from the sea to the foot of the 
mountains; the whole plain is covered with a rich alluvial soil, fre 
quently two or three feet deep; beneath this, a layer of fine volcanic 
ashes and cinders extends to the depth of fourteen or sixteen feet' 
these ashes lie upon a stratum of solid rock by no means volcanic, 
but evidently calcareous, and apparently a kind of sediment deposited 
by the sea, in which branches of white coral, bones of fish and ani 
mals, and several varieties of marine shells, are often found. A num 
ber of wells have been recently dug in different parts of the plain, in 
which, after penetrating through the calcareous rock, sometimes 
twelve or thirteen feet, good clear water has been always found: the 
water in all these wells is perfectly free from any salt or brackish 
taste, though it invariably rises and falls with the tide, which would 
lead to the supposition that it is connected with the waters of the 
adjacent ocean, from which the wells are from 100 yards to three 
quarters of a mile distant. The rock is always hard and compact 
near the surface, but becomes soft and porous as the depth increases; 
and it is possible that the water in these wells may have percolated 
through the cells of the rock, and by this process of filtration have 
lost its saline qualities. The base of the mountains which bound the 
plain in the interior appears to have formed the original line of coast 
on this side of the island, but probably in some remote period an 
eruption took place from two broad-based truncated mountains called 
by foreigners Diamond Hill and Punchbowl Hill, evidently extin 
guished craters; the ashes and cinders then thrown out were wafted 
by the trade-winds in a westerly direction, filled up the sea, and 
formed the present extensive plain; the soil of its surface having been 
subsequently produced either by the decomposition of lava, or the 
mould and decayed vegetable matter washed down from the mountains 
during the rainy season of the year. 

NUUANU VALLEY IN 1823. 

Across this plain, immediately opposite the harbour of Honoruru, Hes 
the valley of Anuanu, leading to a pass in the mountains, called by 
the natives Ka Pari, the precipice, which is well worth the attention 
of every intelligent foreigner visiting Oahu. The mouth of the valley 
which opens immediately behind the town of Honoruru, is a complete 



25 

garden, carefully kept by its respective proprietors in a state of high 
cultivation; and the ground being irrigated by the water from a river 
that winds rapidly down the valley, is remarkably productive. The 
valley rises with a gradual ascent from the shore to the precipice, 
which is seven or eight miles from tne town. After walking 
about three miles through one unbroken series of plantations, the 
valley becomes gradually narrower, and the mountains rise more steep 
on either side. The scenery is romantic and delightful: the bottom of 
the valley is gently undulated 5 a rapid stream takes its serpentine 
way from one side of the valley to the other, sometimes meandering 
along with an unruffled surface, at other times rushing down a fall 
several feet, or dashing and foaming among the rocks that interrupt 
its progress. 

The sides of the hills are clothed with verdure; even the barren, 
rocks that project from among the bushes are ornamented with pendu 
lous or creeping plants of various kinds; and in several places, beauti 
ful cascades roll their silvery streams down the steep mountain's side 
into flowing rivulets beneath. 

NUUANU PALI 

The beauty of the scenery around increases, until at length, after 
walking some time on a rising ground rather more steep than usual, 
and through a thicket of hibiscus and other trees, the traveller sud- 
dently emerges into an open space, and, turning round a small pile 
of volcanic rocks, the Pari all at once bursts upon him with an almost 
overwhelming effect. 

Immense masses of black and ferruginous volcanic rock, many hun 
dred feet in nearly perpendicular height, present themselves on both 
sides to his astonished view; while immediately before him, he looks 
down the fearful steep several hundred feet, and beholds hills and 
valleys, trees and cottages, meandering streams and winding paths, 
cultivated plantations and untrodden thickets, and a varied landscape 
many miles in extent, bounded by lofty mountains on the one side, 
and the white-crested waves of the ocean on the other spread out 
before him as if by the hand of enchantment. 

I have several times visited this romantic spot, and once climbed 
the rocky precipice from the district of Kolau, on the northern side: 
the ascent is at first gradual and easy, but in two places, towards the 
highest edge, the volcanic rocks appear to rise perpendicularly, pre 
senting an even, and apparently projecting front, which it seems im 
possible to ascend; but though the passage is thus difficult, and the 
elevation of the upper ridge, over which the path leads, is from four 
to five hundred feet above the level land below, yet the natives not 
only pass and repass without much difficulty, but often carry heavy 
burdens from one side to the other. 



26 

TALES OF THE PALI, 

It Is reported tliat a native female, on one occasion, carried her 
husband, who was in a state of intoxication, down the precipice in 
safety. This appears hardly possible, and the story is probably one 
of those fabulous wonders, with which inquiring foreigners are often 
entertained during their stay among the islands. 

On one of my visits, however, I saw a party, heavily laden with 
provisions for the king's household, ascend the Pari, and one of them 
had a pig of no very small size fastened on Ms back, with which he 
climbed the steep, but not without difficulty. 

THE GODS OF THE PALI. 

Within a few yards of the upper edge of the pass, under the shade 
of surrounding bushes and trees, two rude and shapeless stone idols 
are toed, one on each side of the path, which the native call "Akua 
mo ka Pari," gods of the precipice; they are usually covered with 
pieces of white tapa, native cloth; and every native who passes by to 
the precipice, if he intends to descend, lays a green bough before these 
idols, encircles them with a garland of flowers, or wraps a piece of 
tapa round them, to render them propitious to his descent. All who 
ascend from the opposite side make a similar acknowledgment for the 
supposed protection of the deities, whom they imagine to preside over 
the fearful pass. This practice appears universal, for in our travels 
among the islands, we have seldom passed any steep or dangerous 
paths, at the commencement or termination of which we have not seen 
these images, with heaps of offerings lying before them. 

SURVIVAL OF SUPERSTITION. 

Until very recently, it is evident the influence of superstition was 
very strong in the minds of the great mass of the people, for although 
the natives who accompanied us in our excursions, either from a convic 
tion of the absurdity of the notions of their countrymen, or from mere 
wantonness, usually overturned the idols, battered them with stone, 
or rolled them down the precipice or passage which they were sup 
posed to defend; yet on passing the same path only a very short time 
afterwards, we have invariably found them replaced; or, if broken, 
their places supplied by fresh ones. This conduct of our native com 
panions was never the consequence of our directions, and seldom 
received our approbation, for we were not ambitious to become Icono 
clasts; our object was rather to enlighten the minds of the people, and 
convince them of the absurdity and evil df idolatry, to present before 
them the true God as the only legitimate object of rational homage, 
lead them to the exercise of a better faith, and the adoption of a purer 
worship; well assured that, if under the blessing of &od we succeeded 
in this, they themselves would, with the adoption of the Christian 



27 

system, not only renounce idolatry, but abolish the appendages by 
wMeh it was -upheld. 

THE BATTLE OF NTJUANU. 

The Pari of Anuanu was an important position in times of war, and 
the parties in possession of it were usually masters of the island. In 
its vicinity many sanguinary battles have been fought, and near it the 
independence of Oahu was lost in or about the year 1790. Tameha- 
meha invaded Oahu; the king of the island assembled his forces to 
defend Ms country, between Honoruru and the Pearl river; an engage 
ment took place, in which his army was defeated, and his ally, Taeo, 
king of Tauai and Mhau, was slain. The king of Oahu retreated 
to the valley of Anuanu, where he was joined by Taiana, an ambitious 
and warlike chief of Hawaii. Hither Tamehameha and his victorious 
warriors pursued them, and, about two miles from the Pari, the last 
battle in Oahu was fought. Here the king of Oahu was slain, his 
army fled towards the precipice, chased by the warriors of Tameha 
meha; at the edge of the Pari, Taiana made a stand, and defended it 
till he fell: the troops of the fallen chiefs still continued the conflict, 
till being completely routed, a number of them, it is said four hun 
dred, were driven headlong over the precipice, dashed to pieces among 
the fragments of rock that lie at its base, and Tamehameha remained 
master of the field, and sovereign of the island. 

The natives still point out the spot where the king of the island 
stood, when he hurled his last spear at tne advancing foe, and received 
the fatal wound; and many as they pass by, turn aside from the path, 
place their feet on the identical spot where he is said to have stood, 
assume the attitude in which he is supposed to have received his 
mortal wound, and, poising their staff or their spear, tell their chil 
dren or companions that there the last King of Oahu died defending 
his country from its invading enemies. 

THE CITY OF HONOLULU IN 1823. 

Immediately south of the valley of Anuanu is situated the town and 
harbour of Honoruru; the harbour is the best, and indeed the only 
secure one at all seasons, in the Sandwich Islands, and is more fre 
quented by foreign vessels than any other; seldom having within it 
less than three or four, and sometimes upward of thirty, lying at 
anchor at the same time. 

The town has also, since the number of shipping has increased, 
become populous, and is one of the largest in the islands, usually con 
taining 6000 or 7000 inhabitants. It is the frequent residence of the 
king and principal chiefs, who are much engaged in traffic with 
foreigners visiting the islands, or residing on shore, for purposes of 
trade. 



28 

There are twelve or fourteen merchants, principally Americans, who 
have established warehouses on shore for foreign goods, principally 
piece goods, hardware, crockery, hats and shoes, naval stores, &c., 
wMeh they retail to the natives for Spanish dollars or sandal wood. 

On the eastern side of the "basin is a strong f oxt, one hundred yards 
square, mounting sixty guns. It was begun by the Eussians, who 
were expelled but finished by the natives, from an apprehension that 
these foreigners, in connexion with the Russian settlements on the 
north-west coast of America, were about to take possession of the 
island. 

FOUNDING OF THE AMEEICAN MISSION 

Here also, in the month of April, 1820, an American mission was 
commenced, which, under G-od, has been the means of producing a 
most happy moral and domestic change in the character of many of 
the people, whose advancement in the arts of civilized life, as well as 
Christian knowledge, is truly gratifying. Several thousands are under 
religious instruction, and numbers regularly attend the preaching of 
the gospel, which we earnestly hope will result in the conversion of 
many. Several have forsaken their grass huts, and erected com 
fortable stone or wooden houses, among which, one built by Karai- 
naoku, the prime minister, is highly creditable to his perseverance and 
his taste. 

THE MOANALUA SALT LAKE. 

About six miles to the west of Honoruru, and nearly as far from 
the village of Eva, on the Pearl river, there is a singular natural 
curiosity, a small circular lake, situated at a short distance from the 
sea shore, so impregnated with salt, that twice in the year the natives 
take out between two and three hundred barrels of fine, clear, hard, 
crystallized salt: this lake is not only an interesting natural curiosity, 
but an important appendage to the island. It belongs to the king, 
and is not only useful in curing large quantities of fish, but furnishes 
a valuable article of commerce? quantities of it having been sent for 
sale to Kamtsehatka, and used in curing seal skins at the different 
islands to which the natives have sent their vessels for that purpose, 
or sold in the islands to Eussian vessels, from the settlements on the 
north-west coast of America. The population of Oahu is estimated at 
about 20,000. 

THE ISLAND OF KAUAI 

North-west of Oahu, and distant from it about seventy-five miles, 
is situated the island of Tauai, which is a mountainous island, exceed 
ingly romantic in its appearance, but not so fertile as Oahu or the 
greater part of Maui. It is forty-six miles in length, and twenty- 



9 

three in breadth, and covers a surface of 520 square miles. The popu 
lation probably amounts to nearly 10,000. The principal settlements 
are in the neighbourhood of Waimea river, the roads at the entrance 
of which are the usual resort of vessels touching at Tauai. Near the 
mouth of the river is a strong fort, in excellent repair, mounting 
twenty-two guns. It was erected several years since, and is well 
adapted for defence. 

CESSION OF KAUAI ANB NIIHAU AND A REBELLION. 

This, and the neighbouring island of ETihau, were not invaded and 
conquered by Tamehameha, by whom all the other islands of the 
group were subdued. Taumuarii, the Mng, rendered a tacit acknowl 
edgment of dependence on that ambitious prince, and paid annually 
a nominal tribute both to him, and Ms son, the late Bihoriho, and, 
shortly before Ms death, which took place in 1824, he formally ceded 
the islands which he had governed to Karaimoku, the present regent 
of the Sandwich Islands, for the king, who was then absent on a visit 
to Great Britain. 

The son of the late king, and several old warriors, dissatisfied with 
the conduct of their sovereign, took up arms to rescue the islands 
from the dominion of the chiefs of the windwards island, but being de 
feated in a battle fought in a valley near "Waimea, the island is 
now under the authority of the young prince Kauikeouli, the successor 
to Bihoriho, and the present sovereign of the whole of the Sandwich 
Islands. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MISSION ON KAUAL 

Soon after the commencement of the Mission in Oahu, a similar 
institution was commenced in Tauai, under the friendly auspices of 
the late king, and continued to prosper until the civil war, which 
followed his death, obliged the Missionaries to remove from the 
island, and suspend their endeavours for the instruction of the natives. 
Since the restoration of peace, however, their labours have been 
resumed with more extensive and encouraging prospects of success 
than had been previously enjoyed. The inhabitants are in general 
a hardy and industrious race; but it is remarkable that in their 
language they employ the t in all those words in which the <fc would 
be used by the natives of the other islands, 

THE ISLAND OF NIIHAU. 

NIHATJ, a small island, twenty miles in length, and seven miles 
wide, politically connected with Tauai, lies in a westerly direction, 
about fifteen miles distant. The inhabitants are not numerous, and, 
in the general features of their character, resemble the people of 
Tauai. 



30 

These islands are celebrated throughout the whole group for the 
manufacture of the fine painted or variegated mats, so much admired 
by foreigners, and which, for the purpose of sleeping on, the chiefs 
in all the islands prefer to any others. 

These mats are sometimes very large, measuring eighteen or twenty 
yards in length, and three or four yards in breadth, yet they are 
woven by the hand, without any loom or frame, with surprising regu 
larity and exactness. 

They are made with a fine kind of rush, part of which they stain 
of a red colour with vegetable dyes, and form their beautiful patterns 
by weaving them into the mat at its first fabrication, or weaving them 
in after it is finished. 

The natives of these islands are also distinguished for the culti 
vation of the yam, which grows very large, both at Tauai and Mhau, 
and contributes essentially to the support of the inhabitants. As 
they are not cultivated to any extent in the other islands, many ships 
are induced to visit there, principally for the purpose of procuring a 
supply; they are not only an excellent root, but will keep a long time 
at sea without deterioration. 

THE ISLAND OP KAULA. 

TATJRA, is another small island belonging to tne group, lying in a 
south-western direction from Tauai; but it is only a barren rock, the 
resort of vast numbers of aquatic birds, for the purpose of procuring 
which, it is occasionally visited by the natives of the windward 
islands. 

Adjacent to the shores of most of the islands, small reefs of white 
coral, common throughout the Pacific, are occasionally found; but 
they are not so varied in their kind, so frequently met with, nor so 
extensive, as in all the southern islands. 

The climate is not insalubrious, though warm, and debilitating to 
an European constitution. There is nothing like winter; and the only 
variation in the uniformity of the seasons, is occasioned by the fre 
quent and heavy rains, which usually fall between December and 
March, and the prevalence of southerly and variable winds during the 
same season. 

The following tabular view of a meteorological journal, kept by the 
American missionaries, will show more fully the state of the weather 
for a year, from August, 1821, to July, 1822; the thermometer was 
noted at 8 a, m,, 3 p. m. and 8 p. mu: 



" " 






3 



I!!! 



Ill 1 






3 



1 XH IO !O Ttf {x,lQ 

mills 



P 



3. 



g 
I 

O 
S5 





W TH CO O 00 CO IO IO 00 O H CO 

QOOOOOOOI> l>b-t>b-OOOOOO 



P 
tf 
O 



xococoioo oo oo H oq 10 o co 

t- t- b- t- t> CO CO t- t> b- t> 



tf 



XHCOCOHOO rH CO OQ Oi 0> CO O 
rn T-H iH rn H C%JHrHH Hrt 



CO CO CO l> t- l> 



OQ 

w 



t!!!l 









ui 



32 

Bain falls "but seldom on the western shores of any of the islands, 
excepting in the season above mentioned, though showers are fre 
quent on the eastern or windward side, and in the mountains occur 
almost daily. 

The soil is rich in those parts which have long been free from 
volcanic eruptions; but the general appearance of the country is 
hardly so inviting as when first discovered; many parts, then under 
cultivation, are now lying waste. 

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OP NATIVES. 

The natives are in general rather above the middle stature, well 
formed, with fine muscular limbs, open countenances, and features fre 
quently resembling those of Europeans. Their gait is graceful, and 
sometimes stately. 

The chiefs in particular are tall and stout, and their personal 
appearance is so much superior to that of the common people, that 
some have imagined them a distinct race. This, however, is not the 
fact; the great care taken of them in childhood, and their better liv 
ing, have probably occasioned the difference. Their hair is black or 
brown, strong, and frequently curly; their complexion is neither yel 
low like the Malays, nor red like the American Indians, but a kind 
of olive, and sometimes reddish-brown. Their arms, and other parts 
of the body, are tatau'd; but, except in one of the islands, this is by 
no means so common as in many parts of the Southern sea. 
POPULATION IN 1823 CAUSES OF DEPOPULATION. 

Compared with the inhabitants of other islands, they may be termed 
numerous. They were estimated by their discoverers at 400,000. 
There is reason to believe this was somewhat above the actual popu 
lation at that time, though traces of deserted villages, and numerous 
enclosures formerly cultivated, but now abandoned, are every where 
to be met with. 

At present it does not exceed 130,000 or 150,000, of which 85,000 
inhabit the island of Hawaii. 

The rapid depopulation which has most certainly taken place within 
the last fifty years, is to be attributed to the frequent and desolating 
wars which marked the early part of Tamehameha's reign; the rav 
ages of a pestilence brought in the first instance by foreign vessels, 
which has twice, during the above period, swept through the islands; 
the awful prevalence of infanticide; and the melancholy increase and 
destructive consequences of depravity and vice. 

ANIMALS OF HAWAII. 

The natural history of the islands, as it regards the animal king 
dom, is exceedingly circumscribed. The only quadrupeds originally 



33 

found inhabiting them, were a small species of hogs, with long heads 
and small erect ears; dogs, lizards, and an animal larger than a mouse, 
but smaller than a rat. There were no beasts of prey, nor any feroc 
ious animals, except the hogs, which were sometimes found wild in 
the mountains. 

There are now large herds of cattle in Hawaii, and some tame ones 
in most of the islands, together with flocks of goats, and a few horses 
and sheep, which have been taken there at different times, principally 
from the adjacent continent of America. 

Horses, cattle, and goats, thrive well, but the climate appears too 
warm for sheep, unless they are kept on the mountains, which, in eon- 
sequence of the keenness of the air, are seldom inhabited by the 
natives. 

BIRDS OF HAW AH ABSENCE OF REPTILES. 

Birds, excepting those which are aquatic, and a species of owl that 
preys upon mice, are seldom seen near the shores. In the mountains 
they are numerous,* and the notes of one kind, whose colour is brown 
and yellow speckled, are exceedingly sweet, resembling those of the 
English thrush. Several are remarkably beautiful, among which may 
be reckoned a small kind of paroquet of a glossy purple, and a species 
of red, yellow, and green woodpecker, with whose feathers the gods 
were dressed, and the helmets and handsome cloaks of the chiefs are 
ornamented. But the feathered tribes of Hawaii are not in general 
distinguished by variety of plumage, or melody in their notes. 

There are wild geese in the mountains, and ducks near the lagoons 
or ponds in the vicinity of the sea shore; the domestic fowl was found 
there by their first discoverer, and though now seldom used as an arti 
cle of food, is raised for the supply of shipping. 

In common with the other islands of the Pacific, they are entirely 
free from every noxious and poisonous reptile, excepting centipedes, 
which are neither large nor numerous. 

FISH, VEGETABLES AND FRUIT IN HAWAII 

Fish are not so abundant on their shores as around many of the 
other islands; they have, however, several varieties, and the in 
habitants procure a tolerable supply. 

The vegetable productions, though less valuable and abundant than 
in some of the islands both to the west and the south, are found in 
no small variety, and the most serviceable are cultivated with facility, 

The natives subsist principally on the roots of the arum esculentum, 
which they call taro, on the eonvulvulus batatas, or sweet potato, 
called by them uara, and uhi, or yam 

The principal indigenous fruits are the uru, or bread-fruit; the 

,3 



34 

niu, or cocoa-nut; the maia, or plantain; tlie ohia, a species of eugenia; 
and the strawberry and raspberry. 

Oranges, limes, citrons, grapes, pine-apples, papaw-apples, cucum 
bers, and water melons, have been introduced, and, excepting the pine 
apples, thrive well. French beans, onions, pumpkins, and cabbages, 
have also been added to their vegetables, and, though not esteemed 
by the natives, are cultivated to some extent, for the purpose of sup 
plying the shipping. 

COMMERCIAL ADVANTAGES OF HAWAII. 

Sugar-cane is indigenous, and grows to a large size, though it is not 
much cultivated. 

Large tracts of fertile land lie waste in most of the islands; and 
sugar-cane, together with cotton, coffee, and other valuable inter- 
tropical productions, might be easily raised in considerable quantities, 
which will, probably, be the case when the natives become more in 
dustrious and civilized. 

The local situation of the Sandwich Islands is important, and highly 
advantageous for purposes of commerce, &c. On the north are the 
Bussian settlements in Kamtschatka, and the neighbouring coast; to 
the north-west the islands of Japan; due west the Marian islands, 
Manila in the Philippines, and Canton in China; and on the east the 
coast of California and Mexico. Hence they are so frequently re 
sorted to by vessels navigating the northern Pacific. 

The establishment of the independent states of South America has 
greatly increased their importance, as they lie in the track of vessels 
passing from thence to China, or Calcutta and other parts of India, 
and are not only visited by these, but by those who trade for skins,' 
&c. with the natives of the north-west coast of America. 

VISITS TO HAWAII AFTER DISCOVERY. 

From the time of their discovery, the Sandwich Islands were un- 
visited until 1786, when Captains Dixon and Portlock, in a trading 
voyage to the north-west coast for furs and sea-otter skins, anchored, 
and procured refreshments in the island of Oahu. The island of Maui 
was visited about the same time by the unfortunate La Perouse. 

After this period the islands were frequently visited by vessels en 
gaged in the fur trade. Captain Douglas, of the Iphigenia, and Cap 
tain Metcalf, of the Eleanor, an American snow, were nearly cut off 
by the turbulent chiefs, who were desirous to procure the guns and 
ammunition belonging to their vessels, to aid them in carrying their 
purposes of conquest into effect. 



35 

DESTRUCTION OF "FAIR AMERICAN" CAPTURE OF DAVIS AND 

YOUNG. 

The son of the latter, a youth of sixteen, who commanded a schooner, 
ealled the Fair American, which accompanied the Eleanor from Can 
ton, when close in with the land off Mouna Huararai, was becalmed; 
the natives thronged on board, threw young Metealf overboard, seized 
and plundered the vessel, and murdered all the crew, excepting the 
mate, whose name was Isaac Davis. He resided many years with 
Tamehameha, who very severely censured the chief under whose 
direction this outrage had been committed. 

A seaman whose name is Young, belonging to the Eleanor, who 
was on shore at the time, was prevented from gaining Ms vessel, but 
was Mndly treated by the king, and is still living at Towaihae. 

VISIT OF VANCOUVER TO HAWAII. 

In the years 1792 and 1793, Captain Vancouver, while engaged in 
a voyage of discovery in the North Pacific, spent several months at 
the Sandwich Islands; and notwithstanding the melancholy catas 
trophe which had terminated the life of Captain Cook, whom he had 
accompanied, and the treacherous designs of the warlike and ambi 
tious chiefs towards several of his predecessors, he met with the most 
friendly treatment from all parties, and received the strongest ex 
pressions of confidence from Tamehameha, sovereign of the whole 
group, who had been wounded in the skirmish that followed the death 
of their discoverer, but who had ever lamented with deepest regret 
that melancholy event. 

CESSION OF ISLAND TO ENGLISH BY KAMEHAMEHA. 

He alone had prevented the murderous intentions of his chieftains 
towards former vessels from being carried into effect; and it was his 
uniform endeavour to shew every mark of friendship to those who 
visited his dominions. His attachment to the English induced him, 
during the stay of Captain Vancouver, to cede the island of Hawaii 
to the British crown, and to place himself and his dominions under 
British protection; an act which was repeated by his son, the late 
king, on his accession to the sovereignty of all the islands. 

The natives received many advantages from the visit of Captain 
Vancouver; a breed of cattle, and a variety of useful seeds, had been 
given. G-enerous and disinterested in his whole behaviour, he secured 
their friendship and attachment, and many still retain grateful recol 
lections of his visit. 

THE SANDAL- WOOD AND WHALING- INDUSTRIES. 
After his departure, the islands were seldom resorted to, except 
by traders from the United States of America, who, having discovered 



30 

among them the sandal-wood, conveyed large quantities of it to Can 
ton, where it is readily purchased by the Chinese, manufactured into 
incense, and burnt in their idol temples. 

Subsequently, the South Sea whalers began to fish in the North 
Pacific, when the Sandwich Islands afforded a convenient rendezvous 
for refitting and procuring refreshments during their protracted voy 
ages, particularly since they have found the sperm whale on the coast 
of Japan, where of late years the greater parts of their cargoes have 
been procured. 

ENGLISH MISSION IN THE SOUTH SEAS 

So early as the year 1796, the London Missionary Society despatched 
the ship Duff to the South Sea islands; and early in 1797, missionary 
settlements were established in the Marquesan, Friendly, and Society 
islands. 

The Missionary left at the Marquesas, after spending about a year 
among the people, returned. 

The establishment in the Friendly Islands was relinquished, though 
not till some of the individuals of which it was composed had fallen a 
sacrifice to the fury of the islanders in their intestine wars. 

The missionaries in the Society Islands have been enabled to 
maintain their ground, though exposed to many dangers and priva 
tions, and some ill usage. The greater part of them were at one time 
obliged to leave the islands, in consequence of violent assaults, and 
the civil wars among the natives. Several of those who left, returned 
after a very short absence, and rejoined their companions who had 
remained, and the labours of the missionaries were continued with 
patience and industry for fifteen years, from the time of their first 
establishment, without any apparent effect. 

FINAL SUCCESS OF MISSION. 

After this protracted period of discouragement, God has granted 
them the most astonishing success,- and the happy change in the (Jut- 
ward circumstances of the people, and the great moral renovation 
which the reception of the gospel has effected, have more than realized 
the ardent desires of the missionaries themselves, and the most san 
guine anticipations of the friends of the mission. 

But though the effects of the London Missionary Society were con 
tinued under appearances so inauspicious, with a degree of persever 
ance which has since been most amply compensated, various causes 
prevented their making any efforts towards communicating the knowl 
edge of Christ to the Sandwich islanders. While their southern neigh 
bours were enjoying all the advantages of Christianity, they remained 
under the thick darkness, and moral wretchedness, of one of the most 



37 

cruel systems of idolatry that ever enslaved any portion of tlie human 
species. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF AMERICAN MISSION IN" HAWAII. 

The attention of the American churches was at length directed to 
the Sandwich Islands. Their sympathies were awakened, and resulted 
in a generous effort to meliorate the wretchedness of their inhabitants. 
A society already existed, under the name of the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the chief seat of whose opera 
tions was in the city of Boston, Massachusetts, though including 
among its members many distinguished individuals in different states 
of the Union. 

In the autumn of 1819, a select and efficient band of missionaries 
was appointed by this society to establish a mission in the Sandwich 
Islands. They landed at Kairua, in Hawaii, on the 4th of February, 
1820, and had the satisfaction to find the way in a measure prepared 
for them, by one of those remarkable events which distinguish the 
eras in the history of nations, whether barbarous or civilized. This 
was no other than the abolition of the national idolatry, which, though 
it was closely interwoven with all the domestic and civil institutions 
of every class of the inhabitants, upheld by the combined influence of 
a numerous body of priests, the arbitrary power of warlike chiefs, 
and the sanction of venerable antiquity, had been publicly and 
authoritatively prohibited by the king only a few months before their 
arrival. 

THE KING AND THE MISSIONARIES 

The motives which influenced the monarch of Hawaii in this deci 
sive measure, the war it occasioned, and the consequences which en 
sued, are detailed in the following narrative. The missionaries could 
not but view it as a remarkable interposition of divine Providence in 
their favour, and a happy prelude to the introduction of that gospel 
which they had conveyed to these shores. 

They had naturally expected that their landing would be opposed 
by the institutions of a system, which, however degrading and 
oppressive in its influence, had presented more than human claims 
to the support of its adherents, and to be withstood by a numerous 
and influential class of priests, whose craft would be endangered so 
soon as they should present the paramount claims of the true Grod to 
the homage of the heart and uniform obedience of the life. 

A NATION WITHOUT A RELIGION 

Instead of this, they found the laws of the Tabu entirely abrogated, 
and priests no longer existing as a distinct body, but merged in the 
other classes of the community. 



38 

The whole nation was without any religion, and in this respect at 
least prepared to receive the dispensation of the gospel, recommended 
as it was, by an exemption from all the miseries of their former sys 
tem, and the animating prospects of life and immortality. 

Tot withstanding this, the missionaries, in the commencement of 
their efforts to instruct the natives, met with some opposition from 
misinformed and jealous individuals, who entertained groundless sus 
picions as to the ultimate object of their mission. This, however, was 
overruled by Karaimoku, Keopuolani, and other leading chiefs, and 
the king willingly allowed them to remain at least for a year. 

They were accompanied by several native youths, whom a roving 
disposition had induced to visit America, where they had been edu 
cated in a school for instructing the aborigines of various heathen 
nations, designated the Foreign Mission School, and who, having given 
pleasing evidence of piety, and understanding English, were qualified 
to act as interpreters, and assist the missionaries in the acquisition of 
the language. 

CREATING A TOITTEN LANGUAGE. 

The difficult task of settling the orthography of an unwritten lan 
guage, required all their energies; but by diligent application, and the 
help of the elementary books in the dialects of the Society Islands 
and ISTew Zealand, they were enabled, in the beginning of 1822, to put 
to press the first sheet of a Hawaiian spelling-book, and to present the 
natives with the elements of the vernacular tongue in a printed form. 

Schools were established on a scale less extended than the mission 
aries desired, but not without advantage, as many of their early 
scholars made encouraging proficiency, and have since become useful 
teachers. The more public instructions were generally well received 
by the people. 

Tamehameha, who had governed the islands thirty years, and whose 
decease took place not twelve months before their arrival, had in 
variably rendered the most prompt and acceptable aid to those English 
vessels which had touched at the islands. In return for the friend 
ship so uniformly manifested, the British government instructed the 
governor of Kew South Wales to order a schooner to be built at 
Port Jackson, and sent as a present to the king of the Sandwich 
Islands. In the month of February, 1822, his majesty's colonial cut 
ter, Mermaid, having in charge the vessel designed for the king of 
Hawaii, put into the harbour of Huahine for refreshments. The cap 
tain of the Mermaid politely offered a passage either to the deputation 
from the London Missionary Society, then at Huahine, or any of the 
missionaries who might wish to visit the Sandwich Islands. 

We had long been anxious to establish a mission among the Mar 
quesas; and as he intended touching at those islands on his return, 



39 

It appeared a very favourable opportunity for accomplishing it, and 
at the same time visiting the American missionaries, the intelligence 
of whose embarkation for Hawaii had been previously received. 

MISSION AET DELEGATION VISITS HAWAII. 

Two pious natives, members of the church, and one of them a chief 
of some rank in the islands, were selected for the Marquesas; and I 
accompanied the deputation on their visit to Hawaii, for the purpose 
of aiding in the establishment of the native teachers in the former 
islands, observing how the people were disposed to receive instructors, 
and obtaining such other information as might be serviceable in 
directing our future endeavours to maintain permanent missionary 
stations among them. 

In the month of March we reached the Sandwich Islands, and re 
ceived a cordial welcome, not only from the American missionaries, 
but fr,om the king and chiefs, to whom the generous present of the 
British government was peculiarly acceptable. 

Shortly after our arrival, a public council of the king and chiefs 
of Hawaii was held at Oahu. Auna and his companion, from Huahine, 
were invited to attend, and had an opportunity of answering the in 
quiries of the king and chiefs relative to the events which had trans 
pired in the Society Islands, and of testifying to the feelings of 
friendship and esteem entertained by Pomare, and the rulers of those 
islands, much to the satisfaction of the latter; who were convinced 
that the reports which had been circulated among them respecting 
the hostile intentions of the southern islanders, and the dangerous in 
fluence of Christian missions there, were totally groundless. 

ELLIS REMAINS IN HAWAII. 

We did not expect, when we first arrived, to spend more than a fort 
night or three weeks in the Sandwich Islands; but circumstances un 
foreseen, and entirely beyond our control, detained us four months in 
Oahu. 

In two months I was enabled to converse with facility, and preach 
to the people in their own language, which I soon perceived was only 
a dialect of that spoken by the natives of Tahiti, and the neighbour 
ing islands. 

Auna and his companion were at the same time diligently and 
acceptably employed in teaching some chiefs of distinction in Hawaii, 
who requested that he would relinquish his voyage to the Marquesas, 
and fix his residence among them; to which he cheerfully consented. 

Several of the principal chiefs also expressed a wish that I should 
associate with the teachers already engaged in their instruction. The 
American missionaries at the same time affectionately inviting me to 



40 

join them, and the measure meeting the approbation of the deputation, 
it appeared my duty to comply with their request. 

Early in February, 1823, I returned to Oahu with my family, ex 
perienced a kind reception from the king and chiefs, and was privi 
leged to commence my missionary pursuits in harmonious cooperation 
with my predecessors, the American missionaries, who were diligently 
employed in their benevolent exertions for the spiritual well-being 
of the nation; AVOIDING, AS THEY HAVE UNIFORMLY DONE 
EVER SINCE, ALL INTERFERENCE WITH THE CIVIL, COM 
MERCIAL, AND POLITICAL CONCERNS OF THE PEOPLE, AND 
ATTENDING SOLELY TO THEIR INSTRUCTION IN USEFUL 
KNOWLEDGE AND RELIGIOUS TRUTH. 

EXPLORING EXPEDITION TO HAWAII. 

The difficulties attending the acquisition of the language, and other 
circumstances, had hitherto confined the labours of the missionaries 
almost entirely to the islands of Oahu and Tauai; but in April, 1823, 
a reinforcement arriving from America, enabled them to extend their 
efforts, particularly towards Maui and Hawaii. 

In order that arrangements for the establishment and permanent 
maintenance of missionary stations in the latter, the largest, most 
important, and most populous island of the group, might be made 
with all the advantages of local knowledge, it was agreed that three 
of the American missionaries and myself should visit and explore 
that interesting island, to investigate the religious and moral condi 
tion of the people, communicate to them the knowledge of Christ, 
unfold the benevolent objects of the mission, inquire whether they 
were willing to receive Christian teachers, and select the most eligi 
ble places for missionary stations. 

These, though the principal, were not the only objects that occu 
pied our attention during the tour. We availed ourselves of the 
opportunities it afforded to make observations on the structure 
of the island, its geographical character, natural scenery, produc 
tions, and objects of curiosity; and to become more fully acquainted 
with the peculiar features of the system of idolatry, the traditions, 
manners, and customs of the inhabitants, a detailed account of which 
is given in the following narrative. 

HAWAIIAN ORTHOGRAPHY EXPLAINED. 

Before entering upon the tour, a few remarks on the orthography 
of the Hawaiian names which are occasionally introduced, explain 
ing the reasons for its adoption, and assisting in the pronunciation of 
native words, will probably be acceptable to most of our readers. 

The visits which most foreigners have paid to the Sandwich and 
other islands of the Pacific, have been too transient to allow them, 



4:1 

however well qualified they may have been, to "become acquainted 
with the nice distinction of vowel sounds,, and peculiar structure, of 
the aboriginal languages of the islands; and those individuals whom 
purposes of commerce have induced to remain a longer period among 
them, whatever facility they may have acquired in speaking it, have 
not attended to its orthographical construction, but have adopted that 
method of spelling names of persons and places which happen to have 
been used by those of their predecessors, with whose printed accounts 
they were most familiar. 

The want of a standard orthography cannot be better illustrated, 
than by noticing the great variety of methods adopted by different 
voyagers to represent the same word. 

SPELLING OP HAWAIIAN NAMES. 

We have seen the name of Tamehameha, the late king, spelt in 
various publications twelve or fourteen different ways; and the same 
variety has also prevailed in other popular names, though perhaps not 
to an equal extent. The above word is a reduplication of the simple 
word meha, (lonely, or solitary,) with the definite article Ta pre 
fixed, which is a part of the name; though rejected in Cook's Voy 
ages, where he is called Maihamaiha. Captain Vancouver calls him 
Tamaahmaahj which is somewhat nearer. 

This disagreement in different writers arises, in the first place, from 
the deficiency in the vowel characters as used in the English lan 
guage, for expressing the native vowel sounds. 

The English language has but one sign, or letter, for the vowel 
sound in the first syllable of father and fable, or the words tart and 
tale; but in Hawaiian the sense of these sounds, which frequently 
occur unconnected with any other, is so different, that a distinct char 
acter is essential. 

The first sound is often a distinct word, and frequently marks the 
future tense of the verb, while the second sound distinguishes the 
past, and is also a distinct word. These two sounds often occur to 
gether, forming two distinct syllables, as in the interrogation e-a? 
what? and the word he-a, to call. 

In the English language, two letters, called double vowels, are used 
to lengthen the same sound, as ee in thee, or to express one totally 
different, as oo in pool; but in Hawaiian there is often a repetition of 
the vowel sound, without any intervening consonant, or other vowel 
sound, as in a-a, a bag or pocket, e-e, to embark, i-i, a name of a 
bird ; o-o, an agricultural instrument; which must be sounded as two 
distinct syllables. 

Hence when the ee is employed to express a lengthened sound of e, 
as in Owhyhee, and oo to signify the sound of u in rule, as in Kara- 



kakooa, which is generally done by European visitors; it is not possi 
ble to express by any signs those native words in which the double 
vowels occur, which are invariably two distinct syllables. 

IQNOBANCE OF CONSTRUCTION OF LANGUAGE. 

Another cause of the incorrectness of the orthography of early 
voyagers to these islands, has been a want of better acquaintance 
with the structure of the language, which would have prevented their 
substituting a compound for a single word. 

This is the case in the words Otaheiti, Otaha, and Owhyhee, which 
ought to be Tahiti, Tahaa, and Hawaii. 

The O is no part of these words, but is the sign of the case, denot 
ing it to be the nominative answering to the question who or what, 
which would be O wai? 

The sign of the case being prefixed to the interrogation, the answer 
uniformly corresponds, as, 



O wai ia aina? What that land? 

Ans. Hawaii: Hawaii. 
Pos. 3STo hea oe? Of whence you? 

Ans. 3STo Hawaii: Of or belonging to Hawaii. 
Obj. Hoe oe i hea? Sailing you to where? 

Ans. I Hawaii: To Hawaii, 

Mai hea mai oe? From whence you? 

Ans. Mai Hawaii mai: From Hawaii. 

In pronouncing the word Ha-wai-i, the Ha is sounded short as in 
Hah, the wai as wye, and the final i as e in me. 

COOK AND VANCOUVER-' S SPELLING. 

Atooi in Cook's voyages, Atowai in Vancouver's, and Atoui in one 
of his contemporaries, is also a compound of two words, a Tauai, liter 
ally, and Tauai. 

The meaning of the word tauai is to light upon, or to dry in the 
sun; and the name, according to the account of the late king, was 
derived from the long droughts which sometimes prevailed, or the 
large pieces of timber which have been occasionally washed upon its 
shores. 

Being the most leeward island of importance, it was probably the 
last inquired of, or the last name repeated by the people to the first 
visitors. For should the natives be pointed to the group, and asked 
the names of the different islands, beginning with that farthest to 
windward, and proceeding west, they would say, O Hawaii, Maui, 
Eanai, Morotai, Oahu a (and) Tauai: the copulative conjunction pre 
ceding the last member of the sentence, would be placed immediately 
before Tauai; and hence, in all probability, it has been attached to 



43 

the name of that island, which has usually been written, after Cook's 
orthography, Atooi,* or Atowai, after Vancouver. 

The more intelligent among the natives, particularly the chiefs, fre 
quently smile at the manner of spelling the names of places and per 
sons, in published accounts of the islands, which they occasionally 
see, and doubtless wonder how we can employ two letters of the same 
kind to express two distinct sounds, as aa, for the sound of a in mark, 
and a in make; or oo for a sound so distinct as u. 

PRONUNCIATION OF HAWAIIAN NAMES. 

The orthography employed in the native names which occur in the 
succeeding narrative, is in accordance with the power or sound of the 
letters composing the Hawaiian alphabet, and the words are rep 
resented as nearly as possible to the manner in which they are pro 
nounced by the natives. 

A is always as a in father, or shorter as a in the first syllable of aha, 
e as a in hate, i as i in machine, ee in thee, o as o in note, u as oo 
in food y or short as in bull, and the diphthong ai as i in wine or mine. 
The consonants are sounded as in English. 

The native words may be correctly pronounced by attending to the 
above sounds of the vowels. 

The following list of the principal names will likewise assist in the 
proper pronunciation of Hawaiian words. The h is inserted after 
the a, only to secure that vowel's being sounded as in the exclama 
tion ah! 

PLACES. 

Ha-wai, pronounced as Ha wye e 

0-a-hu O-ah-hoo 

Tau-ai Tow-i, or Tow-eye 

Mau-i Mow-e 

Kai-ru-a Ky-roo-ah 

Ke-a-ra-ke-ku-a Kay-a-ra-kay-koo-ah 

Wai-a-ke-a Wye-ah-kay-ah 

Wai-pi-o Wye-pe-o 

El-rau-ea Ke-row-ay-ah 

Pu-ho-nu-a Poo-ho-noo-ah 

Mou-na-hu-a-ra-rai . .. Mow-nah-hoo-ah-ra-rye 

Mou-na Bo-a Mow-nah Eo-ah 

Mou-na Ke-a Mow-nah Kay-ah 

Ka-a-va-ro-a Kah-ah-vah-ro-ah 



44 
PERSONS. 

Ta-me'-ha-me-ha Ta-me-hah-me'-hah 

Bi-ho-ri-ho Bee-ho-ree-ho 

Ta-u-mu-a-ri-i Ta-oo-moo-ah-re-e 

Ka-a-hu-ma-nu Ka-ah-hoo-ma-noo 

Ke-o-pu-o-la-ni Kay-o-poo-o-lah-ne 

Ku-a-ki-ni . . . Koo-ah-ke-ne 

Ka-rai-mo-ku Ka-rye-mo-koo 

Bo-ki Bo-ke 

Li-li-lia . Le-le-hah 

Mau-ae Mow-aye 

Ma-ko-a Ma-ko-ah 

CHAP. II. 

THE TBIP TO HAWAII BE GINS. 

Taumuarii, the friendly king of Tauai, having generously offered 
the missionaries chosen to make the tour of Hawaii, (Owhyhee,) a 
passage in one of his vessels bound from Oahu to Kairua; Messrs. 
Thurston, Bishop, and Goodrich, repaired on board in the afternoon 
of June 24, 1823. They were accompanied by Mr. Harwood, an in 
genious mechanic, whom curiosity, and a desire to assist them, had 
induced to join their party. The indisposition of Mrs. Ellis prevented 
my proceeding in the same vessel, but I hoped to follow in a few 



At 4 p. m. the brig was under weigh, standing to the S. E, Having 
clearing the bar, and the reefs at the entrance of the harbour, the 
trade-wind blowing fresh from the 1ST. E. they were soon out of sight 
of Honoruru. They passed the islands of Morokai, Banai, and the 
principal part of Maui (Mowee) during the night, and at daybreak 
on the 25th were off Tahaurawe, a small island on the south side of 
Maui. 

The Haaheo Hawaii, (Pride o Hawaii,) another native vessel, for 
merly the Cleopatra's barge, soon after hove in sight; she did not, 
however, come up with them, but tacked, and stood for Lahaina. In 
the evening, the wind, usually fresh in the channel between Maui and 
Hawaii, blew so strong, that they were obliged to lay-to for about 
three hours; when it abated, and allowed them to proceed, 

A QUICK TRIP TO KAILTJA. 

On the 26th, at 4 p. m., the vessel came to anchor in Kairua bay. 
The missionaries soon after went on shore, grateful for the speedy 
and comfortable passage with which they had been favoured, having 
been only forty-nine hours from Oahu, which is about 150 miles to 



45 

tlie leeward of Kairua. They were heartily welcomed by tlie gov 
ernor, Kuakini, usually called by the foreigners, John Adams, from 
Ms having adopted the name of a former president of the United 
States of America. They took tea with him; and after expressing 
their gratitude to God in the native language with the governor and 
his family, retired to rest in an apartment kindly furnished for them 
in his own house. 

The next morning their baggage was removed from the vessel, and 
deposited in a small comfortable house, formerly belonging to Tameha- 
meha, but which the governor directed them to occupy so long as they 
should remain at Kairua. He also politely invited them to Ms table, 
during their stay; in consequence of wMeh, without forgetting their 
character, they sat down, to their morning repast. 

Their breakfast room presented a singular scene. They were seated 
around a small table with the governor and one or two of Ms friends, 
who, in addition, to the coffee, fish, vegetables, &c., with which it was 
furnished, had a large wooden bowl of poe, a sort of thin paste made 
of baked taro, beat up and diluted with water, placed by the side of 
their plates, from wMeh they frequently took very hearty draughts. 

Two favourite lap-dogs sat on the same sofa with the governor, one 
on his right hand and the other on his left, and occasionally received 
a bit from his hand, or the fragments on the plate from which he 
had eaten. 

A number of his punahele, (favourite chiefs,) and some occasional 
visitors, sat in circles on the floor, around large dishes of raw fish, 
baked hog, or dog, or goat, from which each helped himself without 
ceremony, while a huge calabash of poe passed rapidly round among 
them. They became exceedingly loquacious and cheerful during their 
meal; and several who had been silent before, now laughed loud, and 
joined with spirit in the mirth of their companions. 

Neat wooden dishes of water were handed to the governor and his 
friends, both before and after eating, in which they washed their 
hands. 

Uncivilized nations are seldom distinguished by habits of cleanli 
ness; but this practice, we believe, is an ancient custom, generally 
observed by the cMefs, and all the higher orders of the people, 
throughout the islands. 

SCARCITY OF WATER AT KAILXJA 

Kairua, though healthy and populous, is destitute of fresh water, 
except what is found in pools, or small streams, in the mountains, four 
or five miles from the shore. An article so essential to the main 
tenance of a missionary station, it was desirable to procure, if pos 
sible, nearer at hand. The late king Tamehameha used frequently to 



46 

beg a cask of water from the captains of vessels touching at Kairua; 
and it is one of the most acceptable presents a captain going to this 
station could make, either to the chiefs or missionaries. As soon 
therefore as breakfast was ended, the party walked through the dis 
trict in a south-east direction, to examine the ground, with a view 
to discover the most eligible place for digging a well. 

The whole face of the country marked decisively its volcanic origin; 
and in the course of their excursion they entered several hollows in 
the lava, formed by its having cooled and hardened on the surface, 
while, in a liquid state underneath, it had continued to flow towards 
the sea, leaving a crust in the shape of a tunnel, or arched vault, of 
varied thickness and extent. 

THE LANIAKEA CAVE. 

Before they returned, they also explored a celebrated cavern in the 
vicinity, called Raniakea. After entering it by a small aperture, they 
passed on in a direction nearly parallel with the surface; .sometimes 
along a spacious arched way, not less than twenty-live feet high and 
twenty wide; at other times, by a passage so narrow, that they could 
with difficulty press through, till they had proceeded about 1200 feet; 
here their progress was arrested by a pool of water, wide, deep, and 
as salt as that found in the hollows of the lava within a few yards of 
the sea. This latter circumstance, in a great degree, damped their 
hopes of finding fresh water by digging through the lava. 

More than thirty natives, most of them carrying torches, accom 
panied them in their descent; and on arriving at the water, simul 
taneously plunged in, extending their torches with one hand, and 
swimming about with the other. 

The partially illuminated heads of the natives, splashing about in 
this subterranean lake; the reflection of the torch-light on its agitated 
surface; the frowning sides and lofty arch of the, black vault, hung 
with lava, that had cooled in every imaginable shape; the deep gloom 
of the cavern beyond the water; the hollow sound of their footsteps; 
and the varied reverberations of their voices, produced a singular 
effect; and it would have required but little aid from the fancy, to 
have imagined a resemblance between this scene and the fabled 
Stygian lake of the poets. 

The mouth of the cave is about half a mile from the sea, and the 
perpendicular depth to the water probably not less than fifty or sixty 
feet. The pool is occasionally visited by the natives, for the purpose 
of bathing, as its water is cool and refreshing. From its ebbing and 
flowing with the tide, it has probably a direct communication with 
the sea. 



47 
HUALALAI IN ERUPTION. 

In the afternoon, Messrs. Thurston and Bishop walked ont in a 
!NVW. direction, till they reached the point that forms the northern 
"boundary of the "bay, on the eastern side of which Kairua is situated. 
It runs three or four miles into the sea; is composed entirely of lava; 
and was formed "by an eruption from one of the large craters on the 
top of Mouna Huararai, (Mount Btuararai,) which, about twenty-three 
years ago, inundated several villages, destroyed a number of planta 
tions and extensive fish-ponds, filled up a deep bay twenty miles in 
length, and formed the present coast. 

An Englishman, who has resided thirty- eight years in the islands, 
and who witnessed the above eruption, has frequently told us Be was 
astonished at the irresistible impetuosity of the torrent. 

Stone walls, trees, and houses, all gave way before it; even large 
masses or rocks of hard ancient lava, when surrounded by the fiery 
stream, soon split into small fragments, and falling into the burn 
ing mass, appeared to melt again, as borne by it down the mountain's 
side. 

Numerous offerings were presented, and many hogs thrown alive 
into the stream, to appease the anger of the gods, by whom they 
supposed it was directed, and to stay its devastating course. 

All seemed unavailing, until one day the king Tamehameha went, 
attended by a large retinue of chiefs and priests, and, as the most 
valuable offering he could make, cut off part of his own hair, which 
was always considered sacred, and threw it into the torrent. 

A day or two after, the lava ceased to flow. The gods, it was 
thought, were satisfied; and the king acquired no small degree of in 
fluence over the minds of the people, who, from this circumstance, 
attributed their escape from threatened destruction to his supposed 
interest with the deities of the volcanoes. 

In several places they observed that the sea rushes with violence 
twenty or thirty yards along the cavities beneath the lava, and then, 
forcing its waters through the apertures in the surface, forms a num 
ber of beautiful jets d'eau, which falling again on the rocks, roll 
rapidly back to the ocean. 

SUBURBS OF KAILUA DESCRIBED. 

They enjoyed a fine view of the town and adjacent country. The 
houses, which are neat, are generally built on the sea-shore, shaded 
with cocoa-nut and kou trees, which greatly enliven the scene. 

The environs were cultivated to a considerable extent; small gar 
dens were seen among the barren rocks on which the houses are built, 
wherever soil could be found suf&eient to nourish the sweet potato, 
the water melon, or even a few plants of tobacco, and in many places 



48 

these seemed to be growing literally in the fragments of lava, col 
lected in small heaps around their roots. 

The next morning, Messrs. Thurston, Goodrich, and Harwood, walked 
towards the mountains, to visit the high and cultivated parts of the 
district. After travelling over the lava for about a mile, the hollows 
in the rocks began to be filled with a light brown soil; and about half 
a mile further, the surface was entirely covered with a rich mould, 
formed by decayed vegetable matter and decomposed lava. 

Here they enjoyed the agreeable shade of bread-fruit and ohia 
trees; the latter is a deciduous plant, a variety of eugenia, resembling 
the eugenia malaccensis, bearing a beautifully red pulpy fruit, of the 
size and consistence of an apple, juicy, but rather insipid to the taste. 
The trees are elegant in form, and grow to the height of twenty or 
thirty feet; the leaf is oblong and pointed, and the flowers are at 
tached to the branches by a short stem. The fruit is abundant, and 
is generally ripe, either on different places in the same island, or on 
different islands, during all the summer months. 

INLAND CULTIVATION 

The path now lay through a beautiful part of the country, quite a 
garden compared with that through which they had passed on first 
leaving the town. It was generally divided into small fields, about 
fifteen rods square, fenced with low stone walls, built with fragments 
of lava gathered from the surface of the enclosures. These fields 
were planted with bananas, sweet potatoes, mountain taro, paper mul 
berry plants, melons, and sugar-cane, which flourished luxuriantly in 
every direction. 

Having travelled about three or four miles through this delightful 
region, and passed several valuable pools of fresh water, they arrived 
at the thick woods, which extend several miles up the sides of the 
lofty mountain that rises immediately behind Kairua. 

Among the various plants and trees that now presented themselves, 
they were much pleased with a species of tree ferns, whose stipes were 
about five feet long, and the stem about fourteen feet high, and one 
foot in diameter. 

A smart shower of rain (a frequent occurrence in the mountains) 
arrested their further progress, and obliged them to return to their 
lodgings, where they arrived about five in the afternoon, gratified, 
though fatigued, by their excursion. 

Mr. Bishop called on Thomas Hopu, the native teacher, who has 
for some time resided at Kairua, and was pleased to find him patient 
under the inconveniences to which his situation necessarily subjects 
him, and anxious to promote the best interests of his countrymen. 

29th. The Sabbath morning dawned upon the missionaries at Kai- 



4:9 

rua under circumstances unusually animating, and they prepared to 
spend this holy day in extending, as widely as possible, their labours 
among the benighted people around them. 

Mr. Thurston preached in the native language twice at the gov 
ernor *s house, to attentive audiences. Mr. Bishop and Thomas Hopu 
proceeded early in the morning to Kaavaroa, a village about fourteen 
miles distant,, on the north side of Kearake'kua, (Karakakooa,) where 
they arrived at 11 a. m. 

KAMAKAU, A BENEFICENT CHIEF. 

Kamakau, chief of the place, received them with many expressions 
of gladness, led them to his house, and provided some refreshments; 
after which, they walked together to a ranai, (house of cocoa-nut 
leaves,) which he had some time ago erected for the public worship of 
Jehovah. Here they found about a hundred of Ms people assembled, 
and waiting their arrival. 

Mr. Bishop, with the aid of Thomas, preached to them from 
John iii: 16, and endeavoured in the most familiar manner to set be 
fore them the great love of God in sending Ms Son to die for sinners, 
and the necessity of forsaking sin, and believing on him, in order 
to eternal life. 

Towards the latter part of the discourse, the preacher was inter 
rupted by Kamakau, who, anxious that his people might receive the 
greatest possible benefit by the word spoken, began earnestly to ex 
hort them to listen and regard, telling them, their salvation depended 
on their attention to the truths wMch they heard. After the service 
was concluded, he again addressed them, affectionately recommending 
them to consider these things. 

Kamakau wished them to meet with the people again, but as the 
day was far spent, they thought it best to return. He then told them, 
that after their departure he should assemble his people, and repeat 
to them what they had heard. He asked many questions on religious 
subjects, several respecting the heavenly state; and appeared in 
terested in the answers that were given; especially when informed that 
heaven was a holy place, into which nothing sinful could enter. 

A DISCARDED IDOL 

As they went from his house to the beach, they passed by a large 
idol, that Kamakau had formerly worshipped, lying prostrate and 
mutilated on the rocks, and washed by the waves of the sea as they 
rolled on the shore. It was a huge log of wood, rudely carved, present 
ing a hideous form, well adapted to infuse terror into an ignorant 
and superstitious mind. 

On his being asked why he had worshipped that log of wood? he 
answered, because he was afraid he would destroy his cocoa-nuts. 



50 

But were you not afraid to destroy it? "No, I found he did me 
neither good nor harm. I thought he was no god, and threw him 
away." Bidding him farewell, they stepped into their eanoe, and 
returned to Kairua, where they arrived in the evening, encouraged 
by the incidents of the day. 

Kamakau is a chief of considerable rank and influence in Hawaii, 
though not immediately connected with any of the reigning family. 
He is cousin to ISTaihe, the friend and companion of Tamehameha, and 
the principal national orator of the Sandwich Islands. His person, 
like that of the chiefs in general, is noble and engaging. He is about 
six feet high, stout, well-proportioned, and more intelligent and en 
terprising than the people around him. For some time past he has 
established family worship in his house, and the observance of the 
Sabbath throughout his district; having erected a place for the pub 
lic worship of the true God, in which, every Lord's day, he assembles 
his people for the purpose of exhortation and prayer, which he con- 
duets himself. 

He is able to read, writes an easy and legible hand, has a general 
knowledge of the first principles of Christianity, and, what is infi 
nitely better, appears to feel their power on his heart, and evince 
their purity in his general conduct. His attainments are truly sur 
prising, manifesting a degree of industry and perseverance rarely dis 
played under similar circumstances. 

His sources of information have been very limited. An occasional 
residence of a few weeks at Honoruru, one or two visits of the mis 
sionaries and of some of the native teachers to his house, and letters 
from Naihe, are the chief advantages he has enjoyed. 

He appears, indeed, a modern Cornelius, and is a striking manifesta 
tion of the sovereignty of that grace of which we trust he has been 
made a partaker; and we rejoice in the pleasing hope that He who has 
"begun a good work, will perform it until the day of Christ." 

INCIDENTS OF IOTE AT KAILTJA. 

In the forenoon of the first of July, two posts of observation were 
fixed, and a base line of 200 feet was measured, in order to ascertain 
the height of Mouna Huararai; but the summit being covered with 
clouds, they were obliged to defer their observation. 

In the afternoon they walked through the S. E. part of the town to 
select a spot in which to dig for fresh water. After an accurate 
investigation of the places adjacent, in which they thought it might be 
found, they chose a valley, about half a mile from the residence of 
the governor, and near the entrance of Baniakea, as the spot where 
they were most likely to meet with success. 

The 4th of July being the anniversary of the American independ 
ence, guns were fired at the fort, the colours hoisted, and a hospitable 



51 

entertainment given at the governor's table. The missionaries em 
ployed the greater part of the day at the well, wMeh early in the 
morning they had commenced. 

In the evening, while at tea, considerable attention was attracted by 
a slender man, with a downcast look, in conversation with the gov 
ernor. 

It afterwards appeared, that this was a stranger, from Maui, who 
wished to be thought a prophet, affirming that he was inspired by a 
shark, that enabled him to tell future events. The governor said, 
many of the people believed in him, and from them he obtained a 
living. 

The excavations of the well proceeded but slowly during the next 
day. Hard and closely imbedded lava rendered the work difficult. 
But as the governor promises assistance, they are encouraged to pro 
ceed. 

RELIGIOUS INSTKUOTION IMPABTED. 

The next day being the Sabbath, Mr. Bishop preached twice at the 
governor's house, Thomas Hopu acting as interpreter. The congre 
gation consisted principally of Kuakini's attendants and domestics, 
the greater part of the population conceiving themselves under no 
obligation to hear preaching, as they do not know how to read; pre 
tending, that ignorance exempts them from all obligation to attend 
religious exercises. 

Leaving Kairua early, in a canoe with four men, provided by the 
governor, Messrs. Thurston and G-oodrieh reached Kaavaroa about 
nine o'clock in the morning. Kamakau was waiting for them, and 
seemed to rejoice at their arrival. He led them to his house, and 
provided them with a frugal breakfast, after which they repaired in 
company to the ranai for public worship. On reaching it, they found 
about one hundred of the people already there. Before the service 
commenced, the chief arose, directed them to remain quiet, and pay 
the greatest attention to the word of life, which they were about to 
hear. 

Shortly after the conclusion of the service, the missionaries passed 
over Kearake'kua bay, in a canoe, landed on the opposite side, and 
walked along the shore about a mile, to Karama. Here, in a large 
house, they collected about three hundred people; to whom Mr. Thurs 
ton preached, and was pleased with the interest they manifested. 
Some who stood near the speaker, repeated the whole discourse, sen 
tence by sentence, in a voice too low to create disturbance, yet loud 
enough to be distinctly heard. 

There were seven or eight American and English seamen present, 
who requested that they might be addressed in their own language. 
Mr. Goodrich accordingly preached to them from Bev. iii. 20. 



52 

REMINISCENCES OF CAPT. COOK. 

Beturning from ELarama to tlie southern side of Kearake'kua bay, 
where they had left their canoe, they passed the ruins of an old heiau, 
the morai mentioned in Captain Cook's voyage, where the obser 
vatory was erected. 

The remaining walls were one hundred feet long and fifteen high, 
and the space within was strewed with animal and human bones, the 
relies of the sacrifices once offered there; a scene truly affecting to 
a Christian mind. 

Leaving this melancholy spot, they returned in their canoe to Kaava- 
roa: and when the people had assembled in the ranai, Mr. Thurston 
preached to them from Psalm exviii. 24. This is the day the Lord 
hath made: we will rejoice and be glad in it. 

About sun-set, Mr. G-oodrich ascended a neighbouring height, and 
visited the spot where the body of the unfortunate Captain Cook was 
cut to pieces, and the flesh, after being separated from the bones, 
was burnt. It is a small enclosure, about fifteen feet square, sur 
rounded by a wall five feet high,- within is a kind of hearth, raised 
about eighteen inches from the ground, and encircled by a curb of 
rude stones. Here the fire was kindled on the above occasion; and 
the place is still strewed with charcoal. The natives mention the in 
terment of another foreigner on this spot; but could not tell to what 
country he belonged, or the name of the vessel in which he was 
brought. 

MISSION ASSISTED BY KAMAKAU. 

Kamakau and his people had interested his visitors so much, that 
they determined to spend the night at his house. After supper, the 
members of the family, with the domestics and one or two strangers, 
met for evening worship: a hymn was sung in the native language, 
and Kamakau himself engaged in prayer with great fervour and 
propriety. He prayed particularly for the king, chiefs, and people, 
of Hawaii, and the neighbouring islands; and for the missionaries, 
who had brought the good word of salvation to them. 

The brethren were surprised to hear him use so much evangelical 
language in prayer. During the conversation of the evening, he ex 
pressed a desire, which has since been gratified, that a missionary 
might reside in his neighbourhood, that he and his people might be 
instructed in the word of G-od; might learn to read and write, and 
become acquainted with what the missionaries were teaching at the 
stations where they dwelt. He is about fifty years of age, and re 
gretted exceedingly, as many others have also done, that he was so far 
advanced in life before the missionaries arrived at the islands. 

The Sabbath passed away pleasantly, and, it is to be hoped, pro 
fitably, both to the interesting inhabitants of the place, and their 



53 

guests; and the latter retired to rest, animated and encouraged by 
what they had that day witnessed. Early next morning they set out 
for Kairua, where they arrived about nine o'clock in the forenoon. 

Unable to proceed with the well for want of proper instruments 
with which to drill the rocks, the greater part of this day was spent 
in ascertaining the population of Kairua. 

Numbering the houses for one mile along the coast, they found them 
to be 529; and allowing an average of five persons to each house, the 
inhabitants in Kairua will amount to 2645 persons. This certainly 
does not exceed the actual population, as few of the houses are small, 
and many of them large, containing two or three families each. 

The varied and strongly marked volcanic surface of the higher 
parts of the mountain called Mouna Huararai, in the immediate neigh 
bourhood of Kairua; the traditional accounts given by the natives of 
the eruptions, which, from craters on its summit, had in different ages 
deluged the low land along the coast; the thick woods that skirt its 
base, and the numerous feathered tribes inhabiting them, rendered it 
an interesting object, and induced the travellers to commence its 
ascent. 

About eight o'clock in the morning of the 9th, they left Kairua, 
accompanied by three men, whom they had engaged to conduct them 
to the summit. Having travelled about twelve miles in a northerly 
direction, they arrived at the last house on the western side of the 
mountain. Here their guides wished to remain for the night; and on 
being urged to proceed, as it was not more than three o'clock in the 
afternoon, declared they did not know the way, and had never been 
beyond the spot where they then were. Notwithstanding this dis 
appointment, it was determined to proceed. Leaving the path, the 
party began to ascend in a S.E. direction, and travelled about six 
miles, over a rough and difficult road, sometimes across streams of 
hard lava, full of fissures and chasms, at other times through thick 
brushwood, or high ferns, so closely interwoven as almost to arrest 
their progress. 

CAMPING- ON HUALALAI. 

Arriving at a convenient place, and finding themselves fatigued, 
drenched also with the frequent showers, and the wet grass through 
which they had walked, they proposed to pitch their tent for the 
night. A temporary hut was erected with branches of the neighbour 
ing trees, and covered with the leaves of the tall ferns that 'grew 
around them. At one end of it they lighted a large fire, and, after 
the rains had abated, dried their clothes, partook of the refreshments 
they had brought with them, and, having commended themselves to 
the kind protection of their heavenly Guardian, spread fern leaves 



54 

and grass upon the lava, and lay down to repose. The thermometer, 
which is usually about 84 on the shore, stood at 60 in the hut 
where they slept. 

The singing of the birds in the surrounding woods ushering in the 
early dawn, and the eool temperature of the pure mountain air, ex 
cited a variety of pleasing sensations in the minds of all the party, 
when they awoke in the morning, after a comfortable night's rest. 
The thermometer, when placed outside of the hut, stood at 46. 

Having united in their morning sacrifice of thanksgiving to God, 
and taken a light breakfast, they resumed their laborious journey. 
The road, lying through thick underwood and fern, was wet and 
fatiguing for about two miles, when they arrived at an ancient stream 
of lava, about twenty rods wide, running in a direction nearly west. 
Ascending the hardened surface of this stream of lava, over deep 
chasms, or large volcanic stones imbedded in it, for a distance of 
three or four miles, they reached the top of one of the ridges on the 
western side of the mountain. 

BEEBIES AND CRATERS ON HUALALAI 

As they travelled along, they met with tufts of strawberries, and 
clusters of raspberry bushes, loaded with fruit, which, as they were 
both hungry and thirsty, were very acceptable. The strawberries had 
rather an insipid taste; the raspberries were white and large, fre 
quently an inch in diameter, but not so sweet or well-flavoured as 
those cultivated in Europe and America. 

Between nine and ten in the forenoon they arrived at a large ex 
tinguished crater, about a mile in circumference, and apparently 400 
feet deep, probably the same that was visited by some of Yaneouver 's 
people, in 1792. The sides sloped regularly, and at the bottom was a 
small mound, with an aperture in its centre. By the side of this large 
crater, divided from it by a narrow ridge of volcanic rocks, was 
another, fifty-six feet in circumference, from which volumes of sul 
phureous smq^*and vapour continually^ ascended. l^oToftom could 
tef^se^i^and on SGowing Vtoneslnto it^they* were heard to strike 
against its sides for eight seconds, but not to reach the bottom. There 
were two other apertures near this, nine feet in diameter, and appar 
ently about 200 feet deep. 

As the party walked along the giddy verge of the large crater, they 
could distinguish the course of two principal streams, that had issued 
from it in the great eruption, about the year 1800. One had taken a 
direction nearly north-east; the other had flowed to the north-west, in 
broad irresistible torrents, for a distance of twelve or fifteen miles 
to the sea, where, driving back the waters, it had extended the boun 
daries of the island. They attempted to descend this crater, but the 



55 

steepness of Its sides prevented their examining it so fully as they 
desired. 

After spending some time there, they walked along the ridge be 
tween three and four miles, and examined sixteen different craters, 
similar in construction to the first they had met with, though generally 
of smaller dimensions. 

The whole ridge, along which they walked, appeared little else than 
a continued line of craters, which, in different ages, had deluged the 
valleys "below with floods of lava, or showers of burning cinders. 
Some of these craters appeared to have reposed for ages, as trees of 
considerable size were growing on their sides j and many of them were 
covered with earth, and clothed with verdure. 

In the vicinity of the craters they found a number of small bushes, 
bearing red berries in crowded clusters, whic&, in size and shape, 
much resembled whortleberries; though insipid, they were juicy, and 
supplied the place of fresh water, a comfort they had been destitute 
of since the preceding evening. 

RETURN TRIP FROM HTJALALAI. 

They continued ascending till three p. m. when, having suffered 
much from thirst, and finding they should not be able to reach the 
highest peak before dark, the sky also being overcast, and the rain, 
beginning to fall, they judged it best to return to Kairua, without 
having reached the summit of Mouna Huararai; particularly as they 
were somewhat scattered, and found difficulty in pursuing the most 
direct way, on account of the thick fog which surrounded the 
mountain. 

On their return they found the aid of their pocket compass neces 
sary to enable them to regain the path by which they had ascended 
in the morning. 

After travelling some time, they beheld with gladness the sun break 
ing through the fog in which they had been so long enveloped, and, 
looking over the clouds that rolled at their feet, saw him gradually 
sink behind the western wave of the wide extended ocean. 

The appearance of the sky, at the setting of the sun, in a tropical 
climate, is usually beautiful and splendid; it was so this evening; and 
from their great elevation, the party viewed with delight the mag 
nificent yet transient glories of the closing day. 

They travelled about three miles further, when, being wet with the 
fog, and weary with travelling, they erected a hut on the lava, and 
encamped for the night. They succeeded in making a good fire, dried 
their clothes, and then sat down to partake of the little refreshment 
that was left. It consisted of a small quantity of hard taro paste, 
called by the natives ai paa. A little water would have been agree- 



56 

able, but of this they were destitute. Having gathered some fern 
leaves, they strewed them on the lava, and laid down to repose. 

On the morning of the llth, the party still felt unwilling to return 
without reaching the top of the mountain, and hesitated before they 
began again to descend; but having been a day and two .nights with 
out water, and seeing no prospect of procuring any there, they were 
obliged to direct their steps towards Kairua. 

They walked several miles along the rough stream of lava by 
which they had ascended, till they arrived at the woody part of the 
mountain. Two of them, in searching for a more direct road to 
Kairua, discovered an excellent spring of water. They soon commu 
nicated the agreeable intelligence to their companions, who hastened 
to the spot, and, with copious draughts, quenched their thirst. Hav 
ing filled their canteens, they, with renewed strength and grateful 
hearts, kept on their way to the town. 

Owing to the roughness of the paths, and the circuitous route by 
which they travelled, they did not arrive at Kairua until after sun- 
eet, much fatigued, and almost barefoot, their shoes having been de 
stroyed by the sharp projections in the lava. 

They refreshed themselves at the governor 7 s, and after uniting with 
Mm and his family in an evening tribute of praise to God, they re 
paired to their lodgings, somewhat disappointed, yet well repaid for 
the toil of their journey. 

MB. ELLIS JOINS THE PARTY. 

Eight days after the departure of Mr. Thurston and his companions, 
I followed in a small schooner belonging to Keopuolani, bound first 
to Lahaina, and then to Hawaii for sandal wood. 
> Kalakua, one of the queens of the late Tamehameha, and Kekau- 
ruohe her daughter, were proceeding in the same vessel to join the 
king and other chiefs at Maui. The trade wind blew fresh from the 
north-east, and the sea was unusually rough in the channel between 
Oahu and Morokai. The schooner appeared to be a good sea-boat, but 
proved a very uncomfortable one; the deck, from stem to stern, being 
continually overflowed, all who could not get below were constantly 
drenched with the spray. 

The cabin was low, and so filled with the chief women and their 
companions, that, where space could be found sufficient to stand or 
sit, it was hardly possible to endure the heat. The evening, however, 
was fine, and the night free from rain. 

At daylight next morning, being close in with the west point of 
Morokai, we tacked, and stood to the southward till noon, when we 
again steered to the northward, and at four o'clock in the afternoon 
were within half a mile of the high bluff rocks which form the south 
ern point of Banai. 



57 
STOPPING THE SHIP TO FISH. 

A light air then came off the land, and carried us slowly along the 
shore, till about an hour before sun-set, when Kekauruohe said she 
wished for some fish, and requested the master to stop the vessel while 
she went to procure them among the adjacent rocks. Her wishes were 
gratified, and the boat was hoisted out. 

Kekauruohe and three of her female attendants proceeded towards 
the rocks that lie along the base of the precipice, about half a mile 
distant. The detention thus occasioned afforded time to observe more 
particularly the neighbouring coast. 

The face of the high and perpendicular rocks in this part of the 
island indicate that Eanai is either of volcanic origin, or, at some 
remote period, has undergone the action of fire. Different strata of 
lava, of varied colour and thickness, are distinctly marked from the 
water's edge to the highest point. These strata, lying almost hori 
zontally, are in some places from twelve to twenty feet thick, in others 
not more than a foot or eighteen inches. 

After fishing about an hour, Kekauruohe and her companions re 
turned with a quantity of limpets, peri- winkles, &c., of which they 
made a hearty supper. The wind died away with the setting of the 
sun, until about 9 p. m. when a light breeze came from the land, and 
wafted us slowly on our passage. 

The southern shore of Eanai is usually avoided by masters of ves 
sels acquainted with the navigation among the islands, on account of 
the light and variable winds or calms generally experienced there; 
the course of the trade-winds being intercepted by the high lands of 
Maui and Banai. 

It is not unusual for vessels, passing that way, to be becalmed 
there for six, eight, or even ten days. The natives, with the small 
craft belonging to the islands, usually keep close in shore, avail them 
selves of the gentle land-breeze to pass the point in the evening, and 
run into Lahaina with the sea-breeze in the morning; but this is 
attended with danger, as there is usually a heavy swell rolling in 
towards the land. One or two vessels have escaped being drifted on 
the rocks, only by the prompt assistance of their boats. 

DESCRIPTION OF LAHAINA IN 1823. 

At day-break, on the 4th, we found ourselves within about four 
miles of Lahaina, which is the principal district in Maui, on account 
of its being the general residence of the chiefs, and the common re 
sort of ships that touch at the island for refreshments. A dead calm 
prevailed, but by means of two large sweeps or oars, each worked by 
four men, we reached the roads, and anchored at 6 a. m. 

The appearance of Lahaina from the anchorage is singularly roman- 



58 

tic and beautiful. A fine sandy "beach stretches along the margin of 
the sea, lined for a considerable distance with houses, and adorned 
with shady clumps of kou trees, or waving groves of cocoa-nuts. The 
former is a species of eordia; the cordia sebastina in Cook's voyages. 

The level land of the whole district, for about three miles, is one 
continued garden, laid out in beds of taro, potatoes, yams, sugar 
cane, or cloth plants. The lowly cottage of the farmer is seen peep 
ing through the leaves of the luxuriant plantain and banana tree, 
and in every direction white columns of smoke ascend, curling up 
among the wide-spreading branches of the bread-fruit tree. 

The sloping hills immediately behind, and the lofty mountains in 
the interior, clothed with verdure to their very summits, intersected 
by deep and dark ravines, frequently enlivened by glittering water 
falls, or divided by winding valleys, terminate the delightful prospect. 

MEETING THE KING. 

Shortly after coming to anchor, a boat came from the barge, for 
the chiefs on board, and I accompanied them to the shore. 

On landing, I was kindly greeted by Keoua, governor of the 
place; and shortly afterwards met and welcomed by Mr. Stewart, who 
was just returning from morning worship with Keopuolani and her 
husband. 

We waited on Bihoriho, the late king, in his tent. He was, as usual, 
neatly and respectably dressed, having on a suit of superfine blue, 
made after the European fashion. 

We were courteously received, and after spending a few minutes 
in conversation respecting my journey to Hawaii, and answering his 
inquiries relative to Oahu, we walked together about half a mile, 
through groves of plantain and sugar cane, over a well-cultivated 
tract of land, to Mr. Butler's establishment, in one of whose houses 
the missionaries were comfortably accommodated, until their own 
could be erected, and where I was kindly received by all the mem 
bers of the mission family. 

After breakfast I walked down to the beach, and there learned that 
the king had sailed for Morokai, and that Kalakua intended to fol 
low in the schooner in which she had come from Oahu. This obliged 
me to wait for the Ainoa, another native vessel, hourly expected at 
Lahaina, on her way to Hawaii. 

ATTITUDE OF QUEEN KEOPUOLANI. 

The forenoon was spent in conversation with Keopuolani, queen of 
Mauhi, and mother of Bihoriho, king of all the islands. She, as well 
as the other chiefs present, appeared gratified with an account of the 
attention given to the means of instruction at Oahu, and desirous 



tliat the people of Lahaina miglit enjoy all tlie advantages of Chris 
tian education. Taua, the native teacher from Huahine, appeared 
diligently employed among Keopuolani's people, many of whom were 
his scholars; and I was happy to learn from Messrs. Stewart and 
Richards, that he was vigilant and faithful in his work. 

At sun-rise next morning, Mr. Stewart and I walked down to Keo- 
puolani's, to attend the usual morning exercises, in the large house 
near the sea. About fifty persons were present. In the afternoon I 
accompanied the missionaries to their schools on the beach. The 
proficiency of many of the pupils in reading, spelling, and writing on 
slates, was pleasing. 

A HULA DESCRIBED. 

Just as they had finished their afternoon instruction, a party of 
musicians, and dancers arrived before the house of Keopuolani, and 
commenced a hura ka raau, (dance to the beating of a stick). Five 
musicians advanced first, each with a staff in his left hand, five or 
six feet long, about three or four inches in diameter at one end, and 
tapering off to a point at the other. 

In his right hand he held a small stick of hard wood, six or nine 
inches long, with which he commenced his music, by striking the 
small stick on the larger one, beating time all the while with his 
right foot on a stone, placed on the ground beside him for that pur 
pose. 

Six women, fantastically dressed in yellow tapas, crowned with 
garlands of flowers, having also wreaths of the sweet-scented flowers 
of the gardenia on their necks, and branches of the fragrant mairi, 
(another native plant,) bound round their ancles, now made their way 
by couples through the crowd, and, arriving at the area, on one side 
of which the musicians stood, began their dance. 

Their movements were slow, and though not always graceful, ex 
hibited nothing offensive to modest propriety. 

Both musicians and dancers alternately chanted songs in honour of 
former gods and chiefs of the islands, apparently much to the grati 
fication of the numerous spectators. 

FROM HULA TO PRAYERS 

After they had continued their hura, (song and dance,) for about 
half an hour, the queen, Keopuolani, requested them to leave off, as 
the time had arrived for evening worship. The music ceased; the 
dancers sat down; and, after the missionaries and some of the people 
had sung one of the songs of Zion, I preached to the surrounding 
multitude with special reference to their former idolatrous dances, 
and the vicious customs connected therewith, from Acts xvii. 30. 



60 

"The times of tMs ignorance G-od winked at, but now commandeth 
all men every where to repent." 

The audience was attentive; and when the service was finished, 
the people dispersed, and the dancers returned to their houses. 

On our way home, the voice of lamentation arrested our attention. 
Listening a few moments, we found it proceeded from a lowly cot 
tage, nearly concealed by close rows of sugar-cane. "When we reached 
the spot, we beheld a middle-aged woman, and two elderly men, 
weeping around the mat of a sick man, apparently near his end. 
Finding him entirely ignorant of G-od, and of a future state, we 
spoke to him of Jehovah, of the fallen condition of man, of the amaz 
ing love of Christ in suffering death for the redemption of the world, 
and recommended him to pray to the Son of G-od, who was able to 
save to the uttermost. 

He said that until now he knew nothing of these things, and was 
glad he had lived to hear of them. We requested one of Ms friends 
to come to our house for some medicine; and having endeavoured to 
comfort the mourners, bade them farewell. 

The Ainoa was seen approaching from the southward, on the morn 
ing of the 6th. About two p. m. she came to anchor, having been 
becalmed off Banai four days. 

A SUNDAY'S WORK AT LAHAINA. 

TMs day being the Sabbath, at half -past ten the mission family 
walked down to the beach to public worship. Most of the chiefs, 
and about three hundred people, assembled under the pleasant shade 
of a beautiful clump of kou trees, in front of Keopuolani's house. 
After singing and prayer, I preached from Luke x. 23, 24. "Blessed 
are the eyes which see the things which ye see: for I tell you, that 
many prophets and kings have desired to see those things which ye 
see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, 
and have not heard them." 

After service, when we went to present our salutations to Keopu- 
olani, we found her, Kaikioewa, and several chiefs, conversing about 
Tamehameha, and others of their ancestors, who had died idolaters, 
and expressing their regret that the gospel had not been brought to 
the Sandwich Islands in their day. "But perhaps/' said Keopuolani, 
"they will have less punishment in the other world for worshipping 
idols, than those, who, though they do not worship wooden gods, yet 
see these days, and hear these good things, and still disregard them." 

As we returned, I visited the sick man; found him rather better 
than on the preceding evening, and again recommended the Son of 
God as all-sufficient to save. 



61 

GAME OF PUHENBHENE DESCBIBED. 

I afterwards saw a party at buhe*nehene. This is one of the most 
popular games in the Sandwich. Islands, and the favourite amusement 
of the king, and higher order of chiefs, frequently occupying them 
whole days together. It principally consists in hiding a small stone 
under one of five pieces of native tapa, so as to prevent the spectators 
from discovering under which piece it is hid. 

The parties at play sit cross-legged, on mats spread on the ground, 
each one holding in his right hand a small elastic rod, about three 
feet long, and highly polished. 

At the small end of this stick there is a, narrow slit or hole, through 
which a piece of dog's skin, with a tuft of shaggy hair on it, or a 
piece of ti leaf, is usually drawn. 

Five pieces of tapa, of different colours, each loosely folded up like 
a bundle, are then placed between the two parties, which generally 
consists of five persons each. 

One person is then selected on each side to hide the stone. He 
who is first to hide it, takes it in his right hand, lifts up the cloth at 
one end, puts his arm under as far as his elbow, and, passing it along 
several times, underneath the five pieces of cloth, which lie in a line 
contiguous to each other, he finally leaves it under one of them. 

The other party sit opposite, watching closely the action in the 
muscles of the upper part of his arm; and, it is said, that adepts can 
discover the place where the stone is deposited, by observing the 
change that takes place in those muscles, when the hand ceases to 
grasp it. 

Having deposited the stone, the hider withdraws his arm; and, with 
many gestures, separates the contiguous pieces of cloth into five dis 
tinct heaps, leaving a narrow space between each. 

The opposite party, having keenly observed this process, now point 
with their wands or sticks to the different heaps under which they 
suppose the stone Hes, looking significantly, at the same time, full in 
the face of the man who had hid it. He sits all the while, holding 
his fingers before his eyes, to prevent their noticing any change in 
his countenance, should one of them point to the heap under which it 
is hid. 

Having previously agreed who shall strike first, that individual, 
looking earnestly at the hider, lifts his rod, and strikes a smart blow 
across the heap he had selected. The cloth is instantly lifted up; 
and should the stone appear under it, his party have won that hid 
ing, with one stroke; if it is not there, the others strike, till the stone 
is found. 

The same party hide the stone five or ten times successively, ac 
cording to their agreement at the commencement of the play; and 



62 

whichever party discovers it the given number of times, with fewest 

strokes, wins the game. 

Sometimes they reverse it; and those win, who, in a given number 
of times, strike most heaps without uncovering the stone. 

GAMBLING FREQUENT. 

Occasionally they play for amusement only; but more frequently for 
money, or other articles of value, which they stake on the game. 

I went to the party, whom I found thus engaged; and after a few 
minutes' conversation, told them, that it was the sacred day of G-od, 
and induced them to put aside their play, and promise to attend pub 
lic worship in the afternoon. 

Leaving them, I passed through a garden, where a man was at 
work weeding and watering a bed of cloth plants. I asked Mm if he 
did not know it was the sacred day, and improper for him to work? 
The man answered, yes, he knew it was the la tabu, (sacred day,) 
and that Karaimoku had given orders for the people of Lahaina not 
to work on that day; but said, he was hana maru no, (just working 
secretly;) that was some distance from the beach, and the chiefs 
would not see him. 

I then told him he might do it without the chiefs seeing him, but 
it was prohibited by a higher power tftan the chiefs, even by the God 
of heaven and earth, who could see Mm alike in every place, by 
night and by day. 

He said he did not know that before, and wo aid leave off when 
he had finished the row of cloth plants he was then weeding! 

Mr. Stewart conducted an English service in the afternoon. The 
sound of the hura in a remote part of the district was occasionally 
heard through the after-part of the day, but whether countenanced 
by any of the chiefs, or only exhibited for the amusement of the 
common, people, we did not learn. 

At four o'clock we again walked down to the beach, and found 
about two hundred people collected under the kou trees; many more 
afterwards came, and after the introductory exercises, I preached to 
them upon the doctrine of the resurrection and a future state, from 
John xi. 25. 

The congregation seemed much interested. Probably it was the first 
time many had ever heard of the awful hour, when the trumpet shall 
sound, and the dead shall be raised, and stand before God. At the 
conclusion of the service, notice was given of the monthly missionary 
prayer-meeting on the morrow evening, and the people were invited to 
attend 



63 

SINOERETY OF KEOPUOIANI. 

Tana, the native teaelier of Keopuolani, visited the family in tie 
evening, and gave a very pleasing account of Keopuolani's frequent 
conversations with. Mm, on the love of God in sending Ms Son, on 
the death, of Christ, and on her great desire to have a new heart, and 
become a true follower of the Bedeemer. He informed us, that after 
most of the attendants had retired, she had several times sent for 
him, at nine or ten. o'clock in the evening, to engage in prayer with 
her and her husband, before they retired to rest. 

TMs account was truly gratifying, and tended much to strengthen 
the pleasing hope, which, from her uniform, humble, and Christian 
conduct, had for some time been indulged, that a saving change had 
taken place in her heart. 

In the afternoon of the 7th I walked to the sea side with Mr. 
Bichards, and waited on the queen Keopuolani, to converse with her 
respecting the houses and fences wMch she had kindly engaged to 
erect for the missionaries. 

The interview was satisfactory. Keopuolani seemed anxious to 
make them comfortable, and assured Mr. Eiehards that the houses 
would soon be ready for them. 

We then visited Mauro, the chief of Waiakea, a large district on 
the eastern side of Hawaii. He had been on a short visit to the 
king, at Oahu, and was returning to Ms land in the Ainoa. 

He received us kindly, and, when informed that I wished to pro 
ceed in the vessel to Hawaii, said, "It is good that you should go; 
we shall sail to-morrow." 

The eastern part of Lahaina, in which he had his encampment, was 
highly cultivated, and adorned with some beautiful groves of kou 
trees and cocoa-nuts. There were also several large ponds, well 
stocked with excellent fish. 

On returning from our visit to Maaro, we found the people col 
lecting under the cool shade of their favourite trees, in front of 
Keopuolani's house, for the purpose of attending the monthly mis 
sionary prayer meeting. About five o'clock the service commenced, 
I gave an address from the Saviour's commission to the first mis 
sionaries to the heathen. Matt, xxviii. 19. "Gro ye, therefore, and 
teach all nations. ' ' 

The audience appeared gratified with the brief account given of 
the missionary operations of the present day, especially those among 
the various clustering islands of the Pacific, with whose inhabitants 
they feel themselves more particularly identified, than with the native 
tribes of Africa or Asia. 

It was a circumstance truly animating to see so many of those who, 
wrapt in the thick darkness of paganism, had till lately worshipped 



64 

the work of their own hands, and "sacrificed" their fellow-creatures 
"to devils," now joining in concert with Christians of every nation, 
in praying for the spread of the gospel of Jesus throughout the world. 

A CONVERSATION WITH THE KING'S SERVANTS 

After breakfast on the 8th, I visited a neat strong brick house, 
which stands on the beach, about the middle of the district. It was 
erected for Tamehameha; appears well built, is forty feet by twenty, 
has two stories, and is divided into four rooms by strong boarded 
partitions. It was the occasional residence of the late king, but by 
the present is used only as a warehouse. 

Several persons who appeared to have the charge of it, were living 
in one of the apartments, and having looked over the house, and 
made some inquiries about the native timber employed for the floor, 
beams, &c. I sat down cm one of the bales of cloth lying in the room 
where the natives were sitting, and asked them if they knew how 
to read, or if any of them attended the school, and the religious ser 
vices on the Sabbath? On their answering in the negative, I advised 
them not to neglect these advantages, assuring them that it was a 
good thing to be instructed, and to know the true G-od, and his son 
Jesus Christ, the only Saviour. 

They said, "Perhaps it is a good thing for some to attend to the 
palapala and the pule (to reading and prayers,) but we are the king's 
servants, and must attend to his concerns. If we (meaning all those 
that had the care of the king's lands) were to spend our time at 
our books, there would be nobody to cultivate the ground, to provide 
food, or cut sandal wood for the king." 

I asked them what proportion of their time was taken up in attend 
ing to these things? They said they worked in the plantations three 
or four days in a week, sometimes from daylight till nine or ten 
o'clock in the forenoon; that preparing an oven of food took an hour; 
and that when they went for sandal wood, which was not very often, 
they were gone three or four days, and sometimes as many weeks. 

They were the king's servants, and generally work much less than 
the people who occupy the lands, or cultivate them. 

I asked them what they did in the remaining part of those days 
in which they worked at their plantations in the morning; and also 
on those days when they did not work at all? 

They said they ate poe, laid down to sleep, or kamailio no (just 
talked for amusement). 

They were then asked, which they thought would be most advan 
tageous to them, to spend that time in learning to read, and seeking 
the favour of Jehovah and Jesus Christ, that tjiey might live for 
ever, or wasting it in eating, sleeping, or foolish talking, and remain- 



65 

ing ignorant in tMs world, and liable to wretchedness in that wMeli 
was to comef 

They immediately endeavoured to give a different turn to the con 
versation, by saying, "What a fine country yours must be, compared 
with this! 

What large bales of cloth come from thence, while the clothing 
of Hawaii is small in quantity, and very bad. 

The soil there must be very prolific, and property easily obtained, 
or so much of it would not have been brought here. 

I informed them, that the difference was not so great between the 
countries as between the people. 

That, many ages back, the ancestors of the present inhabitants of 
England and America possessed fewer comforts than the Sandwich 
islanders now enjoy; wore skins of beasts for clothing; painted their 
bodies with various colours; and worshipped with inhuman rites their 
cruel gods: but since they had become enlightened and industrious, 
and had embraced Christianity, they had been wise and rich; and 
many, there was reason to hope, had, after death, gone to a state of 
happiness in another world; that they owed all their present wealth 
and enjoyment to their intelligence and industry; and that, if the 
people of either country were to neglect education and religion, and 
spend as much of their time in eating, sleeping, and jesting, they 
would soon become as poor and as ignorant as the Sandwich islanders. 

They said, perhaps it was so; perhaps industry and instruction 
would make them happier and better, and, if the chiefs wished it, 
by and by they would attend to both. 

After again exhorting them to improve the means now placed 
within their reach by the residence of the missionaries among them, 
I took leave of them. 

During the forenoon, I went into several other houses, and eon* 
versed with the people on subjects relating to the mission, recom 
mending their attention to the advantages it was designed to confer. 
Some approved, but many seemed very well satisfied with their 
present state of ignorance and irreligion, and rather unwilling to be 
disturbed. 

After having united with the family in their evening devotions, 
on the 9th I took my leave, grateful for the hospitable entertain 
ment and kind attention I had experienced, during my unexpected 
stay at their interesting station. I regretted that the illness of Mr. 
Stewart, which had been increasing for several days, prevented Ms 
accompanying me on my projected tour. 

DIFFICULTIES OF INTER-ISAND TRAVEL. 

At nine o'clock I walked down to the beach, but waited till mid 
night before an opportunity offered for getting on board. On reach- 



ing the brig, I learned that they did not intend to sail till daylight. 

There were such multitudes of natives on board, and every place 
was so crowded, that it was impossible to pass from the gangway 
to the companion without treading on them; and it was difficult any 
where, either below or upon deck, to find room sufficient to lie down. 

Early in the morning of the 10th the vessel was under way, but 
the light winds, and strong westerly current, soon rendered it neces 
sary to anchor. Between eight and nine I went on shore, and after 
breakfasting with the Mission family, returned to the beach, that I 
might be ready to embark whenever the wind should become favour 
able. I sat down in Keopuolani's house, and entered into an inter 
esting conversation with her, Hoapiri, and several other chiefs, re 
specting their ancient traditions and mythology. 

One of the ancient gods of Maui, prior to its subjugation by Tame- 
hameha, they said, was Keoroeva. The body of the image was of 
wood, and was arrayed in garments of native tapa. The head and 
neck were formed of a kind of fine basket or wicker work, covered 
over with red feathers, so curiously wrought in as to resemble the 
skin of a beautiful bird. A native helmet was placed on the idoPa 
head, from the crown of which long tresses of human hair hung down 
over its shoulders. Its mouth, like the greater number of the Hawai 
ian idols, was large and distended. 

KEOROBYA A MAUI GOD. 

In all the temples dedicated to its worship, the image was placed 
within the inner apartment, on the left hand side of the door, and 
immediately before it stood the altar, on which the offerings of every 
kind were usually placed. 

They did not say whether human victims were ever sacrificed to 
appease its imagined wrath, but large offerings, of every thing valu 
able, were frequent. 

Sometimes hogs were taken alive, as presents. The largQ ones were 
led, and the smaller ones carried in the arms of the priest, into the 
presence of the idols. The priest then pinched the ears or the tail of 
the pig till it made a squeaking noise, when he addressed the god, 
saying, "Here is the offering of such a one of your kahu " (de 
votees). 

WHEN A PIG WAS SUPERIOR TO A MAN. 

A hole was then made in the pig's ear, a piece of cinet, made of the 
fibres of the cocoa-nut husk, was fastened in it, and the pig was set 
at liberty until the priest had occasion for him. In consequence of 
this mark, which distinguished the sacred hog, he was allowed to 
range the district at pleasure; and whatever depredations he might 



67 

commit, driving Mm away from the enclosures into wMeh lie had 
broken, was the only punishment allowed to be inflicted, 

Keoroeva's nogs were not the only ones thus privileged. The 
same lenient conduct was observed towards all the sacred pigs, to 
whatever idol they had been offered, 

Tiha, a female idol, they said was also held in great veneration 
by the people of Maui, and received nearly the same homage and 
offerings as Keoroeva. 

THE GODS OF LANAI AND MOLOKAI. 

The people of Ranai, an adjacent island, had a number of idols, 
but those best known by the chiefs with whom I was conversing, 
were Raeapua and Kaneapua, two large carved stone images, repre 
senting the deities supposed to preside over the sea, and worshipped 
chiefly by fishermen. 

MooarH, (king of lizards or alligators,) a shark, was also a 
celebrated marine god, worshipped by the inhabitants of Morokai, 
another island in the neighbourhood. The chiefs informed me, that 
on almost every point of land projecting any distance into the sea, a 
temple was formerly erected for Ms worsMp. 

Several kinds of fish arrive in shoals on their coast, every year, in 
their respective seasons. The first fish of each kind, taken, by the 
fishermen, were always carried to the heiau, and offered to their god, 
whose influence they imagined had driven them to their shores* 

In some remote period, perhaps, they had observed the sharks chas 
ing or devouring these fish, as they passed along among their islands, 
and from this circumstance had been led to deify the monster, sup 
posing themselves indebted to Mm for the bountiful supplies thus 
furnished by a gracious Providence. 

MANY SEA GK)DS. 

They had a number of sea gods, besides those whom they imagined 
directed the shoals of fishes to their shores. They had also gods who 
controlled the winds and changed the weather. 

During a storm, or other season of danger at sea, they offered up 
their paro, or pule kurana, a particular kind of prayer; but it is 
not known to what idol they addressed it. On these occasions, their 
dread of perishing at sea frequently led them to make vows to some 
favourite deity; and if they ever reached the land, it was their first 
business to repair to the temple, and fulfil their vows. These vows 
were generally considered- most sacred engagements; and it was ex 
pected that, sooner or later, some judgment would overtake those 
who failed to perform them. 



68 

It is not improbable, that the priests of those idols, in order to 
maintain their influence over the people, either poisoned the delin 
quents, or caused them to sustain some other injury. 

KALAIPAHOA, THE GREAT POISON GOD. 

Karaipahoa was also a famous idol, originally belonging to Morokai. 
It was a middling-sized wooden image, curiously carved; the arms 
were extended, the fingers spread out, the head was ornamented with 
human hair, and the widely distended mouth was armed with TOWS 
of shark's teeth. 

The wood of which the image was made was so poisonous, that if 
a small piece of it was chipped into a dish of poe, or steeped in water, 
whoever ate the poe or drank the water, the natives reported, would 
certainly die in less than twenty-four hours afterwards. 

We were never able to procure a sight of this image, though we 
have been repeatedly informed that it still exists, not indeed in one 
compact image, as it was divided in several parts on the death of 
Tamehameha, and distributed among the principal chiefs. 

It is a known fact, that the natives use several kinds of vegetable 
poison; and probably the wood of which the idol was- made is 
poisonous. But the report of the virulence of the poison is most likely 
<me of the many stratagems so frequently employed by the chiefs and 
'priests, to maintain their influence over the minds of the people. 

A smaller image of the same god was formed of nioi, a hard yel 
low wood, of which idols were usually made. This was left at Moro 
kai, the original being always carried about by Tamehameha, and, 
if? is said, placed under his pillow whenever he slept. 

THE TRADITION OF THE ORIGIN OF KALAIPAHOA. 

The following is the tradition given by the natives of the original 
idol. 

In the reign of Kumaraua, an ancient king of Morokai, lived Ka- 
neakama, a great gambler. Playing one day at maita, (a Hawaiian 
game,) he lost all that he possessed, except one pig, which, having 
dedicated to his god, he durst not stake on his game. 

In the evening he returned home, laid down on his mat, and fell 
asleep. His god appeared to him in a dream, and directed him to go 
and play again, on the following day, and stake this pig on his suc 
cess in a particular part of the play. He awoke in the morning, did 
as the god had directed, and was remarkably successful through the 
day. Before he returned home in the evening, he went to the temple 
of his idol, and there dedicated the greater part of his gain. 

During his sleep that night the god appeared to him again, and 
requested him to go to the king, and tell him, that a clump of trees 



69 

would "be seen growing in a certain place in the morning; and that if 
he would have a god made out of one of them, he would reside in 
the image, and impart to it his power, signifying also, that Kane- 
akama should be his priest. 

A MIRACULOUS POISON" TREE. 

Early the next morning, the man who had received the communi 
cation from his god went and delivered it to the king, by whom he 
was directed to take a number of men, and cut down one of the trees, 
and carve it into an image. 

As they approached Karuakoi, a small valley on the side of one of 
the mountains in Morokai, they were surprised at beholding a clump 
of trees, where there had been none before, the gods having caused 
them to grow up in the course of the preceding night. Into these 
trees, Tane, and some other gods, are reported to have entered. 

When they arrived at the spot, the gods, by some sign, directed 
Kaneakama which tree to cut down. They began to work with their 
short-handled stone hatchets; but the chips flying on the bodies of one 
or two of them, they instantly expired. 

Terrified at the dreadful power of the wood, the others threw 
down their hatchets, and refused to fell the tree; being urged by 
Kaneakama, they resumed their work; not, however, till they covered 
their bodies and faces with native cloth, and the leaves of the ti 
plant, leaving only a small aperture opposite one of their eyes. In 
stead of their hatchets, they took their long daggers, or pahoas, with 
which they cut down the tree, and carved out the image. From this 
circumstance, the natives say, the idol derived its name, Karai-pahoa, 
which is literally, dagger cut or carved; from karai, to chip with 
an adze, or carve, and pahoa, a dagger. 

Excepting the deities supposed to preside over volcanoes, no god' 
was so much dreaded by the people as Karaipahoa. All who were 
thought to have died by poison, were said to have been slain by 
him. 

IDENTITY OP TAHITIAN AND HAWAIIAN TBADITIONS. 

Before I left the party, I could not help stating to them the strik 
ing identity between some of their traditions and those of the Tahi- 
tians; and expressed my conviction that both nations had the same 
origin. 

They said, tradition informed them that their progenitors were 
'brought into existence on the islands which they now inhabit; that 
they knew nothing of the origin of the people of the Georgian and 
Society Islands, yet Tahiti, the name of the largest of the G-eorgian 
Islands, was found in many of their ancient songs, though not now 
applied exclusively to that island. 



70 

PROPOSED INTERMABRIAG-E BETWEEN ROYAL FAMILIES OF 
TAHITI AND HAWAII. 

With the people of Borabora, (the name they gave to the Society 
Islands,) they said they had no acquaintance before they were visited 
by Captain Cook, but that since that time, by means of ships pass 
ing from one group of islands to the other, several presents and 
messages of friendship had been interchanged between Tamehameha 
and Pomare I., and that, in order to cement their friendship more 
Irmly, each had agreed to give one of his daughters in marriage to 
the sou of the other. 

In consequence of this amicable arrangement, a daughter of Pomare 
was expected from Tahiti, to be the wife of Eihoriho, late king of 
Hawaii; and Kekauruohe, one of the daughters of Tamehameha, was 
selected by her father to be the bride of Pomare, the late king of 
Tahiti. 

"Wanting a conveyance from Hawaii to Tahiti, Tamehameha was 
unable to send Kekauruohe; which, together with the death of Pomare 
before he had any opportunity of sending one of Ms relatives to 
Hawaii, prevented the intended intermarriages between the reigning 
f amiliea of Hawaii and Tahiti. 

VOYAGING FBOM LAHAINA TO KAWAIHAE. 

About two o'clock in the afternoon, the Ainoa hove up her anchor. 
I went on board in a canoe just as she was leaving the roads. The 
brig being about ninety tons burden, one of the largest the natives 
have, was, as has been already observed, much crowded, and, owing 
to the difference between the motion of the vessel and that expe 
rienced in their small canoes, many of the natives soon became sea 
sick. 

It was calm through the night, but the wind blew fresh in the 
morning from K. N* E. and continued until noon, when, being under 
the lee of the high land of Kohala, one of the large divisions of 
Hawaii, we were becalmed. 

At four o'clock p. m. a light air sprung up from the southward, 
and carried us slowly on towards Towaihae, a district in the divi 
sion of Kohala, about four miles long, containing a spacious bay, and 
good anchorage. The vessel stood in towards the north side of the 
bay, leaving a large heiau, (heathen temple,) situated on the brow 
of a hill, to the southward, and heading directly for a deep gully, 
or water-course, called Honokoa, opposite the mouth of which, about 
7 p. m. she came to anchor, in 10 fathoms, with a good bottom. 

The north side of the bay affords much the best anchorage for 
shipping, especially for those that wish to lie near the shore. It is 
the best holding ground, and is also screened by the kuahive (high 



71 

land) of Kohala from those sudden and violent gusts of wind, called 
by the natives mumuku, which come down between the mountains with 
almost irresistible fury, on the southern part of Towaihae, and the 
adjacent districts. 

A MEETING WITH JOHN" YOTOG-. 

At six a. mu the next day, I went on shore., and walked along the 
beach about a mile to the house of Mr. J. Young, an aged English 
man, who has resided thirty-six years on the island, and rendered the 
most important services to the late king; not only in his various civil 
wars, but in all his intercourse with those foreigners who have visited 
the islands. 

I found him recovering from a fit of illness, received from him a 
cordial welcome, and, as he was just sitting down to Ms morning 
repast, joined Mm, with pleasure, at his frugal board. 

THE GREAT HEIATJ AT KAWAIHAE. 

After breakfast, I visited the large heiau or temple called Bukohola. 
It stands on an eminence in the southern part of the district, and 
was built by Tamehameha about thirty years ago, when he was en 
gaged in conquering Hawaii, and the rest of the Sandwich Islands. 

He had subdued Maui, Ranai, and Morokai, and was preparing, 
from the latter, to invade Oahu, but in consequence of a rebellion in 
the south and east parts of Hawaii, was obliged to return thither. 

When he had overcome those who had rebelled, he finished the heiau, 
dedicated it to Tairi, his god of war, and then proceeded to the 
conquest of Oahu. Its shape is an irregular parallelogram, 224 feet 
long, and 100 wide. The walls, though built of loose stones, were 
solid and compact. At both ends, and on the side next the mountains, 
they were twenty feet high, twelve feet thick at the bottom, but nar 
rowed in gradually towards the top, where a course of smooth stones, 
six feet wide, formed a pleasant walk. The walls next the sea were 
not more than seven or eight feet high, and were proportionally wide. 
The entrance to the temple is by a narrow passage between two high 
walls. 

HUMAN SACRIFICES. 

As I passed along this avenue, an involuntary shuddering seized me, 
on reflecting how often it had been trodden by the feet of those who 
relentlessly bore the murdered body of the human victim an offering 
to their ernel idols. 

The upper terrace within the area was spacious, and much better 
finished than the lower ones. It was paved with various fiat smooth 
stones, brought from a considerable distance. 



72 

At the south end was a kind of inner court, which might foe called 
the sanctum sanctorum of the temple, where the principal idol used to 
stand, surrounded by a number of images of inferior deities. 

WHERE THE ORACLE WORKED. 

In the centre of this inner court was the place where the anu was 
erected, which was a lofty frame of wicker-work, in shape something 
like an obelisk, hollow, and four or five feet square at the bottom. 
Within this the priest stood, as the organ of communication from the 
god, whenever the king came to inquire his will; for his principal god 
was also his oracle, and when it was to be consulted, the king, accom 
panied by two or three attendants, proceeded to the door of the inner 
temple, and standing immediately before the obelisk, inquired respect 
ing the declaration of war, the conclusion of peace, or any other affair 
of importance. The answer was given by the priest in a distinct and 
audible voice, though, like that of other oracles, it was frequently 
very ambiguous. On the return of the king, the answer he had 
received was publicly proclaimed, and generally acted upon. 

I have frequently asked the people, whether, on these occasions, 
there was not some previous agreement between the king and the 
priest. They generally answered in the negative, or said they did not 
know. 

On the outside, near the entrance to the inner court, was the 
place of the rere (altar,) on which human and other sacrifices were 
offered. The remains of one of the pillars that supported it were 
pointed out by the natives, and the pavement around was strewed 
with bones of men and animals, the mouldering remains of those 
numerous offerings once presented there. 

THE KING'S SACRED HOUSE. 

About the centre of the terrace was the spot where the king's 
sacred house stood, in which he resided during the season of strict 
tabu, and at the north end, the place occupied by the houses of 
priests, who, with the exception of the king, were the only persons 
permitted to dwell within the sacred enclosure. 

Holes were seen on the walls, all around this, as well as the lower 
terraces, where wooden idols of varied size and shape formerly stood, 
casting their hideous stare in every direction. Tairi, or Kukairimoku, 
a large wooden idol, crowned with a helmet, and covered with red 
feathers, the favourite war-god of Tamehameha, was the principal 
idol. To him the heiau was dedicated, and for Ms occasional resi 
dence it was built. 



73 

HUMAN "VICTIMS. 

On tlie day in which lie was brought witMn its precincts, vast 
offerings of fruit, hogs, and dogs, were presented, and no less than 
eleven human victims immolated on its altars. And, although the 
huge pile now resembles a dismantled fortress, whose frown no longer 
strikes terror through the surrounding country, yet it is impossible 
to walk over such a golgotha, or contemplate a spot which must 
often have resembled a pandemonium more than any thing on earth, 
without a strong feeling of horror at the recollection of the bloody 
and infernal rites so frequently practised within its walls. 

Thanks be to G-od, the idols are destroyed! Thanks to his name, 
the glorious gospel of his Son, who was manifested to destroy the 
works of the devil, has reached these heretofore desolate shores* 
May the Holy Spirit make it the "savour of life unto life" to the 
remnant of the people! 

Leaving Bukohola, accompanied by some natives, I visited Mairi- 
Mni, another heiau, a few hundred yards nearer the shore. It was 
nearly equal in its dimensions to that on the summit of the hill, but 
inferior in every other respect. It appeared to have been literally 
crowded with idols, but no human sacrifices were offered to any of 
its gods. 

A TRIP FROM KAWAIHAE TO KAILTJA. 

On returning to Mr. Young's house, I was informed that the vessel 
would sail that evening for Kairua, a circumstance I much regretted, 
as I hoped to spend the sabbath at Towaihae. Mr. Young, however, 
collected his family and neighbours together, to the number of sixty. 
A short exhortation was given, and followed by prayer; after which 
I took leave of my kind host, repaired on board, and the vessel 
soon after got under way. 

It was daylight the next morning before we had left Towaihae 
bay, as the wind during the night had been very light. The sea 
breeze had, however, set in early, and carried us along a rugged and 
barren shore of lava towards Kairua, which is distant from Towaihae 
about thirty miles. 

It being the sabbath, I preached on deck in the afternoon from 
Mark iv. 38, 39. to a congregation of about 150 natives, including the 
greater part of the crew. Many of the people were afterwards 
observed sitting together in small groups, and conversing about what 
they had heard, though some were inclined to make sport of it. 

In the evening we were opposite Laemano (Shark's Point,) but 
strong westerly currents prevented our making much progress. 

On the morning of the 14th, we found ourselves becalmed to the 
southward of Kairua, several leagues from the shore. The snow- 



74 

covered tops of the mountains were distinctly seen at sunrise, but 
they soon after became enveloped in clouds, and continued so through 
the day. A light breeze carried the vessel towards the land, and at 
nine a. m. the boat was lowered down, and I proceeded to the shore. 

On my way I met the governor Kuakini, and Messrs. Goodrich and 
Harwood, who were coming off in the governor's boat. We returned 
together to the shore, where I was gladly received by Messrs. Thurston 
and Bishop, whom I found waiting to proceed on the tour of the 
island. 

STROLLING MUSICIANS AND DANCERS DESCRIBED. 

In the afternoon, a party of strolling musicians and dancers arrived 
at Kairua. About four o'clock they came, followed by crowds of 
people, and arranged themselves on a fine sandy beach, in front of 
one of the governor's houses, where they exhibited a native dance, 
called hura araapapa. 

The five musicians first seated themselves in a line on the ground, 
and spread a piece of folded cloth on the sand before them. Their 
instrument was a large calabash, or rather two, one of an oval shape 
about three feet high, the other perfectly round, very neatly fastened 
to it, having also an aperture about three inches in diameter at the 
top. 

Each musician held his instrument before him with both hands, and 
produced his music by striking it on the ground, where he had laid 
the piece of cloth, and beating it with his fingers, or the palms of 
his hands. As soon as they began to sound their calabashes, the 
dancer, a young man, about the middle stature, advanced through the 
opening crowd. His jet-black hair hung in loose and flowing ringlets 
down his naked shoulders; his necklace was made of a vast number 
of strings of nicely braided human hair, tied together behind, while a 
paraoa (an ornament made of a whale's tooth) hung pendent from 
it on his breast; his wrists were ornamented with bracelets, formed 
of polished tusks of the hog, and his ancles with loose buskins, thickly 
set with dog's teeth, the rattle of which, during the dance, kept time 
with the music of the calabash drum. A beautiful yellow tapa was 
tastefully fastened round his loins, reaching to his knees. He began 
his dance in front of the musicians, and moved forwards and back 
wards, across the area, occasionally chanting the achievements of 
former kings of Hawaii. The governor sat at the end of the ring, 
opposite to the musicians, and appeared gratified with the perfor 
mance, which continued until the evening. 

ROUTE OF EXPLORATION DECIDED UPON. 

July 15th. Our whole number being now together at the place 
where we had previously agreed to commence our tour, we no longer 




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63 

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I 

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76 

delayed to decide on the route we should take, and the manner in 
which we should endeavour to accomplish the objects of our visit. 

Anxious to gain a thorough acquaintance with the circumstances 
of the people, and their disposition relative to missionary operations, 
we agreed to travel on foot from Kairua, through the villages on 
the southern shore, to pass round the south point, and continue along 
the south-east shore, till we should arrive at the path leading to the 
great volcano, situated at the foot of Mouna Boa., about 25 miles 
distant from the sea, which we thought it improper to pass unnoticed. 

"We proposed, after visiting the volcano, either to descend to the 
shore and travel along the coast through the division of Puna, or 
across the interior to the division of Hiro, as circumstances might 
then render most expedient, 

From Waiakea in Hiro, we agreed to proceed along the eastern 
shore, till an opportunity should offer for part of our number to cross 
over the mountains of Kohala, while the rest should travel along the 
shore, round the north point of the island, and meet their companions 
at Towaihae, whence they could return direct to Oahu, if a means 
of conveyance should present itself, or to ECairua, and there wait for 
a vessel. 

The plan of our tour being thus arranged, we were anxious to 
receive the aid of the governor in the execution of it. Mr. Thurston 
and myself were therefore chosen to wait upon Mm in the afternoon, 
to make him acquainted with our wishes, and solicit his assistance, 
for their accomplishment. 

A ' 'PEOPLE'S FORT." 

I afterwards accompanied Mr. Thurston to the well, where we 
found the natives boring the hard rocks of lava which they intended 
to blast. We encouraged them in their laborious work, and then 
visited the ruins of an old military fortification, formerly belonging 
to the makaainana, (common people, as distinguished from the aris 
tocracy, or reigning chiefs) . 

In those periods of their history, during which the island of Hawaii 
was divided into a number of independent governments under dif 
ferent chiefs, which were frequent prior to the reign of Taraiopu, who 
was king at the time of its discovery by Captain Cook; this had 
been a place of considerable importance. 

All that at present remains is part of the wall, about eighteen or 
twenty feet high, and fourteen feet thick at the bottom, built of lava, 
and apparently entire. In the upper part of the wall are apertures 
resembling embrasures; but they could not have been designed for 
cannon, that being an engine of war with which the natives have but 
recently become acquainted. 




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55 

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78 

The part of the wall now standing, is near the mouth of Baniakea, 
the spacious cavern already mentioned, which formed a valuable 
appendage to the fort. In this cavern, children and aged persons 
were placed for security during an assault or sally from the fort, 
and sometimes the wives of the warriors also, when they did not 
accompany their husbands to the battle. 

The fortification was probably extensive, as traces of the ancient 
walls are discoverable in several places; but what were its original 
dimensions, the natives who were with us could not tell. They as 
serted, however, that the cavern, if not the fort also, was formerly 
surrounded by a strong palisade. 

ASSISTANCE FROM THE GOVERNOR. 

In the afternoon we waited on the governor, according to appoint 
ment; made him acquainted with our arrangements, and solicited the 
accommodation of a boat, or canoe, to carry our baggage, and a man 
acquainted with the island, to act as a guide, and to procure provi 
sions, offering him, at the same time, any remuneration he might re 
quire for such assistance. After inquiring what baggage we intended 
to take, and how long we expected to be absent from Kairua, he 
generously offered to send a canoe as far as it could go with safety, 
and also to furnish a guide for the whole tour without any recom 
pense whatever. He recommended that we should take a few articles 
for barter, as, occasionally, we might perhaps be obliged to purchase 
our food, or hire men to carry our baggage. After thanking him 
for his kindness, we returned. 

MORE MUSIC AND DANOINGK 

About four o'clock in the afternoon, another party of musicians 
and dancers, followed by multitudes -of people, took their station 
nearly on the spot occupied yesterday by those from Kau, The musi 
cians, seven in number, seated themselves on the sand; a curiously 
carved drum, made "by hollowing out a solid piece of wood, and cov 
ering the top with shark's skin, was placed before each, which they 
beat with the palm or fingers of their right hand. A neat little drum, 
made of the shell of a large cocoa-nut, was also fixed on the knee, 
by the side of the large drum, and beat with a small stick held in the 
left hand. 

When the musicians had arranged themselves in a line, across the 
beach, and a bustling man, who appeared to be master of the cere 
monies, had, with a large branch of a cocoa-nut tree, cleared a circle 
of considerable extent, two interesting little children, (a boy and a 
girl,) apparently about nine years of age, came f orward> habited in the 



79 

dancing costume of tlie country, with garlands of flowers on their 
heads, wreaths around their necks, bracelets on their wrists, and 
buskins on their ankles. 

When they had reached the centre of the ring, they commenced 
their dance to the music of the drams; eantilating, alternately with 
the musicians, a song in honour of some ancient of Hawaii. 




Governor of Hawaii. 



The governor of the island was present, accompanied, as it is cus 
tomary for every chieftain of distinction to be on public occasions, by 
a retinue of favourite chiefs and attendants. 

THE GOVERNOR'S DRESS AND COURT ETIQUETTE. 

Having almost entirely laid aside the native costume, and adopted 
that of the foreigners who visit the islands, he appeared on this occa 
sion in a light European dress, and sat on a Canton-made arm chair,, 
opposite the dancers, during the whole exhibition. 

A servant, with a light Mhei of painted native cloth thrown over 
his shoulder, stood behind his chair, holding a highly polished spit- 



80 

toon, made of the beautifully brown wood of the cordia in one hand, 
and in the other a handsome kahiri, an elastic rod, three or four feet 
long, having the shining feathers of the tropic-bird tastefully fastened 
round the upper end, with which he fanned away the flies from the 
person of Ms master. 

The beach was crowded with spectators, and the exhibition kept up 
with great spirit, till the overspreading shades of evening put an end 
to their mirth, and afforded a respite to the poor children, whose little 
limbs must have been very much fatigued by two hours of constant 
exercise. 

DANCING EXCLUDED RELIGION 

"We were anxious to address the multitude on the subject of reli 
gion before they should disperse; but so intent were they on their 
amusement, that they could not have been diverted from it. I suc 
ceeded, however, in taking a sketch of the novel assemblage, in which, 
a youth, who had climbed a high pole, (that, looking over the heads 
of the throng who surrounded the dancers, he might witness the scene,) 
formed a conspicuous object. 

A messenger now invited us to sup with the governor, and we soon 
after joined him and his friends around his hospitable board. 

DINNER ACCOMPANIED BY MINSTRELSY. 

Our repast was not accompanied by the gladsome sound of "harp 
in hall" or "aged minstrel's flowing lay," yet it was enlivened by 
an interesting youthful bard, twelve or fourteen years of age, who 
was seated on the ground in the large room in which we were assem 
bled, and who, during the supper, sung, in a monotonous but pleasing 
strain, the deeds of former chiefs, ancestors of our host. His fingers 
swept no ' ' classic lyre, ' ' but beat, in a manner responsive to his song, 
a rustic little drum, formed of a calabash, beautifully stained, and 
covered at the head with a piece of shark skin. 

The governor and his friends were evidently pleased with Ms lay, 
and the youth seemed repaid by their approbation. 

MEASURING- HUALALAI PREPARING FOR THE TRIP. 

In the morning of the 16th, Messrs. Q-oodrieh and Harwood en 
deavoured to ascertain the height of Mouna Huararai, by means of 
two observations at the extremity of a base line of 2230 feet. They 
made the height of the mountain to be 7822 feet; but their quadrant 
being an inferior one, we thought the height of the mountain greater 
than that given above, though it is never covered with snow. 

The accounts the natives gave us of the roads we were to travel, 
and the effects the short journeys already made had produced on our 



81 

shoes, convinced us tliat those we had brought with us would be worn 
out before we had proceeded even half way round the island. We 
therefore provided a substitute, by procuring a tough bull's hide from 
the governor's store-house, and making ourselves rude sandals; which 
we afterwards found very serviceable, as they enabled us to travel 
over large tracts of lava with much more expedition and comfort 
than we could possibly have done without them. 

BELIGIOUS TRUTHS SUBSTITUTED FOE THE HULA. 

At four p. m. the musicians from Kau again collected on the beach, 
and the dancer commenced a hura, similar to that exhibited on Mon 
day evening. We had previously appointed a religious meeting for 
this evening, and, about an hour before sun-set, proposed to the 
governor to hold it on the beach, where the people were already 
assembled. He approved, and followed us to the edge of the circle, 
where we took our station, opposite the musicians. 

At the governor's request the music ceased, and the dancer came 
and sat down just in front of us. We sang a hymn; I then offered 
up a short prayer, and afterwards addressed the people from Acts 
xiv. 15; "And preach unto you, that ye should turn from these vani 
ties unto the living G-od, which made heaven and earth, and the sea, 
and all things that are therein. " The multitude collected was from 
different and distant parts of the island, and appeared to listen with 
attention to the word spoken. To many, it was doubtless the first 
time they had heard of the name of Jehovah, or of Jesus Christ his 
Son, and we afterwards heard them conversing among themselves 
about the truths they had heard. 

DISCUSSIONS WITH THE GOYEBNOE. 

After supper and family worship at the governor's, I spent the 
evening in conversation with him, partly on traditions respecting 
some remarkable places in the neighbourhood of Kairua, and partly 
on the subject of religion. I spoke on the desirableness of his building 
a place for the public worship of the true God, and the advantages 
of keeping the Sabbath as a day of holy rest, recommending him to 
set the common people a good example, and use his influence to induce 
them to attend public service on the Lord's day. 

He said it was Ms intention to build a church by and by, when 
the maka-ainana should become interested in these things, and when 
they should have a missionary to reside permanently with them; but 
that at present the people at Kairua were quite indifferent to all 
religion. 

6 



82 

ROYAL WOMEN MAZING TAPA. 

For several days past we have observed many of the people bring 
ing home from their plantations bundles of young wauti, (a variety 
of the morns papyrif era,) from which we infer that this is the season 
for cloth-making in this part of the island. 

This morning, the 17th, we perceived Keoua, the governor's wife, 
and her female attendants, with about forty other women, under the 
pleasant shade of a beautiful clump of cordia or kou trees, employed 
in stripping off the bark from bundles of wauti sticks, for the pur 
pose of making it into cloth. 

The sticks were generally from six to ten feet long, and about an 
inch in diameter at the thickest end. They first cut the bark, the 
whole length of the stick, with a sharp serrated shell, and having 
carefully peeled it off, rolled it into small coils, the inner bark being 
outside. In this state it is left some time, to make it flat and smooth. 

Keoua not only worked herself, but appeared to take the superin 
tendence of the whole party. "Whenever a fine piece of bark was 
found, it was shewn to her, and put aside to be manufactured into 
wairiirii, or some other particular cloth. With lively chat and cheer 
ful song, they appeared to beguile the hours of labour until noon, 
when having finished their work, they repaired to their dwellings. 

CULTIVATION OF TAPA PLANTS 

The wauti plant, of which the greater part of the cloth on this side 
of the island is made, is cultivated with much care in their gardens 
of sugar-cane, plantain, &e. and whole plantations are sometimes de 
voted exclusively to its growth. Slips about a foot long are planted 
nearly two feet apart, in long rows, four or six feet asunder. Two 
or three shoots rise from most of the slips, and grow till they are six 
or twelve feet high, according to the richness of the soil, or the kind 
of cloth for which they are intended. Any small branches that may 
sprout out from the side of the long shoot, are carefully plucked off, 
and sometimes the bud at the top of the plant is pulled out, to cause 
an increase in its size. 

Occasionally they are two years growing, and seldom reach the size 
at which they are fit for use, in less than twelve or even eighteen 
months, when they are cut off near the ground, the old roots being 
left, to produce shoots another year. 

The bark, when stripped off and rolled up, as described above, is 
left several days; when, on being unrolled, it appears quite flat. The 
outer bark is then taken off, generally by scraping it with a large 
shell, and the inner bark, of which the cloth is made, is occasionally 
laid in water, to extract the resinous substances it may contain. Each 
piece of bark is then taken singly, and laid across a piece of wood, 



83 

twelve or eighteen feet long, six inches square, smooth, on the top, 
"but having a groove on the under side, and is beaten with a square 
mallet of hard heavy wood, about a foot in length, and two inches 
wide; three sides are carved in grooves or ribs, the other into squares, 
in order that one mallet may answer for the different kinds of cloth 
they are accustomed to mate. 

When they have beaten the bark tiH it is spread out nine inches 
or a foot wide, it is either dried and reserved for future use, or 
wrapped up in leaves, laid by for a day or two, and then beaten out 
afresh till the required extent and texture are produced. 

DIWEBENT KINDS Ol 1 TAPA. 

Various sorts of cloth are made with this plant, some remarkably 
fine and even; that which has been beaten with a mallet, carved in 
different patterns, much resembles muslin at first sight, while that 
made with a grooved mallet appears, until closely examined, some 
thing like dimity. There are other kinds, very thick and tough, 
which look like wash-leather; but the most common sort is the pan, 
worn round the waists of the females. To make this, a piece of 
bark is beaten till it is four yards long, and more than a yard wide, 
and of an equal texture throughout. 

Sometimes two or three pieces of bark are necessary to make one 
piece of cloth. Five of these pieces, when finished, are spread out 
one upon the other, and fastened together at one end. These five 
pieces make only one pau. The inside pieces are usually white, or 
yellow; but the outside piece is always stained, or painted, with vege 
table dyes of various colours. 

No gum is used in the manufacture of the pau, except that con 
tained in the bark, yet the fibres adhere firmly together. Those 
painted red or yellow, &e. are sometimes rubbed over with a vegetable 
oil, in which chips of sandal wood, or the seeds of the pandanus 
odorotissima, have been steeped. This is designed to perfume the 
cloth, and render is impervious to wet; it is, however, less durable 
than the common pau. 

SLEEPING AND CLOTHING- TAPAS. 

There is another kind of cloth, called tapa moe, (sleeping cloth,) 
made principally for the chiefs, who use it to wrap themselves in at 
night, while they sleep. It is generally three or four yards square, 
very thick, being formed of several layers of common tapa, cemented 
with gum, and beaten with a grooved mallet till they are closely inter 
woven. The colour is various, either white, yellow, brown, or black, 
according to the fancy of its owner. 

Nearly resembling the tapa moe is the kihei, only it is both thinner 



84 

and smaller. It is made in. the same manner, and is about the size 
of a large shawl, or counterpane. Sometimes it is brown, but more 
frequently white or yellow, intermixed with red and black. It is 
generally worn by the men, thrown loosely over one shoulder, passed 
under the opposite arm, and tied in front, or on the other shoulder. 

TAPAS FOR PA-US AND MALOS. 

But the best kind of cloth made with the cultivated plant is the 
wairiirii, which is made into paus for the females, and maros for 
the men. 

The paus are generally four yards long, and about one yard wide, 
very thick, beautifully painted with brilliant red, yellow, and black 
colours, and covered over with a fine gum and resinous varnish, which 
not only preserves the colours, but renders the cloth impervious and 
durable. The maros are about a foot wide, and three or four yards 
long. 

The colours they employ are procured from the leaves, bark, ber 
ries, or roots of indigenous plants, and require much skill in their 
preparation. 

One or two kinds of earth are also used in mixing the darker 
colours. Since foreigners have visited them, they have found, upon 
trial, that our colours are better than theirs, and the paint they 
purchase from ships has superseded in a great degree the native 
colours, in the painting of all the most valuable kinds of cloth. 

MANNER OF PAINTING TAPAS. 

Their manner of painting is ingenious. They cut the pattern they 
intend to stamp on their cloth, on the inner side of a narrow piece 
of bamboo, spread their cloth before them on a board, and having 
their colours properly mixed, in a calabash by their side, dip the 
point of the bamboo, which they hold in their right hand, into the 
paint, strike it against the edge of the calabash, place it on the right 
or left side of the cloth, and press it down with the fingers of the 
left hand. The pattern is dipped in the paint after every impres 
sion, which is continued till the cloth is marked quite across, when it 
is moved on the board, and the same repeated till it is finished. 

The tapa in general lasts but a little while, compared with any kind 
of wove cloth, yet if kept free from wet, which causes it to rend like 
paper, some kinds may be worn a considerable time. The fabrica 
tion of it shews both invention and industry; and whether we con 
sider its different textures, its varied and regular patterns, its beau 
tiful colours, so admirably preserved by means of the varnish, we are 
at once convinced, that the people who manufacture it are neither 
deficient in taste, nor incapable of receiving the improvements of 



85 

civilized society. Specimens of the principal Muds of native cloth, 
manufactured in the Sandwich Islands, may be seen in the Missionary 
Museum, Austin Friars. 

During the forenoon, Mr. Harwood made an auger, to aid the 
well-diggers in boring the rocks. I walked with Mr. Thurston to 
see what progress they had made, and to encourage them to persevere. 
The rocks they said were hard, and their progress slow, yet they were 
not discouraged, but hoped to find the work easier as they descended. 

RELIGIOUS DISCUSSION WITH GOVERNOR KUAKINI. 

After dinner, the governor entered freely into conversation on reli 
gious subjects, particularly respecting the resurrection of the body, 
the destruction of the heavens and the earth at the last day, and 
the final judgment. 

After listening attentively to what was said upon these subjects, he 
inquired about the locality of heaven and hell. 

He was told that we did not know where the one or the other was 
situated, as none had ever returned from either, to tell mankind 
about them; and we only know, that there is a place called heaven, 
where G-od makes glorious manifestations of Ms perfections, and 
where all good men are perfectly happy; and that there is a place 
where wicked men are shut up in darkness, and endure endless misery. 

He then said, "How do you know these things?" I asked for his 
bible, and translated the passages which inculcate the doctrine of the 
resurrection, &c. and told him it was from that book we obtained all 
our knowledge of these things; and that it was the contents of that 
"book which we had come to teach the people of Hawaii. 

THE GOYERNOR ASKS EMBARRASSING QUESTIONS. 

He then asked if all the people in our native countries were 
acquainted with the bible. 

I answered, that from the abundant means of instruction enjoyed 
there, the greater portion of the people had either read the book, 
or had in some other way become acquainted with its principal eon- 
tents. 

He then said, How is it that such numbers of them swear, get 
intoxicated, and do so many things prohibited in that book? 

He was told, that there was a vast difference between knowing 
the word of God, and obeying it; and that it was most likely, those 
persons knew their conduct was displeasing to God, yet persisted 
in it, because agreeable to their corrupt inclinations. 

He asked if God would not be angry with us for troubling him so 
frequently with our prayers? If he was like man, he said, he was 
sure he would. 



86 

I replied, that God was always "waiting to be gracious," more 
ready to liear than we were to pray; that indeed he was not like 
man, or his patience would have been exhausted long ago by the 
wickedness of men; but that he continued exercising long-suffering 
and forbearance towards sinners, that they might turn from their 
wickedness and live. 

THE TRIP BEGINS. 

W supped with the governor as usual, and, after family worship 
with his household, prepared our baggage for our journey, some of 
which we left to be forwarded by the Ainoa to Waiakea, a district on 
the eastern side of the island. 

About eleven o 'clock in the forenoon, on the 18th, we waited on the 
governor to express our grateful sense of the generous hospitality we 
had experienced from Mm, during our protracted stay at Kairua. 
We also thanked him for the friendly advice he had given, and the 
acceptable aid he had so kindly furnished for the prosecution of our 
journey, and informed him that we were ready to proceed. He had 
before given instructions to our guide. He now directed the man who 
was going in the canoe, to take care of our things, and told us he 
would send some men to carry our baggage by land, as far as Keara- 
ke'kua. We then took leave of him, and proceeded on our journey. 
Messrs. Bishop and Harwood went in the canoe, the rest of our num 
ber travelled on foot. 

MAKOA, THE GUIDE, DESCRIBED. 

Our guide, Makoa, who had been the king's messenger many 
years, and was well acquainted with the island, led the way. He 
was rather a singular looking little man, between forty and fifty 
years of age. A thick tuft of jet black curling hair shaded his 
wrinkled forehead, and a long bunch of the same kind hung down 
behind each of his ears. The rest of his head was cropped as short 
as shears could make it. His small black eyes were ornamented 
with tataued vandyke semicircles. 

Two goats, impressed in the same indelible manner, stood rampant 
over each of his brows; one, like the supporter of a coat of arms, was 
fixed on each side of Ms nose, and two more guarded the corners of 
his mouth. 

The upper part of Ms beard was shaven close; but that which grew 
under his chin, was drawn together, braided for an inch or two, and 
then tied in a knot, wMle the extremities below the knot spread out in 
curls like a tassel. 

A light kihei, (cloth worn like a shawl,) was carelessly thrown 
over one shoulder, and tied in a knot on the other; and a large fan, 



87 

made of cocoa-nut leaf, in Ms hand, served to beat away the flies, or 
the boys, wlien eitlier became too numerous or troublesome. 

THE COUNTRY SOUTH OF KAILUA. 

Leaving Kairua, we passed through the villages thickly scattered 
along the shore to the southward. The country around looked un~ 




The Guide who Piloted the Party Around Hawaii. 

usually green and cheerful, owing to the frequent rains, which for 
some months past have fallen on this side of the island. Even the 
barren lava, over which we travelled, seemed to veil its sterility 
beneath frequent tufts of tall waving grass, or spreading shrubs and 
flowers. 

The sides of the hills, laid out for a considerable extent in gardens 



88 

and fields, and generally cultivated with, potatoes, and other vegeta 
bles, were beautiful. 

The number of heiaus, and depositories of the dead, which, we 
passed, convinced us that this part of the island must formerly have 
been populous. The latter were built with fragments of lava, laid 
up evenly on the outside, generally about eight feet long, from four 
to six broad, and about four feet high. Some appeared very aneieat, 
others had evidently been standing but a few years. 

HEIAU OF KAUAIKAHALOA DESCRIBED. 

At Euapua we examined an interesting heiau, called Kauaika- 
haroa, built of immense blocks of lava, and found its dimensions to 
be 150 feet by 70. At the north end was a smaller enclosure, sixty 
feet long and ten wide, partitioned off by a high wall, with but one 
narrow entrance. The places where the idols formerly stood were 
apparent, though the idols had been removed. 

The spot where the altar had been erected could be distinctly 
traced; it was a mound of earth, paved with smooth stones, and sur 
rounded by a firm curb of lava. The adjacent ground was strewed 
with bones of the ancient offerings. 

The natives informed us that four principal idols were formerly 
worshipped there, one of stone, two of wood, and one covered with 
red feathers. 

One of them, they said, was brought from a foreign country. Their 
names were Kanenuiakea, (great and wide spreading Kane,) who was 
brought from Tauai, Kaneruruhonua, (earth-shaking Kane,) Rorama- 
kaeha, and Kekuaaimanu. 

GODS OF THE FISHERMEN. 

Leaving the heiau, we passed by a number of smaller temples, 
principally on the sea shore, dedicated to Kuura, a male, and Hina, a 
female idol, worshipped by fishermen, as they were supposed to pre 
side over the sea, and to conduct or impel to the shores of Hawaii, 
the various shoals of fish that visit them at different seasons of the 
year. The first of any kind of fish, taken in the season, was always 
presented to them, especially the operu, a kind of herring. This 
custom exactly accords with the former practice of the inhabitants of 
Maui and the adjacent islands, and of the Society islanders. 

GOVERNOR'S "WIFE STILL MAKING- TAP A. 

At two p. m. we reached Horuaroa, a large and populous district. 
Here we found Keoua, the governor's wife, and her attendants, who 
had come from Kairua for wauti, with which to make cloth. 

Shortly after, we reached a village called Karuaokalani, (the second 



89 

heaven,) wliere was a fine heiau, in good preservation. It Is called 
Pakiha; its dimensions were 270 feet "by 210. 

We could not learn the idol to which it was dedicated, but were 
informed it was built in the time of Keakealani, who, according to 
tradition, was queen of Hawaii about eleven generations back. 

The walls were solid, thick, and nearly entire; and the singular 
manner in which the stones were piled upon the top, like so many 
small spires, gave it an unusually interesting appearance, 

A TALE OF A GIANT. 

Before we left Karuaokalani the inhabitants pointed out to us a 
spot called Maukareoreo, the place of a celebrated giant of that 
name, who was one of the attendants of TJmi, king of Hawaii, about 
twelve generations since, and who, they told us, was so tall that he 
could pluck the cocoa-nuts from the trees as he walked along; and 
when the king was playing in the surf, where it was five or sis: 
fathoms deep, would walk out to him without being wet above his 
loins; and when he was in a canoe, if he saw any fish lying among 
the coral at the same depth, would just put his hand down and take 
them. 

They also told us he was a great warrior, and that, to Ms prowess 
principally, TJmi was indebted for many of his victories. 

The Hawaiians are fond of the marvellous, as well as many 
people who are better informed; and probably this passion, together 
with the distance of time since Maukareoreo existed, has led them 
to magnify one of Umi's followers, of perhaps a little larger stature 
than his fellows, into a giant sixty feet high. 

GBOVES OF KOTJ TEEES. 

Our road now lay through a pleasant part of the district, thickly 
inhabited, and ornamented occasionally with clumps of kou trees. 
Several spots were pointed out to us, where the remains of heiaus, 
belonging to the late king Tamehameha, were still visible. 

After travelling some time, we came to Kanekaheilani, a large 
heiau more than 200 feet square. In the midst of it was a clear pool 
of brackish water, which the natives told us was the favourite bath 
ing place of Tamehameha, and which he allowed no other person to 
use. A rude figure, carved in stone, standing on one side of the 
gateway by which we entered, was the only image we saw here. 

About fifty yards further on, was another heiau, called Hale o 
Tairi (house of Tairi). It was built by Tamehameha soon after he 
had assumed the government of the island. Only one mutilated image 
was now standing, though it is evident that, but a few years ago, 
there had been many. 



90 
TAIKI THE FBYING WAE GOD. 

The natives were very desirous to shew us tlie place where tlie image 
of Tain the war-god stood, and told us, that frequently in the even 
ing he used to be seen flying about in the neighbourhood, in the form 
of a luminous substance like a flame, or like the tail of a comet. 

"We told them that the luminous appearance which they saw was an 
occurrence common to other countries, and produced by natural 
causes: that the natives of the Society Islands formerly, whenever 
they observed such a phenomenon, supposed it to be Tane, one of their 
gods, taking his flight from one marae to another, or passing through 
the district seeking whom he might destroy, and were consequently 
filled with terror; but now, they wondered how they could ever have 
given way to such fears, from so inoffensive a circumstance. 

We asked them if they did not see the same appearances now, 
though the god had been destroyed, and his worship discontinued? 

They said, "No; it has not been seen since the abolition of 
idolatry." 

We assured them it did not proceed from the power of the god 
Tairi, but that it was a luminous vapour, under the control of Jehovah, 
the creator and governor of all things which they beheld, 

CANOE MAKING FUTUBE STATE DISCUSSED. 

We walked on to Pahoehoe, where we entered a large house, in 
which many workmen were employed in making canoes. About fifty 
people soon after assembled around us. We asked them if they 
would like to hear about the true God, and the way of salvation? 
They answered, Yes. I then addressed them for about twenty minutes 
on the first principles of the gospel. As soon as I began to speak, 
they all sat down, and observed perfect silence. 

Shortly after this service we took our leave, and proceeded along 
the shore to Kahaluu; where a smart shower of rain obliged us to 
take shelter in a house by the road side. While resting there, the 
voice of wailing reached our ears. We inquired whence it came? 
and were informed by the people of the house, that a sick person in 
the neighbourhood had just expired. 

We asked where the soul was gone to? 

They answered, they knew not whither, but that it would never 
return. 

I spoke to them respecting the condition of departed souls; the 
resurrection of the body, and the general judgment which will follow; 
telling them afterwards of the love of Christ, who had brought life 
and immortality to light, and by his death secured eternal happiness 
to all that believe in Mm. 



01 

They listened attentively, and continued the conversation till the 
rain abated, when we pursued our journey. 

APPBOACHES TO ANT> EIOTBONS OF KEAUHOU. 

We passed another large heiau, and travelled about a mile across 
a rugged bed of lava, which, had evidently been ejected from a vol 
cano more recently than the vast tracts of the same substance by 
which it was surrounded. It also appeared to have been torn to pieces, 
and tossed up in the most confused manner, by some violent con 
vulsion of the earth, at the time it was in a semifluid state. 

There was a kind of path formed across the most level part of it, 
by large smooth round stones, brought from the sea-shore, and placed 
about three or four feet apart. By stepping from one to another of 
these, we passed over the roughest piece of lava we had yet seen; 
and soon after five p. m. we arrived at Keauhou, a pleasant village 
containing one hundred and thirty-five houses, and abont eight miles 
from Kairua. Messrs. Bishop and Harwood reached the same place 
about an hour earlier, and here we proposed to spend the night. 

"We had not been long in the village, when about one hundred and 
fifty people collected round the house in which we stopped. 

After singing and prayer, Mr. Thurston preached to them. They 
gave good attention; and though we conversed with them a consid 
erable time after the service was ended, they still thronged our house, 
and seemed unwilling to disperse. 

ESTIMATE OF POPULATION TALKS *WTTH THE PEOPLE. 

During our walk from Kairua to this place we counted six hundred 
and ten houses, and allowed one hundred more for those who live 
among the plantations on the sides of the hills. 

Beckoning five persons to each house, which we think not far from 
a correct calculation, the population of the tract through which we 
have travelled today will be about 3550 souls. 

"We also passed nineteen heiaus, of different dimensions, some of 
which we carefully examined. 

Late in the evening we spread our mats on the loose pebbles of 
which the floor of the house was formed, and, thankful for the mer 
cies we had received, laid ourselves down, and enjoyed a comfortable 
night's repose. Thermometer at sunset 71. 

Early the next morning numbers of the natives collected around our 
lodgings, and when informed that we intended to perform religious 
worship, sat down on the ground, and became quite silent. After 
singing a hymn in their language, I gave a short exhortation, followed 
by prayer. 

They afterwards kept us in conversation till about half -past eight, 



92 

when we set out from Keauhou, and pursued our journey. Mr. Har- 
wood proceeded in the canoe; the rest of our number travelled on 
foot along the shore. 

LAVA COUNTRY DESCRIBED. 

Our way lay across a rough tract of lava, resembling that which 
we passed over the preceding afternoon. In many places it seemed 
as if the surface of the lava had become hard, while a few inches 
underneath it had remained semifluid, and in that state had been 
broken up, and left in its present confused and irregular form. This 
rugged appearance of the external lava was probably produced by the 
expansive force of the heated air beneath the crust, but that could 
not have caused the deep chasms or fissures which we saw in several 
places. 

We also observed many large spherical volcanic stones, the surface 
of which had been fused, and in some places had peeled off like a 
crust or shell, an inch or two in thickness. The centre of some of 
these stones, which we broke, was of a dark blue colour and com 
pact texture, and did not appear to have been at all affected by the 
fire which had calcined the surface. 

SCENE OF BATTLE WITH SUPPORTERS OF IDOLATRY. 

After travelling about two miles over this barren waste, we reached 
the place where, in the autumn of 1819, the decisive battle was 
fought between the forces of Bihoriho, the present king, and his 
cousin, Kekuaokalani, in which the latter was slain, his followers com 
pletely overthrown, and the cruel system of idolatry, which he took 
up arms to support, effectually destroyed. 

The natives pointed out to us the place where the king's troops, led 
on by Karaimoku, were first attacked by the idolatrous party. We 
saw several small heaps of stones, which our guide informed us were 
the graves of those who, during the conflict, had fallen there. 

We were then shewn the spot on which the king's troops formed a 
line from the sea-shore towards the mountains, and drove the oppos 
ing party before them to a rising ground, where a stone fence, about 
breast high, enabled the enemy to defend themselves for some time, 
but from which they were at length driven by a party of Karaimoku ; s 
warriors. 

The small tumuli increased in number as we passed along, until we 
came to a place called Tuamoo. Here Kekuaokalani made his last 
stand, rallied his flying forces, and seemed, for a moment, to turn 
the scale of victory; but being weak with the loss of blood, from a 
wound he had received in the early part of the engagement, he 
fainted and fell. However, he soon revived, and, though unable to 



93 

stand, sat on a fragment of lava, and twice loaded and fired Ms 
musket on the advancing party. He now received a ball In Ms left 
breast, and immediately covering Ms face with Ms feather cloak, ex 
pired in the midst of his friends. 

MANONA, THE FAITHFUL WIFE. 

His wife Manona during the whole of the day fought by Ms side 
with steady and dauntless courage. 

A few moments after her husband's death, perceiving Karaimoku 
and his sister advancing, she called out for quarter; but the words 
had hardly escaped from her lips, when she received a ball in her 
left temple, fell upon the lifeless body of her husband, and instantly 
expired. 

The idolaters having lost their chief, made but feeble resistance 
afterwards; yet the combat, wMch commenced in the forenoon, con 
tinued till near sunset, when the king's troops, finding their enemies 
had all either fled or surrendered, returned to Kairua. 

Karaimoku grieved much at the death of Kekuaokalani, who was 
his own sister's son. He delayed the engagement as long as pos 
sible; and, the same morning that the battle took place, sent a mes 
senger, addressing the young cMef as Ms son, and requesting Mm 
to refrain from hostilities till they could have an interview, and, if 
possible, effect an accommodation. But the message was rejected, 
and the messenger obliged to jump into the sea, and swim to save 
his life. In the moment of victory, also, he acted with humanity; and, 
contrary to the usual custom, the vanquished were not pursued and 
murdered in their retreats. 

A CAVE OF REFUGE WOMEN IN BATTLE. 

A little way south of the spot where the chief fell, was a small 
cave, into which, in the confusion that followed the death of Kekua 
okalani, a woman attached to Ms party crept, and, drawing a piece 
of lava over its mouth, remained until night, beneath whose friendly 
cover she fled to the mountains, not knowing that the victors had 
returned without pursuing their foes. 

The wives of warriors often accompanied their husbands to battle, 
and were frequently slain. Their practice, in this respect, resembled 
that of the Society islanders on similar occasions. They generally 
followed in the rear, carrying calabashes of water, or of poe, a little 
dried fish, or other portable provision, with which to recruit their hus 
band's strength when weary, or afford a draught of water when 
thirsty or faint; but they followed, more particularly, to be at hand 
if their husbands should be wounded. 

Some women, more courageous than the rest, or urged on by affec* 



94 

tiort, advanced side by side with their husbands to the front of the 
battle, bearing a small calabash of water in one hand, and a spear, 
a dart, or a stone, in the other; and in the event of the husband's 
being killed, they seldom survived. 

A MONUMENT TO KEKUAOKALANI AND MANONA. 

A pile of stones, somewhat larger than the rest, marked the spot 
where the rival cMef and his affectionate and heroic wife expired. 
A few yards nearer the sea, an oblong pile of stones, in the form of 
a tomb, about ten feet long and six wide, was raised over the grave 
in which they were both interred. A number of lowly flowering 
bushes grew around, and a beautiful convulvulus in full bloom almost 
covered it with foliage and flowers. 

We could not view this rudely constructed tomb without renewed 
lamentation over the miseries of war, and a strong feeling of regret 
for the untimely end of the youthful pair, especially for the affec 
tionate Manona, whom even the horrors of savage fight, in which the 
demon of war wears his most terrific form, could not prevent from 
following the fortune, and sharing the dangers, that she might ad 
minister to the comfort, of her much-loved husband. This feeling 
was not a little increased by the recollection of the delusion of which 
they were the ill-fated victims, and in support of which they were 
prodigal of their blood. Alas! they knew not, till from the fatal field 
they entered the eternal world, the value of that life which they had 
lost, and the true nature of that cause in which they had saerified it. 

The piles of stones rose thick around the spot where they lay; and 
we were informed that they were the graves of his kahu, (particular 
friends and companions,) who stood by him to the last, manifesting a 
steadfastness which even their enemies admired, and a degree of 
courage worthy of being exercised in a better cause. 

THE ABOLITION OP IDOLATRY AND THE TABU. 

Kekuaokalani was first cousin to Bihoriho. He is represented by 
some as having been an enterprising and restless young man, aspiring 
to share the government with his cousin, if not to reign in his stead. 

The late king Tamehameha, a short time before his death, left the 
government of the islands to his eldest son Eihoriho, and the care 
of the gods, their temples, and the support of their worship, to the 
king and Elekuaokalani, together with the rest of the chiefs. 

Almost the first public act of the young king Bihoriho, was the 
abolition of the national idolatry, and all the restrictions of the tabu 
system by which it was upheld. This system, with all its superstitious 
cruelty, had existed, and had exerted its degrading yet almost super 
natural influence over the people, from time immemorial; and it re- 



95 

quired no small degree of courage "by one single act to abrogate its 
inflexible laws, and destroy its dreaded power. But several acts of 
Bihoriho's reign shew that he possessed a mind well adapted for such 
undertakings. 

LJHOLIHG'S MOTIVES FOB ABOLISHING TABU. 

His motives for this decisive measure appear to have been, in the 
first place, a desire to ameliorate the condition of his wives, and the 
females in general, whom the tabu sunk into a state of extreme 
wretchedness and degradation, obliging them to subsist only on in 
ferior kinds of food, and not allowing them to cook their provisions, 
such as they were, at the same fire, or even eat in the same place 
where the men took theirs. 

And in the second place, he seems to have been influenced by a 
wish to diminish the power of the priests, and avoid that expendi 
ture of labour and property which the support of idolatry required, 
and which he was anxious to employ for other purposes. He had 
also heard what Pomare and the Tahitian chiefs had done in the 
Society Islands. 

THE HIGH-PRIEST'S ADVICE. 

He consulted some of the principal chiefs, particularly Karai- 
moku, who declared his intention not to keep or observe any more 
tabu's; and though several of the priests said the gods would recom 
pense any neglect with vengeance, Hevaheva, the high priest of his 
father's war-god, said no evil consequences would follow the discon 
tinuance of the worship of the gods. 

Soon after this, the king made a feast, to which many chiefs of the 
different islands were invited. The guests assembled, as usual; the 
men in one place, the women in another. The food was cut up, and 
when all were about to begin their meal, the king ordered his attend 
ants to carry some fowls, and such prohibited food, to the place 
where Ms wives and other females were assembled; he then went, 
and, sitting down with them, began to eat, and directed them to do 
the same. 

A shout of surprise burst from the multitude around; several other 
chiefs followed Ms example. 

The men and women sat promiscuously, and ate the same food, 
which they called ai noa, general or common eating, in opposition to 
the former ai tabu, restricted or sacred eating. 

The ai tabu was one of the perpetual restrictions imposed by their 
idolatry on all ranks of the people, from their birth until their death. 



96 

PRIESTHOOD ABOLISHED IDOL WORSHIP ENDED. 

This public violation of it manifested the king's intention to de 
stroy the whole system, which very shortly after was accomplished 
by the priest Hevaheva's resigning his office, and the king declaring 
that there should no longer "be any priests, or any worship rendered 
to the gods. 

Kekuaokalani, though he had no share in the government, yet had, 
in common with the other high chiefs, received a charge concerning 
the gods. Urged on by the priests, who promised him victory by a 
superstitious reverence for the idols of his ancestors, and perhaps also 
by a hope of defeating Eihoriho, and securing the government to 
himself, lie took up arms. 

EFFECT OF ABOLITION OF TABU. 

The abolition of idolatry by Bihoriho was thus the immediate occa 
sion of the war, which terminating in his favour, left him sole monarch 
of the Sandwich Islands. This was the summit of his ambition, and 
the consummation of his wishes, though probably the least among the 
all-wise and benevolent purposes of Him, who ruleth all things after 
the counsel of his own will, and causeth even the wrath of man to 
praise him. 

Little did the pagan chief imagine, when he collected his forces, 
offered his sacrifices, and, preceded by his war-god, marched to the 
battle, that he was urging on his way to remove the most formidable 
barrier that existed to the introduction of a religion which should 
finally triumph over every system of idolatry in the world; and as 
little did the victorious chiefs, when they beheld themselves mas 
ters of the field, and returned in triumph to the king, think that suc 
cess had only prepared the way for their own subjection to a peaceful 
Prince, whose heralds (then on their way) should soon proclaim his 
laws in their camp, and demand their allegiance to his crown; 
whose divine power should erect among them a kingdom, of which 
they themselves should delight to become subjects, and commence a 
reign that should be everlasting. 

AT HONUAINO AND HOKUKANO. 

Leaving Tuamoo, we passed on to Honuaino, where, being thirsty 
and weary, we sat down on the side of a canoe, under the shade of a 
fine-spreading hibiscus, and begged a little water of the villagers. 

We had not remained many minutes before we were surrounded 
by about 150 people. After explaining to them in few words our 
feelings on meeting them, we asked them if they would like to hear 
what we had to say to them. They replied, Ae (yes,) and sat down 
immediately. 



97 

We sung a hymn and prayed, and I addressed them, for about lialf an 
hour on the first principles of Christianity. They all appeared grati 
fied, said they were naau po, (dark hearted,) and should be glad to 
be instructed in all these things, if any body would teach them. 

We now travelled on to Hokukano, where we passed a pahu tabu, 
(sacred enclosure,) which the natives told us was built by Taraiopu, 
(Terreoboo in Cook's Voyages,) king of the island at the time it was 
discovered by Captain Cook. 

A BURIAL TOMB AND SHABK EEIAT7. 

A little further on we examined a buoa (tomb) of a celebrated, 
priest. It was composed of loose stones, neatly laid, about eight 
feet square and five high. 

In the centre was a small mound of earth, higher than the walls; 
over this a house had formerly been erected, but it was now fallen to 
decay; around it were long poles, stuck in the earth, about three or 
four inches apart, and united together at the top. 

We asked why the grave was enclosed with those tall sticks! Some 
said" it was a custom so to inter persons of consequence; others said 
it was to prevent the spirit from coming out. 

On the top of a high mountain, in the neighbourhood, stood the 
remains of an old heiau, dedicated to Ukanipo, a shark, to which, we 
were informed, all the people along the coast, for a considerable dis 
tance, used to repair, at stated times, with abundant offerings. 

AT KAAWALOA. 

Passing on along a rugged road, we reached Kaavaroa soon after 
2 p. m. 

Kamakau received us kindly, spread out a mat for us to sit down 
on, handed us a calabash of good fresh water, (a great luxury on this 
side of the island,) and ordered a goat to be prepared for our refresh 
ment. He appeared as zealous in his pursuit of truth, earnest in his 
desires after his own salvation, and concerned for that of his people, 
as when some of our party had formerly visited him. 

One or two inferior chiefs, from a district belonging to him, in 
the south part of the island, were sitting in the house when we en 
tered. He afterwards began to talk with them on matters of reli 
gion, with a seriousness and intelligence which surprised us. 

In the afternoon Mr. Thurston and I climbed the rocks, which rise 
in a north-east direction from the village, and visited the cave in 
which the body of Captain Cook was deposited, on being first taken 
from the beach. These rocks, which are entirely composed of lava, 
are nearly two hundred feet high, and in some parts very steep. A 
winding path of rather difficult ascent leads to the cave, which is 



98 

situated on the face of the rocks, about half-way to the top. In 
front of It is a kind of ledge three or four feet wide, and immedi 
ately over it the rocks rise perpendicularly for a yard or two, but 
afterwards the ascent is gradual to the summit. 

The cave itself is of volcanic formation, and appears to have 
been one of those subterranean tunnels so numerous on the island, 
by which the volcanoes in the interior sometimes discharge their 
contents upon the shore. It is five feet high, and the entrance 
about eight or ten feet wide. The roof and sides within are of 
obsidian or hard vitreous lava; and along the floor it is evident that 
in some remote period a stream of the same kind of lava has also 
flowed. 

INTERVIEWS WITH WITNESSES OF COOK'S DEATH. 

There are a number of persons at Kaavaroa, and other places in 
the islands, who either were present themselves at the unhappy dis 
pute, which in this vicinity terminated the valuable life of the 
celebrated Captain Cook, or who, from their connexion with those 
who were on the spot, are well acquainted with the particulars of 
that melancholy event. With many of them we have frequently eon- 
versed, and though their narratives differ in a few smaller points, 
they all agree in the main facts with the account published by Cap 
tain King, his successor. 

"The foreigner/' they say, "was not to blame; for, in the first 
instance, our people stole his boat, and he, in order to recover it, 
designed to take our king on board his ship, and detain him there till 
it should be restored. 

"Kapena Kuke (Captain Cook's name is thus pronounced by the 
natives) and Taraiopu our king were walking together towards the 
shore, when our people, conscious of what had been done, thronged 
around the king, and objected to his going any further. His wife 
also joined her entreaties that he would not go on board the ships. 

' ( While he was hesitating, a man came running from the other side 
of the bay, entered the crowd almost breathless, and exclaimed, 'It 
is war' the foreigners have commenced hostilities, have fired on a 
canoe from one of their boats, and killed a chief.' 

CIRCUMSTANCES INCIDENT TO COOK'S DEATH 

"This enraged some of our people, and alarmed the chiefs, as they 
feared Captain Cook would kill the king. The people armed them 
selves with stones, clubs, and spears. Kanona entreated her husband 
not to go. All the chiefs did the same. The king sat down. 

"The captain seemed agitated, and was walking towards his boat, 
when one of our men attacked him with a spear: he turned, and 



m 

with Ms double-barrelled gun shot the man who struck him. Some of 
our people then threw stones at Mm, wMch being seen by his men 
they fired on us. 

"Captain Cook then endeavoured to stop Ms men from firing, but 
eonld not, on account of the noise. He was turning again to speak 
to us, when he was stabbed in the back with a pahoa; a spear was 
at the same time driven through Ms body; he fell into the water, and 
spoke no more. We have several times inquired, particularly of the 
natives acquainted with the circumstances, whether Captain Cook 
was facing them, or had Ms back towards them, when he received the 
fatal thrust; and their answer, in general, has been as here stated, 
wMch accords very nearly with Captain King's account, who says, 
'Our unfortunate commander, the last time he was seen distinctly, 
was standing at the water's edge, and calling out to the boats to 
cease firing, and pull in.* 

"If it be true, as some of those present have imagined, that the 
marines and boatmen fired without Ms orders, and that he was de 
sirous of preventing any further bloodshed, it is not improbable, that 
Ms humanity, on tMs occasion, proved fatal to Mm: for it was re 
marked, that whilst he faced the natives, none of them had offered 
him any violence, but that having turned about, to give his orders to 
the boats, he was stabbed in the back, and fell with his face into 
the water. " See Captain King's Continuation of Cook's Voyages, 
4to. vol. iii. pages 45 and 46. 

SOUVENIRS OF COOK 

" After he was dead, we all wailed. His bones were separated 
the flesh was scraped off and burnt, as was the practice in regard 
to our own chiefs when they died. W thought he was the god 
Bono, worshipped him as such, and after Ms death reverenced Ms 
bones. * ' 

Not only were his bones so treated, but almost every relic left 
with them. 

Among other things, a sledge, which, from their description of it, 
must have come from the north-west coast of America, left at the 
islands by Captain Cook, or some of his companions, was afterwards 
worsMpped by the people. They called it, probably from its singular 
shape, Opaitauarii, a crab or shrimp, for a chief to rest on; from opai, 
a crab or shrimp, tau, to rest or sit, and arii, a chief. 

Many of the eMefs frequently express the sorrow they feel when 
ever they tMnk of the Captain; and even the common people usually 
speak of these facts with apparent regret. Yet they exonerate the 
king Taraiopu from all blame, as nothing was done by his orders. 



100 
REGRET AT COOK'S DEATH. 

I was onee in a house in Oahu with Karaimoku, and several other 
chiefs, looking over the plates in the folio edition of Cook's Voyages. 
They were greatly affected with the print which represented his 
death, and inquired if I knew the names of those who were slain on 
that occasion. 

I perceived Karaimoku more than onee wipe the tears from his 
eyes, while conversing about this melancholy event. 

He said, he recollected Captain Cook's visit, if not also his person, 
though he was at Maui at the time of his death. 

More than once, when conversing with us on the length of time the 
missionaries had "been in the Society Islands, they have said, Why 
did you not come here sooner? Was it because we killed Captain 
Cook? 

WHY COOK'S BOAT WAS STOLEN. 

We have sometimes asked them what inducement they had to 
steal the boat, when they possessed so many canoes of their own. 

They have generally answered, that they did not take it to trans 
port themselves from one island to another, for their own canoes 
were more convenient, and they knew better how to manage them; 
but because they saw it was not sewed together, but fastened with 
nails. These they wanted, therefore stole the boat, and broke it to 
pieces the next day, in order to obtain the nails to make fish-hooks 
with. 

We have every reason to believe that this was the principal, if 
not the only motive, by which they were actuated in committing the 
depredation which ultimately led to such unhappy consequences. 

They prize nails very highly; and though we do not know that 
they ever went so far in their endeavours to obtain a more abundant 
supply, as the Society islanders did, who actually planted them in 
the ground, hoping they would grow like potatoes, or any other 
vegetable, yet such is the value they still set on them, that the fisher 
men would rather receive a wrought nail, to make of it a fish-hook 
according to their own taste, than the best English-made fish-hook 
we could give them. 

COOK SUPPOSED TO BE A GOD. 

It has been supposed that the circumstance of Captain Cook's 
bones being separated, and the flesh taken from them, was evidence 
of a savage and unrelenting barbarity; but so far from this, it was 
the result of the highest respect they could shew him. 

We may also mention here, the reason for which the remains of 
Captain Cook received, as was the case, the worship of a god. 



101 

Among the kings who governed Hawaii during what may in its 
chronology be called the fabulous age, was Bono or Orono; who, on 
some account, became offended with his wife, and murdered her; but 
afterwards lamented the act so much, as to induce a state of mental 
derangement. In this state he travelled through all the islands, box 
ing and wrestling with every one he met. 

He subsequently set sail in a singularly shaped canoe for Tahiti, or 
a foreign country. After Ms departure he was deified by his country 
men, and annual games of boxing and wrestling were instituted to his 
honour. 

As soon as Captain Cook arrived, it was supposed, and reported, 
that the god Bono was returned; the priests clothed him with the 
sacred cloth worn only by the god, conducted him to their temples, 
sacrificed animals to propitiate Ms favour, and hence the people pros 
trated themselves before him as he walked through the villages. 

WHAT UNDECEIVED THE NATIVES. 

But when, in the attack made upon him, they saw his blood run 
ning, and heard Ms groans, they said, "No, tMs is not Bono." 

Some, however, after Ms death, still supposed him to be Bono, and 
expected he would appear again. 

Some of Ms bones, his ribs, and breastbone, were considered sacred, 
as part of Bono, and deposited in a heiau. (temple) dedicated to Bono, 
on the opposite side of the island. Captain King was led to suppose 
that the bones of the trunk were burnt with the flesh. Part of them 
probably were so disposed of, but not the whole. 

It appears that none of them were returned; for, describing those 
brought to Captain Clarke, which were all they received, he says, 
"When we arrived at the beach, Eappo came into the pinnace, and 
delivered to the captain the bones wrapped up in a large quantity of 
fine new cloth, and covered with a spotted cloak of black and white 
feathers. 

PORTIONS OP COOK'S BODY RETURNED. 

We found in it both the hands of Captain Cook entire, which were 
well known, from a remarkable sear on one of them, that divided 
the thumb from the forefinger, the whole length of the metacarpal 
bone; the skull, but with the scalp separated from it, and the bones 
that form the face wanting; the scalp, with the hair upon it cut 
short, and the ears adhering to it; the bones of both arms, with the 
skin of the fore arms hanging to them. The thigh and leg bones 
joined together, but without the feet. The ligaments of the joints 
were entire; and the whole bore evident marks of having been in 



102 

the fire, except the hands, wMeli had the flesh left upon them, and 
were cut In several places, and crammed with salt, apparently with an 
intention of preserving them. 

The lower jaw and feet, which were wanting, Eappo told us, had 
been seized by different chiefs, and that Terreeoboo was using every 
means to recover them. 

Speaking of Eappo 'a first visit after the death of Captain Cook, he 
says, "We learned from this person, that the flesh of all the bodies 
of our people, together with the bones of the trunks, had been burnt." 
Captain King ; s Continuation of Cook's Voyages, vol. iii. pages 78, 
79, and 80. 

There religious homage was paid to them, and from thence they 
were annually carried in procession to several other heiaus, or borne 
by the priests round the island, to collect the offerings of the people, 
for the support of the worship of the god Bono. 

The bones were preserved in a small basket of wicker-work, com 
pletely covered over with red feathers; which in those days were con 
sidered to be the most valuable articles the natives possessed, as being 
sacred, and a necessary appendage to every idol, and almost every 
object of religious homage throughout the islands of the Pacific. 
They were supposed to add much to the power and influence of the 
idol, or relic, to which they were attached. 

VAIN SEARCH FOR COOK'S BONES. 

The missionaries in the Society Islands had, by means of some 
Sandwich islanders, been long acquainted with the circumstance of 
some of Captain Cook's bones being preserved in one of their tem 
ples, and receiving religious worship; and since the time of my 
arrival in company with the deputation from the London Missionary 
Society, in 1822, every endeavour has been made to learn, though 
without success, whether they were still in existence, and where 
they were kept. 

All those of whom inquiry has been made have uniformly asserted, 
that they were formerly kept by the priests of Bono, and worshipped, 
but have never given any satisfactory information as to where they 
are now. 

Whenever we have asked the king, or Hevaheva the chief priest, or 
any of the chiefs, they have either told us they were under the 
care of those who had themselves said they knew nothing about 
them, or that they were now lost. 

The best conclusion we may form is, that part of Captain Cook's 
bones were preserved by the priests, and were considered sacred by 
the people, probably till the abolition of idolatry in 1819 : that, at that 
period they were committed to the secret care of some chief, or de- 



103 

posited "by the priests who had charge of them, in a cave, unknown 
to all "besides themselves. The manner in which they were then dis 
posed of, win, it is presumed, remain a secret, till the knowledge of 
it is entirely lost. 

The priests and chiefs always appear, unwjiliing to enter into con 
versation on the subject, and desirous to avoid the recollection of the 
unhappy circumstance. 

COOK'S DEATH UNPBEMEDITATEIX 

Prom the above account, as well as every other statement given by 
the natives, it is evident that the death of Captain Cook was un 
premeditated, and resulted from their dread of his anger; a sense 
of danger, on the momentary impulse of passion, exciting them to 
revenge the death of the chief who had been shot. 

Few intelligent visitors leave Hawaii without making a pilgrimage 
to the spot where he fell. We have often visited it, and, though sev 
eral natives have been our guides on different occasions, they have 
invariably conducted us to the same place. A number of cocoa-nut 
trees grow near the shore, and there are perforations through two 
of them, which the natives say were produced by the balls fired from 
the boats on the occasion of his death. 

We have never walked over these rocks without emotions of melan 
choly interest. The mind invariably reverts to the circumstances of 
their discovery; the satisfaction of the visitors; the surprise of the 
natives; the worship they paid to their discoverer; and the fatal 
catastrophe which here terminated his days; and, although in every 
event we acknowledge an overruling Providence, we cannot but lament 
the untimely end of a man whose discoveries contributed so much, 
to the advancement of science, introduced us to an acquaintance with 
our antipodes, and led the way for the philosopher in his extended 
researches, the merchant in Ms distant commerce, and the missionary 
in his errand of mercy, to the unenlightened heathen at the ends of 
the earth. 

CHURCH AND SCHOOL AT SITE OF COOK'S DEATH. 

It will be gratifying to the Christian reader to know, that, under 
the auspices of the governor of the island, and the friendly in 
fluence of the present chief of the place, Naihe, and Ms wife Kapio- 
lani, who are steady, intelligent, discreet, and one, if not both, it is 
to be hoped, pious persons, a missionary station has since been formed 
in tMs village; and that on the shore of the same bay, and not far 
from the spot where tMs murderous affray took place, and where 
Captain Cook was killed, a school has been opened, and a house 



104 

erected for Christian worship; and that the inhabitants of the 
neighbourhood are instructed in the elements of learning and the 
peaceful principle of the Christian religion. 

INVESTIGATIONS AT KAAWALOA. 

Towards evening we examined another buoa, similar to the one we 
had passed at Hokukano. On entering it, we f onnd part of a canoe, 
several calabashes, some mats, tapa, &c. and three small idols, about 
eighteen inches long, carefully wrapped in cloth. 

The man who accompanied us said, "My father lies here, don't 
disturb him; I have not yet done weeping for him, though he has 
been dead some years. J9 

"We assured him of our sympathy with Mm in the loss of his 
father; and having satisfied our curiosity, which he was willing to 
gratify by allowing us to enter the tomb, we returned to Kama- 
kau's, in conversation with whom we passed the evening. 

He made many inquiries; such as, if he should bathe on the Sab 
bath, or eat fish that was caught or brought to him on that day; 
whether the same body would rise again at the last day; and if the 
spirit proceeded into the presence of God immediately on quitting 
the body. 

During our journey today, we have numbered 443 houses and eight 
heiaus. In the shade, the thermometer at sun-rise stood at 71, at 
noon 76, at sun-set 71. 

Much rain fell during the night, but the following morning was 
bright and serene. It was the Sabbath, and a wide field of useful 
ness presented its claim to our attention on this holy day, which we 
felt was to be specially employed in exhibiting to the heathen around 
the unsearchable riches of Christ. 

KELIGIOTJS INTEREST OF KA1WCAKAU. 

The village of Kaavaroa, where we lodged, stretched along the 
north shore of the bay. A number of villages with a considerable 
population were scattered on the southern shore, and it appeared our 
duty to go over and preach to them. Mr. Bishop and myself, having 
procured a canoe from Kamakau, passed over the bay about nine a. m. 
Messrs. Thurston, G-oodrieh, and Harwood, remained at Kaavaroa, 
where Mr. Thurston preached to attentive congregations, both in the 
morning and afternoon. 

The good chief Kamakan was so anxious that his people might 
profit by the word spoken, that he could not forbear interrupting 
the preacher, to request them to be attentive. After the conclusion of 
the services, he alsd addressed them, and exhorted them to be in 
earnest in seeking salvation through Jesus Christ. 



105 

The missionaries observed, with great pleasure, that during the day 
he was frequently engaged in affectionate conversation on religious 
subjects, with some one or other of his people. 

PREACHING- ALONG THE KONA COAST. 

Landing on the southern shore of Kearake 'kua, Mr. Bishop and I 
passed through the villages of Kiloa, Waipunaula, and Kalama, in 
viting the people, as we went along, to attend a religious exercise. At 
the latter place we entered a large house, built by Karaimoku's 
mother, Kamauokalani, but at present belonging to Kekauonohi, his 
niece. It was the largest in the place, and was ninety-three feet by 
thirty in the inside. Here about three hundred people collected; and 
I preached to them from Psalm xxv. 8. 

After the service, they seemed desirous to enter into conversation 
on what they had heard. One man stood up, and called out aloud, 
"I desire Jehovah, the good Lord, for my God! but we have no one 
to tell us about him." 

SERVICES TTAT> TO BE REPEATED. 

In the afternoon we sent the head man word to collect the people, 
that they might hear the word of God again. It rained, but a con 
siderable number soon assembled in the large house, and I preached 
to them from 1 Tim. i. 15. 

Many kept arriving half an hour after the service had commenced, 
which induced me to recapitulate the discourse, yet they did not seem 
weary. When it was finished, the head man addressed the people, 
recommending them to attend to what they had heard, and proposed 
that henceforth they should abstain from all labour on the Sabbath, 
and pray to Jehovah and Jesus Christ; assuring them that such was 
his own intention. 

After answering several inquiries, and encouraging them to adopt 
the proposal that had been made by the head man, we bade them 
farewell, and proceeded to another village. 

Two large heaps of ti root, (a variety of dracaena, from the sweet 
root of which an intoxicating drink is made,) and one or two vessels of 
sugar-cane juice in a state of fermentation, preparatory to its being 
distilled, were, during the day, thrown away at this place, in conse 
quence of some public remarks against intoxication. 

EXPERIENCES AT KEEI. 

After leaving Kalama, we walked to Keei, a considerable village 
on the south point of Kearake 7 kua bay. 

As we approached it, we passed over the ground where, about forty 
years ago, Tamehameha encamped with his warriors, previous to his 
decisive battles with Kivaraao, the son of Taraiopu. 



106 

On reaching the head man's house, about one hundred people soon 
collected before the door, and I preached to them from Psalm Ixx. 4. 
concluding, as usual, with prayer. 

We then went into the house prepared for our lodging, which the 
good people soon made very comfortable, by spreading some cocoa-nut 
leaves on the ground, and covering them with a clean mat. 

The kind host then proposed to fetch a pig, and have it dressed 
for supper. We told him we had rather he would not do it on the 
Sabbath, but that, if agreeable, we should be glad to receive one in 
the morning. 

After family worship, we laid down on the mats to repose, thankful 
for the opportunities of doing good which we had enjoyed, and for 
the encouraging attention manifested by the people. 

GEOLOGY AND BURIAL GATES OF KEALAKEKUA. 

In the morning of July the 21st, the party at Kamakau's walked 
through the village of Kaavaroa (Kowrowa in Cook's Voyages) to 
the sea-side. The water in some places is deep, and, along the whole 
extent of the north-west shore, a boat may pull in close to the rocks. 
The rocks which form the beach on this and the opposite side of the 
bay, are not, as was supposed by those who first described them, of 
black coral, but composed entirely of lava, porous, hard, and of a very 
dark colour, occasionally tinged with a ferruginous brown, bearing 
marks of having been in a state of fusion. Part of it has probably 
flowed through the cavern in which Captain Cook's body was de 
posited, as traces of a stream of lava from thence to the plain below 
are very distinct. 

The steep rocks at the head of the bay are of the same kind of sub 
stance, but apparently more ancient; and judging from appearances, 
the lava of which they are composed had issued from its volcano be 
fore Kearake'kua existed; as part of the coast seems to have been 
rent from these rocks, and sunk below the level of the sea, which has 
filled up the indention thus made, and formed the present bay. 

There are stiil a number of caves in the face of these rocks, which 
are seldom resorted to for security in a time of danger, but used as 
places of sepulture. Several were barricaded, to prevent any but the 
proprietors entering them, or depositing bodies there. The natives 
pointed out one in which the remains of Keoua, uncle of Tamehameha, 
were laid. 

Having accomplished the object of their excursion, which was to 
procure some fragments of the rock on which Captain Cook had been 
killed, they prepared to return. 

On their return, they exchanged a piece of blue cotton, about three 
yards in length, for four small idols. They were rudely-carved imi- 



107 

tatlons of the iiiiman figure; one of them between three and four 

feet in length, the others not more than eighteen inches. Having 
breakfasted with Kamakau and his family, they took their leave, 
and passed over to the other side of the bay. 

HAWAIIAN THEORIES OF THE HEREAFTER. 

The house in which Mr. Bishop and myself had lodged, was early 
crowded with natives. Morning worship was held in the native lan 
guage^ and a short address given to the people. 

A very interesting conversation ensued, on the resurrection of the 
dead at the last day, which had been spoken of in the address. The 
people said they had heard of it by Kapihe, a native priest, who 
formerly resided in this village, and who, in the time of Tameha 
meha, told that prince, that at his death he would see his ancestors, 
and that hereafter all the kings, chiefs, and people of Hawaii, would 
live again. 

I asked them how this would be effected, and with what circum 
stances it would be attended; whether they would live again on Ha 
waii, or in Miru, the Hades of the Sandwich Islands! 

They said there were two gods, who conducted the departed spirits 
of their chiefs to some place in the heavens, where it was supposed 
the spirits of kings and chiefs sometimes dwelt, and afterwards re 
turned with them to the earth, where they accompanied the move 
ments, and watched over the destinies, of their survivors. 

The name of one of these gods was Kaonohiokala, the eye-ball of 
the sun; and of the other, Kuahairo. 

A REVELATION TO KAMEHAMEHA. 

Kapihe was priest to the latter, and, by pretended revelation, in 
formed Tamehameha that when he should die, Kuahairo would take 
his spirit to the sky, and accompany it to the earth again, when his 
body would be reanimated and youthful; that he would have his wives, 
and resume his government in Hawaii; and that, at the same time, the 
existing generation would see and know their parents and ancestors, 
and all the people who had died would be restored to life. 

These, they said, were all the particulars they knew; but added, 
that though at Kapihe's suggestion many valuable offerings were 
made to his god, he proved a false prophet, for Tamehameha died, and 
did not come to life again. 

At eight o'clock, a small pig, nicely baked under ground, and a 
calabash full of potatoes, were brought in for breakfast. We were 
both too ill to partake of the bounty of our kind host, yet felt 
grateful for his attention. 



108 

MOKUOHAI, SITE OF KAMEHAMEHA' S DECISIVE BATTLE. 

At nine a, m. we were joined by our companions from Kaavaroa, 
and shortly after set out again on our tour. 

Mr. Bishop went in the canoe, the rest of us walked on towards 
Honaunau, a considerable village about five miles distant. 

Leaving Keei, we passed on to Mokuohai, a spot celebrated as the 
place where, in the year 1780 or 1781, the great battle was fought 
between Kauikeouli, (called also as Kivaraao,) eldest son and suc 
cessor of Taraiopu, and his cousin, Tamehameha, by which the latter 
though before only possessed of two districts, became sovereign of the 
whole island. 

This battle is considered by most of Tamehameha 's friends (who 
frequently allude to it in talking of him) as the foundation of all his 
subsequent power and greatness in the Sandwich Islands. 

AN EIGHT-DAY BATTLE. 

During seven successive days, a severe conflict was maintained, 
with doubtful success. On the morning of the eighth day, it was 
renewed with augmented fury on both sides, and continued raging 
until noon, when the death of Kauikeouli terminated the struggle in 
favour of his rival. 

The circumstances attending his death were singular. 

Keeaumoku, (the father of Kaahumanu, Piia, and Kuakini, present 
governor Hawaii,) Tamehameha 's principal general, with a few of 
his companions, had advanced a considerable distance beyond the 
main body of his warriors, and was completely surrounded by Kau- 
ikeouli's men. 

After defending themselves for some time against superior numbers, 
all the associates of EZeeaumoku were slain, he himself was danger 
ously wounded by a number of stabs with the pahoa, (the pahoa is a 
dagger, from eighteen inches to two feet long, made of wood or 
iron,) and fell in the midst of his foes. His enemies thought him 
mortally wounded, and were proceeding to despoil him of his orna 
ments, &c. 

HOW THE BATTLE WAS WON. 

Kauikeouli approached, and called out to them to take care of the 
paraoa, a finely polished ornament, made of a whale's tooth, highly 
valued by the natives, and worn on the breast suspended by a neck 
lace of curiously braided human hair, stooping down himself at the 
same time to untie it. 

Keeaumoku, recovering from a swoon, and seeing Kauikeouli bend 
ing over him, made a sudden spring, and grasped Mm round his neck, 
or (as some of the natives say) by his long flowing hair, and being a 



109 

man of uncommon stature and strength, held him down, KauikeouE 
endeavoured, but in vain, to extricate himself from Ms grasp* 

At this instant, Tamehameha and Ms attendants, having heard that 
Keeaumoku had fallen, hastened to the spot, and one of them, Hari- 
maerua, perceiving the situation of Elauikeouli, rushed forward, and 
ran a spear through Ms "body; another stabbed Mm with a pahoa. 
He fell upon the body of Keeaumoku, and instantly expired. 

Keoua, Ms uncle, who fought near Mm, was about the same time 
wounded in the thigh by a spear, and obliged to quit the field. 

KAMEHAMEHA REMAINED MASTER. 

As soon as the death of Kauikeouli was known, a panic spread 
through Ms men, and they quickly fled in every direction. Many 
jumped into the sea, and swam to some canoes lying off the place, and 
the rest fled to the mountains or the adjoining puhonua (place of 
refuge) at Honaunau, about four miles distant. Among these was 
Karaimoku, then a youth, now principal eMef in the Sandwich Islands. 

Looking one day at the drawing I had made of the puhonua, he 
pointed with Ms finger to the place by which he entered when fleeing 
thither for protection. 

Tamehameha now remained master of the field, and before evening 
reached Honaunau, the former residence of the vanquished eMefs. 

The scene of tMs sanguinary engagement was a large tract of rugged 
lava, the whole superficies of which had been broken up by an earth 
quake. 

SCENES OF THE CONFLICT. 

Since leaving Keei, we had seen several heaps of stones raised over 
the bones of the slain, but they now became much more numerous. 

As we passed along, our guide pointed out the place where Tairi, 
Tamehameha ? s war-god, stood, surrounded by the priests, and, a little 
further on, he shewed us the place where Tamehameha Mmself, Ms 
sisters, and friends, fought during the early part of the eighth day. 

A few minutes after we had left it, we reached a large heap of 
stones overgrown with moss, wMeh marks the spot where Kauikeouli 
was slain. 

The numerous piles of stones which we saw in every direction, con 
vinced us that the number of those who fell on both sides must have 
been considerable. 

HAWAII A SCENE OF CONSTANT WARFARE. 

The Sandwich Islands, like many other parts of the world, have 
frequently felt the cruel scourge of war. Their traditionary Mstory, 
so far as we have been able to trace it, is distinguished by nothing 
so much as accounts of the murderous and plundering expeditions of 



110 

one island against another, or the sanguinary "battles between the in 
habitants of different parts of the same island. 

The whole group have seldom, if ever, been united tinder one author 
ity; but, in general, separate governments, and independent kings or 
chiefs, have existed in each of the large islands; and sometimes the 
six great divisions of Hawaii have been under as many distinct rulers 
or chieftains. 

Their inclinations or interests often interfered, and almost every dis 
pute terminated in an appeal to arms. Indeed, a pretext for war was 
seldom wanting, when one party thought themselves sufficiently pow 
erful to invade with success the territories of their neighbours, and 
plunder their property. 

HAWAIIAN" METHOD OF WAKFARE. 

Their modes of warfare must, therefore, necessarily exhibit much 
of their national character; and having in the course of the narrative 
already had occasion to describe two of their battles, some account 
of their system of war will probably be acceptable in this place. 

Their armies were composed of individuals from every rank in 
society. 

There was no distinct class of men trained exclusively to the use 
6f arms, and warriors by profession, yet there have always been men 
celebrated for their courage and martial achievements; and there are 
many now living, who distinguished themselves by deeds of valour 
and strength in the frequent wars which were carried on during the 
former part of the late Tamehameha's reign; men who left their 
peaceful home and employment, as agriculturalists or fishermen, to 
follow his fortunes in the field, and resumed their former pursuits on 
the cessation of hostilities. 

HAWAIIAN WEAPONS OF WAR 

Before the introduction of fire-arms and gunpowder, almost all the 
men were taught to use the various weapons employed in battle, and 
frequently engaged in martial exercises or warlike games. 

One of the exercises consisted in slinging stones at a mark. They 
threw stones with great force and precision, and are supposed to 
have been able to strike a small stick at fifty yards' distance, four 
times out of five. 

They also practised throwing the javelin, and catching and re 
turning those thrown at them, or warding them off so as to avoid 
receiving any injury. In this latter exercise, they excelled to an 
astonishing degree. 

We know some men who have stood and allowed six men to throw 
their javelins at them, which they would either catch, and return on 



Ill 

their assailants, or so dexterously turn aside, that they fell harmless 
to the ground. 

WRESTLING MATCHES AND SHAM FIGHTS. 

Wrestling was also practised by the more athletic youth, as a prep 
aration to the single combats usual in almost every battle. 

Sometimes they had sham fights, when large numbers engaged, and 
each party advanced and retreated, attacked and defended, and exer 
cised all the maneuvres employed in actual engagement. 

Admirably constituted by nature with fine-formed bodies, supple 
joints, strong and active limbs, accustomed also to a light and eum- 
berless dress, they took great delight in these gymnastic and warlike 
exercises, and in the practice of them spent no inconsiderable portion 
of their time. 

CONSULTING DIVINERS CONCERNING WAR. 

"Whenever war was in contemplation, the poe kiro (diviners and 
priests) were directed to slay the accustomed victims, and consult the 
gods. Animals only were used on these occasions, generally hogs and 
fowls. 

The priests offered their prayers and the diviners sacrificed the vic 
tims, observed the manner in which they expired, the appearance of 
their entrails, and other signs. 

Sometimes, when the animal was slain, they embowelled it, took out 
the spleen, and, holding it in their hands, offered their prayers. If 
they did not receive an answer, war was deferred. They also slept in 
the temple where the gods were kept, and, after the war-god had 
revealed his will by a vision or dream, or some other supernatural 
means, they communicated it to the king and warriors, and war was 
either determined or relinquished accordingly. 

HUMAN SACRIFICES. 

If the expedition in contemplation was of any magnitude or im 
portance, or the danger which threatened imminent, human sacrifices 
were offered, to ensure the co-operation of the war-gods in the destruc 
tion of their enemies. 

They do not appear to have imagined these gods exerted any pro 
tecting influence over their devotees, but that their presence and their 
power destroyed the courage and strength of their enemies, and filled 
their hearts with terror and dismay. 

Sometimes the priests proposed that human victims should be slain; 
sometimes the gods themselves were said to require them, to promise 
victory on condition of their being offered, and at other times they 
were slain after having consulted the gods as their oracle, and not 



112 

having received a favourable answer, they were desirous to consult 
tliem again before they abandoned tlie enterprise. 

METHOD OF OBTAINING HUMAN SACRIFICES AND OF KILLING. 

If any of their enemies had been taken captive, the victims were 
elected from among their number; if not, individuals who had broken 
tabu, or rendered themselves obnoxious to the chiefs, were fixed upon. 

A message was sent to the chief under whose authority they were, 
and at the appointed time he sent his men, who generally despatched 
them with a stone or club, without any notice, and then carried them 
away to the temple. 

Sometimes they were bound and taken alive to the heiau, and slain 
in the outer court, immediately before being placed on the altar. 

It does not appear that they were slain in the idol's presence, or 
within the temple, but either on the outside or at the place where 
they were first taken; in both eases they appear to have endeavoured 
to preserve the body entire, or mangled as little as possible. 

The victims were generally despatched by a blow on the head with 
a club or stone; sometimes, however, they were stabbed. 

The number offered at a time varied according to circumstances, 
two, four, or seven, or ten, or even twenty, we have been inf ormed, 
have been offered at once. 

When carried into the temple, every article of clothing they might 
have on was taken off, and they were laid in a row with their faces 
downwards, on the altar inn -mediately before the idol. 

The priest then, in a kind of prayer, offered them to the gods; and 
if any offerings of hogs were presented at the same time, they were 
afterwards piled upon them, lying at right angles across the human 
bodies, where the whole were left to rot and putrefy together. 

APPROBATION OF GOBS PRELIMINARY TO WAR. 

War was seldom declared without the approbation of the gods, ob 
tained through the medium of the priests, though it is probable the 
answer of the diviners was given with due regard to the previously 
known views of the king and chiefs. 

Sometimes the question of war or peace was deliberated in a 
public meeting of chiefs and warriors, and these popular assemblies 
furnished occasion for the most powerful displays of native eloquence 
which, though never present at one of these councils, we should think, 
from the specimens we have heard repeated, was, like that of their 
neighbours of the southern isles, at once bold in sentiment, beautiful 
in imagery, and powerful in effect. 



113 

AN ELOQUENT ADDRESS. 

I never was more deeply affected than by the parting address of a 
warrior in the South Sea Islands, when he was taking leave of Ma 
friends, before going, as he expected, to battle. 

Nothing can surpass their efforts on some of these occasions, when 
their addresses abound with figures like the following: 

"Our ranks are rocks in the ocean, unmoved by the dashing waves; 
each warrior moves a sea porcupine, whom none dare handle. 

"Let the king's troops advance, and they shall rise before his 
enemies as the lofty breadfruit rises before the slender grass. 

"In the combat the warrior shall stand like the deep-rooted palm, 
and nod over the heads of their enemies, as the tall cocoa-nut nods 
over the bending reed." 

On urging the attack by night, 

"Our torches' glare shall surprise them like the lightning's flash; 
and our shouts, in the instantaneous onset, terrify like bursting 
thunder." 

The effect was greatly heightened by the conciseness of their lan 
guage, and the euphony with which it abounds; and probably on one 
side of the place where they were assembled, the rocks arose, and the 
waves dashed; while on the other, groves of stately bread-fruit trees 
appeared, or towering cocoa-nuts, seventy or eighty feet high, waved 
over their heads. 

METHOD OF PREPARATION FOR "WAR. 

"When war was declared, the king and warrior chiefs, together with 
the priests, fixed the time and place for commencing, and the manner 
of carrying it on. 

In the mean time, the Eunapai (messengers of war) were sent to the 
districts and villages under their authority, to require the services of 
their tenants, in numbers proportionate to the magnitude of the ex 
pedition. 

These were ordered to come with their weapons, candle nuts for 
torches, light calabashes for water, dried fish, or other portable pro 
visions. 

The summons was in general obeyed with alacrity, and as their 
spears, clubs, juvelins, and slings, were usually suspended in some 
convenient part of every house, they armed with these, and soon 
joined the forces at the appointed rendezvous. 

When the people en masse were required, the Tuahaua was sent, 
whose office it was to bring every individual capable of bearing arms. 

TREATMENT OF SHIRKERS. 

Sometimes the TJruoM, another officer, was afterwards despatched; 

and if he found any lingering behind who ought to have been with the 

* 

8 



114 

army, lie cut or slit one of their ears, tied a rope round their body, 
and in this manner led them to the camp. 

To remain at home when summoned to the field, was considered so 
disgraceful, the circumstances attending detection so humiliating, and 
the mark of cowardice, with which it was punished, so indelible, that 
it was seldom necessary to send round the last-named officer. 

These messengers of war were sometimes called Bere, a word which 
signifies to fly, probably from the rapidity with which they conveyed 
the orders of the chiefs. They generally travelled at a running pace, 
and, in cases of emergency, are reported to have gone round the island 
of Hawaii in eight or nine days; a distance which, including the cir 
cuitous route they would take to call at different villages, exceeds 
three hundred miles. 

When the different parties arrived at the place of rendezvous, the 
ehief of the division or district, with some of inferior rank, waited on 
the king or commanding chief, and reported the number of warriors 
they had brought. 

AN ENCAMPMENT CHARACTER OF BATTLE FIELDS. 

They then selected a spot for their encampment, and erected their 
Hare-pai or Auoro, in which they abode till the army was collected. 

The former were small huts, built with cocoa-nut leaves, or boughs 
and green ti leaves, which each party or family erected for their own 
accommodation, around that of their chief; and thus formed a small 
encampment by themselves. 

The latter was a large open building, constructed with the same 
materials, in which the chief and his warriors all dwelt together. 

Their camp was near an open space, and they generally selected the 
most broken and uneven ground, frequently rugged tracts of lava, as 
their fields of battle. 

Sometimes they encamped on the banks of a river, or deep ravine, 
which lying between them and their enemies, secured them from sud 
den attack. But they do not appear to have thrown up lines or other 
artificial barriers around their camp; they did not, however, neglect 
to station piquets at all the passes by which they were likely to be 
approached. 

FORTS AND REFUGES. 

Each party usually had a pari or pa-kaua, natural or artificial ' 
fortress, where they left their wives and children, and to which they 
fled if vanquished in the field. 

These fortresses were either eminences of difficult ascent, and, by 
walling up the avenues leading to them, sometimes rendered inaccessi 
ble; or they were extensive enclosures, including a cave, or spring, 
or other natural means of sustenance or security. 



115 

The stone walls around the forts were composed of large blacks of 
lava, laid up solid, "but without cement, sometimes eighteen, feet high, 
and nearly twenty feet thiek. On the tops of these walls the warriors 
fought with sHngs and stones, or with spears and elubs repelled their 
assailants. 

When their pari was an eminence, after they had closed the avenues, 
they collected large stones and fragments of rock on the edges of the 
precipices overhanging the paths leading to the fortification, which 
they rolled down on the heads of their enemies. 

NAYAL BATTLES. 

Sometimes they engaged in fleets amounting to upwards of one hun 
dred canoes on each side. 

At a distance they f onght with slings and stones, and other mis 
siles, and, at close quarters, with club and spear. 

Their fleets were not lashed together like those of the Society 
islanders. 

The Sandwich Islands not being surrounded with coral reefs, there 
is but little smooth water; and the roughness of the sea, most likely, 
induced them generally to select terra flrma for their theatre of war. 

FIGHTING- IN OPEN, BY DAY -ORDER OF BATTLE. 

They do not appear to have practised many stratagems in war, sel 
dom laid ambushes, generally sought open warfare, and but rarely 
attacked in the night. 

Whenever they expected an action, they proceeded to hoonoho ka 
kaua, (flx the war, or set their army in battle array,) for which they 
had a regular system, and adopted various methods for attack and 
defence, according to the nature of the ground, force of the enemy, &c. 

When about to engage in an open plain, their army, drawn up for 
battle, consisted of a centre and wings, the latter considerably in 
advance, and the line curved in form of a crescent. 

The slingers, and those who threw the javelin, were in general dis 
tributed through the whole line. 

Every chief led his own men to battle, and took his position accord 
ing to the orders of the commanding chieftain, whose station was 
always in the centre. 

The king generally commanded in person, or that authority was 
exercised by the highest chief among the warriors; occasionally, 
however, a chief inferior in rank, but distinguished by courage, or 
military talents and address, has been raised to the supreme com 
mand. 

When they fought in a deflle, or narrow pass, they advanced in a 
single column. 



116 

The first division, or advanced guard, was called the verau, or point, 
the name they also give to a bayonet. The other parts of the column 
were called by different names; the pohivi, or shoulder, was gen 
erally considered the strongest section. The chief who commanded 
was in the centre. 

DESCRIPTION OF WEAPONS. 

Their weapons consisted of the pololu, a spear made of hard wood, 
from sixteen to twenty feet long, and pointed at one end. The ihe, 
or javelin, about six feet in length, made of a species of hard red 
wood, resembling mahogany, called kauira, pointed and barbed. The 
raau parau, a weapon eight or nine feet long, between a club and 
spear, somewhat resembling a halbert, with which they were accus 
tomed to thrust or strike, and the pahoa, or dagger, eighteen inches 
or two feet in length, made of the hard wood, sometimes pointed 
at both ends, and having a string attached to the handle, which 
passed round the wrist to prevent their losing it in action. 

Besides these, they employed the sling, and their stones were very 
destructive. The slings were made of human hair, plaited, or the 
elastic fibres of the cocoa-nut husk; the stones they employed were, 
about the size of a hen's egg, generally ponderous pieces of compact 
lava, from the bed of a stream or the sea-beach, where they had been 
worn smooth by the action of the water. 

NO SHIELDS -WAR DRESS. 

They had no shields or weapons of defence, except the javelin, which 
they used in warding off those that might be thrown at them; they 
were very expert in avoiding a stone, if they saw it thrown, and the 
spearmen excelled in parrying the thrusts of their enemies' spears. 

The warriors seldom went to battle with any other dress than a 
maro or narrow girdle round their loins. 

Some, however, wore a quantity of cloth bound round their head, 
which was called ahupoonui, and the chiefs were frequently dressed 
in their war-cloaks and helmets. 

HELMETS AND CLOAKS. 

The cloaks, though they gave the wearers an imposing appearance, 
must have proved an incumbranee, without affording much protection. 

Some of the helmets were made of close wicker-work, exactly fitted 
the head, and were ornamented along the crown. But those worn by 
the high chiefs only, and called mahiori, though not more useful, were 
peculiarly beautiful. They were made in the form of the Grecian 
helmet, with towering crest, and were thickly covered with the glossy 
red and yellow feathers of a small paroquet found in the mountains, 



117 

(with, whose feathers the war-cloaks are also ornamented,) and though 
they did not appear adapted to defend the head, any more than the 
cloaks were to guard the body, they increased the effect of the tower 
ing height and martial air of the chiefs, whose stature was generally 
above that of the common people. 

The long cloaks reaching to the knees, or even to the ancles, were 
worn only by the king and principal chiefs. 

The royal colour was yellow, and no one besides the Mng was 
allowed to wear a cloak made entirely of yellow feathers. Those of 
the other chiefs were of red and yellow rhomboidal figures intermin 
gled or disposed in alternate lines, with sometimes a section of dark, 
purple or glossy black. 

Tippets were manufactured of the same materials, and worn by 
the inferior chiefs, or some of the principal warriors, whose rank did 
not entitle them to wear the cloak. 

In addition to the helmet and cloak, the high chiefs occasionally 
wore a paraoa, or other ornament, like a breastplate, suspended from 
the neck by finely braided strings of human hair. 

PRELIMINARIES AND DETAILS OF BATTLE. 

The diviners were consulted immediately before they engaged; 
they slew their victims, noticed also the face of the heavens, the 
passage of clouds over the sun, the appearance of the rainbow; and, 
if they augured well, the principal war- god was brought out in the 
front of the whole army, and placed near the king. 

The priest then addressed a prayer to the gods, urged them to exer 
cise their power, and prove themselves, in the ensuing engagement, 
mightier than the gods of their enemies; promising, at the same time, 
hecatombs of victims in the event of victory. 

The king, or commander-in-chief, now addressed the assembled war 
riors; and if they were to attack, gave the signal for the hoouta, or 
onset, and they rushed to hui, or mix in fight. 

They did not employ any banners or colours, but in their warlike 
expeditions were attended by their idols. 

FUNCTIONS OF THE BATTLE GODS. 

The national war-god was elevated above the ranks, and carried 
by the priest near the person of the king, or commander-in-chief. 
Nor was this the only idol borne to the battle: other chiefs of rank 
had their war-gods carried near them by their priest; and if the king 
or chief was killed or taken, the god himself was usually captured 
also. 

The presence of their deities inspired the warriors with courage, 
who supposed their influence essential to victory. 



118 

A description of Tarn lias already been given, and lie may be 
taken as a sample; the image was four or five feet high, the upper 
part wicker-work, covered with, red feathers, the face a hideous form, 
the mouth armed with triple rows of dog's or shark's teeth, the eyes 
of mother of pearl, the head crowned with a helmet, the crest some 
times formed of long tresses of human hair. They were fixed on a 
small pillar or pedestal; were sometimes carried by the priests, or 
placed on the ground, upheld and defended by them. 

APPEARANCE OF THE PRIEST HEVAHEVA. 

We have often conversed with Hevaheva, the priest of Tameha- 
meha's war-god, and though there is nothing naturally repulsive in 
his countenance, we have been told, that, in the battle, he often dis 
torted his face into every frightful form, and uttered most terrific 
and appalling yells, which were supposed to proceed from the god he 
bore or attended. 

At times the whole army, except the reserve, engaged at once, but 
their battles were most commonly a succession of skirmishes, or partial 
engagements. 

SINGLE COMBAT NOT UNUSUAL 

The hooparau, single combat, was not unusual. A haughty and 
boastful warrior would advance beyond the line of his companions, 
and toho or aa, (insult,) in opprobrious terms the whole army of his 
enemies. 

A warrior from that army would hasten to meet him, and the 
encounter was continued till one was disabled or slain. 

We do not know whether, like the Grecian heroes, these combatants 
addressed each other before engaging in the mortal strife, as did their 
neighbours in the southern seas. There the challenger, when he beheld 
his antagonist approaching, would exclaim.: 

"Who are you, that come to contend with me? I am so and so, 
who slew such a one, whose name is famous to the farthest of these 
islands; the son of such a one, who achieved such an action: are you 
come to add to our fame? 7 ' &c. &c. 

The other would answer, "I am such a one, the son of so and so, 
who performed such an action, celebrated in every island. " And after 
much more rhodomontade, one would ask the other: 

"Know you how to lift the spear?" or club; and immediately com 
mence the combat. 

We are not certain, but think it probable, that, like the Society 
Islanders, they had orators, whose duty it was to go through the 
camp, and through the ranks, on the day of battle, stimulating the 
men, by reciting, with most violent gesticulations, the warlike deeds 



of their ancestors, and the victories their island or district had 
formerly obtained. 

Their battles were with confused noise, and boastful shouts. 

BRUTAL BATTLE ETHICS. 

The first that either party slew, they called erehua; frequently the 
victor jumped upon the expiring body, or, spurning it contemptu 
ously, dedicated its spirit to Ms gods. He then cut or tore off the 
hair from the top of the forehead, and, elevating it in the air, 
shonted aloud, He oho, a frontlet; and if it was a chief or warrior of 
note he had slain, his name was added. 

He oho! He oho! was reiterated through the ranks of the victor, 
while he despoiled the fallen warrior of his ornaments, and then 
dragged the heana, slain body, to the king, or the priest, who, in a 
short address, offered the victim to Ms god. 

The first offering they called urukoko, increasing blood. 

The second slain was called maka-wai, face of water, and the third 
herua-oni, sand-dug. They were all likewise brought and offered to 
the gods on the field. 

Their conflicts were sometimes continued for several successive days 
before either army retreated; and, on some occasions, both parties 
discontinued the contest as if by mutual consent, from despair of 
victory, or an evil omen revealed by the diviners. Such a battle 
was called rukurua, both beaten. This, however, was a rare occur 
rence j they generally fought till one of the armies was vanquished 
and fled. 

NO MEEOY TO VANQUISHED. 

When routed in the field, some fled to the pahu tapu, sacred en 
closure, called also puhonua, or place of refuge; others repaired to 
their pari or fortress; and when these were distant, or the way to 
them intercepted, they all fled to the mountains, whither they were 
pursued by the victors for weeks, and even months, afterwards. 

When discovered, they were cruelly massacred on the spot, or 
brought down to the king and cMefs. 

When led to the king's presence, they usually prostrated them 
selves before him, and exclaimed, "E make paha, e ora paha, i 
runa te arof i raro te aro?" To die perhaps, to live perhaps, 
upwards the facef or downwards the face? 

If the king did not speak, or said "The face down/' it was sentence 
of death, and some one in attendance either despatched the poor cap 
tive in his presence, or led him away to be slaughtered. But if the 
king said, ''Upward the face/' they were spared, though perhaps 
spared only to be slaves, or to be sacrificed when the priests should 
require human victims. 



120 

OP VICTORS. 

of tie the property of tie victors, and 

at 

A In the field, or during tie retreat, was sometimes 

to return to Ms home. 

their dead; "but the bodies of the slain, 

to were generally left maburied on the 

"by and dogs, or suffered to rot. Small 

of afterwards piled over their "bones* or on the 

fallen, probably as trophies of victory. 

APPEALS FOR MEEOT. 

the or any chief of high rank was known to be humane, 

w of vanquished had formerly been on terms of friendship 

hint, avoiding carefully the warriors, an individual, risking Ms 

on the conqueror's clemency, would lie in wait for Mm in Ms 

prostrating Mmself in his path, supplicate Ms eompas- 

or into his house, and throw Mmself on the ground before 



any one might have Mlled Mm, while on his way thither, 

toneh MM witMm the Mag's enclosure, without Ms orders. 

tie did mot speak, or directed the fugitive to be ear- 

Ms presence, wMei. was very unusual, he was taken out 

tie prince spoke to the individual who had tans thrown 

into Ms power; and if lie did but speak, or only recognize 

Mm ? lie was seenre. He might either join the retinue of the sov 

ereign, or return to his own house. N"o one would molest Mm, as lie 

was under mam, saade, or screening protection of the king. 

individuals, influenced by feelings of gratitude, generally 

themselves to the persons or interest of the prince by whom 

they had been saved, and frequently proved, through subsequent life, 

tie faithful attendants on Ms person, and steady adherents to 

liis eaiEse* 

BEAfPOBTZOlTMEKT OF LANDS AFTER WAR. 

Wlen the vanquished were completely routed, or nearly cut off, 
fteir country was ioopahora, portioned out, by the conqueror, among 
tie cMefs and warriors who lad been Ms companions in the war by 
whom it was settled. ' 

The wives and eMlfesn of those whom they had defeated were fre 
quently made slaves, and attached to the soil for its cultivation, and, 
together with the captives, treated with great cruelty. But when 
had been a great loss on both sides, or one party wished for 



121 

ma witli a tree, a green 

of ti plant, with for If they 

tie arraagetlj, tlie 

of met to particulars. 

OF OF PEACE 

When the conditions of were agreed to, they mil repaired to 

temple. There a pig was slain, its blood caught ia a vessel, and. 
afterwards poured on the ground, probably to signify that thus It 
should be clone to those who "broke the treaty. A wreath, of main, 
a sweet -scent eel plant, was then woven by the leading chiefs of both 
parties, and deposited in the temple. Peace was ratified, feasting, 
dances, and public games followed. The warriors returned to their 
lands, and tie Mug's heralds were sent round Ms districts to an 
nounce Ha pan ka kana, ended is tie war. 

The introduction of fire-arms, which s soon f oBowed the discovery 
of Sandwich Mauds, increased the passion for conquest and 

plunder in the minds of the proud and turbulent eHefs by whom 
they were governed; and although the recent introduction and par 
tial reception of Christianity has not induced them to discontinue the 
practice of war, it has already altered its ferocious and exterminat 
ing character, and the principles of clemency inenlcated in the gospel 
have been most strikingly exemplified in the humane conduct of the 
eMefs by whom it has been embraced. After a late civil war in 
Tanai, when the captives were brought before Karaimoku, the chief 
against whom they had rebelled, he dismissed many of them with 
spelling books, and directed them, to go home, and dwell in peace, 
cultivate their lands, learn to read and write, and worship the true 
God. 

EFFECT OF CHBISTIA&I IT Y ON KATIVES. 

There is every reason to hope that Christianity, when more gen 
erally received, will subdue their restless and ambitions spirits; and 
under its influence they may be expected, like the southern islanders, 
to delight in the occupations of peace, and cease to learn the art, or 
find satisfaction in the practice, of war. Many most decisive and 
pleasing illustrations of the peaceful tendency of the principles of 
the Bible, have been given by the Southern Islanders. 

One of these occurred under my own observation. In the year 
1817 I visited the island of Tubuai, about 300 miles south of Tahiti. 
While there, two or three natives of the Paumotu or PaKser's Islands, 
which lie to the eastward of the Society Islands, came on board our 
vessel, and asked the captain for a passage to Tahiti. He inquired 
their business there f They said, that some weeks before, they left 



122 

Tahiti, wMtlier they had been on a visit, to return to their native 
Islands, but that contrary winds drifted their eanoe out of its course, 
and they reached the island of Tubuai; that shortly after their arrival, 
the natives of the island attacked them, plundered them of their 
property, and broke their canoe; that they wished to go to Tahiti, 
and acquaint Pomare with their misfortune, procure another canoe, 
and prosecute their original voyage. 

Two Europeans, who were on the island at the time, told me they 
were very peaceable in their behaviour; that the natives of Tubuai 
had attacked the strangers because they had tried to persuade them to 
cast away their idols, and had told them there was but one true God, 
viz. Jehovah. 

Our captain, and some others who were present, asked why they did 
not resist the attack? inquiring, at the same time, if they were 
averse to war; knowing that their countrymen were continually en 
gaged in most savage wars, and were also cannibals. 

WHY THEY DID NOT FIGHT BACK, 

They said they had been taught to delight in war, and were not 
afraid of the natives of Tubuai; that if they had been heathens, they 
should have fought them at once; but that they had been to Tahiti, 
and had embraced the new religion, as they called Christianity; had 
heard that Jehovah commanded those who worshipped Him to do 
no murder, and that Jesus Christ had directed his followers to love 
their enemies; that they feared it would be displeasing to God, should 
they have killed any of the Tubuaians, or even have indulged feel 
ings of revenge towards them; adding, that they would rather lose 
their canoe and their property, than offend Jehovah, or disregard the 
directions of Jesus Christ. 

Our captain gave them a passage. Pomare furnished them with a 
canoe; they returned for their companions, and subsequently sailed to 
their native islands. 

When they arrived, they and other natives of the same islands, 
who had also been to TaMti, told their countrymen what they had 
learned there, and the changes they had witnessed; that Jehovah was 
the only God recognized at Tahiti, and that all was peace and good 
will. 

God was pleased to accompany their plain narrative with such 
power to the hearts of their countrymen, that they abolished idolatry, 
erected places for the public worship of Jehovah, opened school- 
houses, became professedly Christian people; and the cruelties of 
their idolatry, cannibalism, and war, have ever since ceased among 
them. 



123 

These natives, in all probability, had never heard the question as to 
the lawfulness or unlawfulness of Christians engaging in war dis 
cussed or even named, but they had most likely been taught to 
commit to memory the decalogue, and our Lord's sermon on the 
mount, and hence resulted their noble forbearance at the island of 
Tubuai, 

IX AND ABOUT HONAUNAU. 

Ever since Saturday last, I had suffered violent pain, probably in 
duced by the bad water we had been obliged to drink since leaving 
Kairua; and shortly after passing over the battle ground, I found 
myself too ill to walk any further. I reclined about an hour on the 
rocks of lava, under the shade of a small shrub, and then travelled 
on slowly to Honaunau, which I reached about noon. 

The town contains 147 houses, yet we could procure no better accom 
modation than what an open house for building canoes afforded. 
Here my companions spread a mat on the ground, and I laid down, 
grateful for the comfort the canoe shed afforded, as it screened me 
from the scorching rays of an almost vertical sun. 

Towards the evening Mr. Thurston preached to the people of the 
place, wh gave good attention. 

I found myself much better the next morning, but too ill to 
resume the journey that day. 

A WELL CULTIVATED SECTION. 

After breakfast, Messrs. Thurston and Goodrich examined the in 
land part of the district, and found, after proceeding about two miles 
from the sea, that the ground was generally cultivated. 

They passed through considerable groves of bread-fruit trees, saw 
many cocoa-nuts, and numbers of the prickly pear (cactus ficus indi- 
cus,) growing very large, and loaded with fruit. They also found 
many people residing at the distance of from two to four miles from 
the beach, in the midst of their plantations, who seemed to enjoy an 
abundance of provisions, seldom possessed by those on the sea shore. 
They returned about noon. 

Finding ourselves in want of cooking utensils, and a little tea and 
sugar, which, in order to lighten our baggage, we had left at Kairua, 
and perceiving our stock of medicines nearly expended, it was thought 
best that one of our number should return for them. Mr. Thurston 
accordingly left Honaunau in the canoe at 2 p. m. and reached Kairua 
about sunset. He returned about three the next morning, with most 
of the articles we needed. 

The night of the 22d was a restless one with us all, on account of 
the swarms of vermin that infested our lodging. "We should have 



124 

been glad to have changed our quarters, b'ut I was not jet well 
enough, to proceed. 

Another day's detention afforded us time for the more minute ex 
amination of whatever was interesting in the neighbourhood, and the 
more ample development of the object of our visit to the unen 
lightened people of the village; and those were the occupations of 
the day. 

DESCRIPTION OF HALE O KEAWE. 

Honaunau, we found, was formerly a place of considerable impor 
tance, having been the frequent residence of the kings of Hawaii for 
several successive generations. 

The monuments and relics of the ancient idolatry with which this 
place abounds, were, from some cause unknown to us, spared amidst 
the general destruction of the idols, &e. that followed the abolition 
of the aitabu, in the summer of 1819. 

The principal object that attracted our attention, was the Hare o 
Keave, (the House of Keave,) a sacred depository of the bones of 
departed kings and princes, probably erected for the reception of the 
bones of the king whose name it bears, and who reigned in Hawaii 
about eight generations back. 

It is a compact building, twenty-four feet by sixteen, constructed 
with the most durable timber, and thatched with ti leaves, standing on 
a bed of lava that runs out a considerable distance into the sea. 

It is surrounded by a strong fence of paling, leaving an area in 
the front, and at each end about twenty-four feet wide. The pave 
ment is of smooth fragments of lava, laid down with considerable 
skill. 

MANY IDOLS STILL IN PLACE. 

Several rudely carved male and female images of wood were placed 
on the outside of the enclosure; some on low pedestals under the 
shade of an adjacent tree, others on high posts on the jutting rocks 
that hung over the edge of the water. 

A number stood on the fence at unequal distances all around; but 
the principal assemblage of these frightful representatives of their 
former deities was at the south-east end of the enclosed space, where, 
forming a semicircle, twelve of them stood in grim array, as if per 
petual guardians of "the mighty dead" reposing in the house ad 
joining. 

A pile of stones was neatly laid up in the form of a crescent, about 
three feet wide, and two feet higher than the pavement, and in this 
pile the images were fixed. They stood on small pedestals, three or 
four feet high, though some were placed on pillars, eight or ten feet 
in height, and curiously carved. 




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73 g 



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2 
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8 



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+ 

5 

c 

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126 
IDOLS APPEARED NEGLECTED. 

The principal idol stood in the centre, the others on either hand; 
the most powerful being placed nearest to Mm: he was not so large 
as some of the others, but distinguished by the variety and superior 
carvings of his body, and especially of his head. 

Once they had evidently been clothed, but now they appeared in 
the most indigent nakedness. A few tattered shreds round the neck 
of one that stood on the left hand side of the door, rotted by the 
rain and bleached by the sun, were all that remained of numerous 
and gaudy garments, with which their votaries had formerly arrayed 
them. 

A large pile of broken calabashes and cocoa-nut shells lay in the 
centre, and a considerable heap of dried, and partly rotten, wreaths 
of flowers, branches of shrubs and bushes, and fragments of tapa, (the 
accumulated offerings of former days,) formed an unsightly mound 
immediately before each of the images. 

The horrid stare of these idols, the tattered garments upon some of 
them, and the heaps of rotting offerings before them, seemed to us 
no improper emblems of the system they were designed to support; 
distinguished alike by its cruelty, folly, and wretchedness. 

CONDITIONS INSIDE THE HOUSE. 

"We endeavoured to gain admission to the inside of the house, but 
were told it was tabu roa, (strictly prohibited,) and that nothing but 
a direct order from the king, or Karaimoku, could open the door. 

However, by pushing one of the boards across the door-way a little 
on one side, we looked in, and saw many large images, some of wood 
very much carved, others of red feathers, with distended mouths, 
large rows of sharks' teeth, and pearl-shell eyes. 

We also saw several bundles, apparently of human bones, cleaned, 
carefully tied up with einet made of cocoa-nut fibres, and placed in 
different parts of the house, together with some rich shawls and other 
valuable articles, probably worn by those to whom the bones belonged, 
as the wearing apparel and other personal property of the chiefs is 
generally buried with them. 

When we had gratified our curiosity, and I had taken a drawing of 
the building, and some of its appendages, we proceeded to examine 
other remarkable objects of the place. 

CITY OF EEFUaE AT HONAUNAU. 

Adjoining the Hare o Keave to the southward, we found a Pahu 
tabu (sacred enclosure) of considerable extent, and were informed by 
our guide that it was one of the pohonuas of Hawaii, of which we 



127 

liad so often heard the chiefs and otters speak. There are only two 
on the island; the one which we were then examining, and another 
at "Waipio, on the north-east part of the island, in the district of 
Kohala. 

These Puhonuas were the Hawaiian cities of refuge, and afforded 
an inviolable sanctuary to the guilty fugitive, who, when flying from 
the avenging spear, was so favoured as to enter their precincts. 

This had several wide entrances, some on the side next the sea, 
the others facing the mountains. Hither the manslayer, the man who 
had broken a tabu, or failed In the observance of its rigid require 
ments, the thief, and even the murderer, fled from, his incensed pur 
suers, and was secure. 

To whomsoever he belonged, and from whatever part he came, he 
was equally certain of admittance, though liable to be pursued even 
to the gates of the enclosure. 

Happily for Mm, those gates were perpetually open; and as soon 
as the fugitive had entered, he repaired to the presence of the idol, 
and made a short ejaeulatory address, expressive of his obligations to 
him in reaching the place with security. 

PEOTECTION OF DEFEATED IN WAE. 

Whenever war was proclaimed, and during the period of actual 
hostilities, a white flag was unfurled on the top of a tall spear, at 
each, end of the enclosure, and, until the conclusion of peace, waved 
the symbol of hope to those who, vanquished in fight, might flee 
thither for protection. It was fixed a short distance from the walls 
on the outside, and to the spot on which this banner was unfurled, 
the victorious warrior might chase his routed foes; but here, he must 
himself fall back; beyond it he must not advance one step, on pain 
of forfeiting his life. 

The priests, and their adherents, would immediately put to death 
any one who should have the temerity to follow or molest those who 
were once within the pale of the pahu tabu; and, as they expressed it, 
under the shade or protection of the spirit of Keave, the tutelar 
deity of the place. 

In one part of the enclosure, houses were formerly erected for the 
priests, and others for the refugees, who, after a certain period, or at 
the cessation of war, were dismissed by the priests, and returned 
unmolested to their dwellings and families; no one venturing to injure 
those, who, when they fled to the gods, had been by them protected. 

We could not learn the length of time it was necessary for them 
to remain in the puhonua; but it did not appear to be more than 
two or three days. After that, they either attached themselves to 
the service of the priests, or returned to their homes. 



128 

Tlie puhonua at Honaunau is capacious, capable of containing a 
vast multitude of people. In time of war, the females, children, and 
old people of the neighbouring districts, were generally left within it, 
while the men went to battle. "Here they awaited in safety the issue 
of the conflict, and were secure against surprise and destruction, in 
the event of a defeat.. 

The form of it was an irregular parallelogram, walled up on one 
side and at both ends, the other being formed by the sea-beach, ex 
cept on the north-west end, where there was a low fence. On meas 
uring it, we found it to be 715 feet in length, and 404: feet wide. 
The walls were twelve feet high and fifteen thick. 

Holes were still visible in the top of the wall, where large images 
had formerly stood, about four rods apart throughout its whole ex 
tent. 

Within this enclosure were three large heiaus, two of which were 
considerably demolished, while the other was nearly entire. It was a 
compact pile of stones, laid up in a solid mass, 126 feet by 65, and 
ten feet high. 

Many fragments of rock, or pieces of lava, of two or more tons 
each, were seen in several parts of the wall, raised at least six feet 
from the ground. 

The erection of such a place as the puhonua at Honaunau, under 
the circumstances and with the means by which alone it was reared, 
(as they had no machinery,) must have been an herculean task, and 
could not have been completed but by the labour of many hands. 

ORIGIN OF CITY OF BEFUGE. 

We could not learn how long it had been standing, but were in 
formed it was built for Keave, who reigned in Hawaii about 250 
years ago. The walls and heiaus, indeed, looked as if it might claim 
such antiquity; but the house of Keave and the images must have 
been renewed since that time. 

We had often passed over the ruins of deserted heathen temples, 
and the vestiges of demolished altars, in the Sandwich Islands, and 
I had frequently visited those in other groups of the Pacific; but the 
feelings excited on these occasions had always been those of deep 
melancholy and horror, at the human immolations and shocking cruel 
ties which they had so often exhibited. Here, however, idolatry ap 
peared at least in the form of clemency, and the sacred enclosure 
presented a scene unique among the ruins of paganism, which we 
contemplated with unusual interest. 

Whether its establishment was originally projected by the priests, 
to attach to their interests all who might owe their lives to its institu 
tion, or by some mild and humane prince, anxious to diminish thfi 



129 

barbarous cruelties of Idolatry, and soften the sanguinary charaetei 
of savage warfare; or whether derived traditionally from the Israel- 
itish cities of refuge, to which, some of its features are strikingly 
analogous, we do not pretend to determine. 

However, we could not but rejoice that its abolition was so soon 
succeeded by the revelation of a refuge more secure, that the white 
flag ceased not to wave till another banner was ready to be unfurled, 
on which was inscribed, { ( Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends 
of the earth. )y Unto Jesus may they look, and may his name to 
them become the hope of glory. 

Sweet hope, it makes the coward brave, 
It makes a freeman of the slave, 

And bids the sluggard rise: 
It lifts the worm of earth on high, 
Provides him wings, and makes him fly 

To mansions in the skies. 

DISCOMFORTS AT HONAUNAU AND KEOKEA. 

Our accommodations at Honaunau were very indifferent. The 
house where we stayed, in addition to other unpleasant circumstances, 
being entirely open at one end, exposed us by night as well as by day 
to the unwelcome intrusion of hogs and dogs of every description. 

As I was able to walk out on the 23d, we resolved to change our 
lodgings that evening; and about five o'clock in the afternoon we re 
moved nearly half a mile, to a place called Keokea, where we put up 
In the best house we saw, in hopes of procuring at least a comfortable 
night's rest. In this, however, we were disappointed, for it rained 
heavily the greater part of the night, and the roof of the house not 
being water-proof, we were more than once obliged to shift our mats 
to different parts of the earthen floor. 

SWEET POTATO LIQUOR 

This was not all; our host, and Makoa our guide, with almost a 
house full of natives besides, had been regaling themselves with an 
immense wooden bowl of fermented juice of the sweet potato, and 
were very noisy till midnight, when they lay down on their mats, 
but to our great annoyance continued either talking or singing until 
it was almost day. "We frequently spoke to them, and asked them to 
be still. They answered, "Yes, yes, we will;" but in a few minutes 
were as boisterous as ever. We were not aware of the intoxicating 
nature of the simple juice of sweet potatoes when fermented, till wa 
saw its effects on the party here. 

But notwithstanding we were uncomfortable during our short stay 
at Honaunau, and the people less kind than we usually found them, it 



130 

appeared to us a most eligible place for a missionary station, where 
one or two devoted men might labour with a prospect of extensive 
usefulness. 

The inhabitants, objects of the first attention with a missionary, 
are numerous, both in the town and neighbourhood. 

ADVANTAGES OF HONAUNATJ AS A MISSION STATION. 

The coast, for twenty miles to the northward, includes not less per 
haps than, forty villages, either on the shore or a short distance inland, 
and contains probably a population of 20,000 souls, among whom a 
missionary might labour with facility. 

Though there is at present no chief of distinction residing here, as 
at Kairua, or Kearake^kua, yet the very circumstance of establishing 
a station here might lead one to remove hither; and the conduct of 
the people, we have no doubt, would alter materially as they became 
better acquainted with the missionaries, and their object in settling 
permanently among them. It is near Kearake'kua bay, the frequent 
resort of shipping, where supplies might be left; and the natives also 
told us, that fresh water in considerable quantities might be procured 
at a short distance. We had not an opportunity to examine the place 
where they said it was found; but should this prove a fact, Honaunau 
would possess an accommodation seldom met with on this side of the 
island. 

Being sufficiently recovered to proceed on the journey, we left Keo- 
kea about eigjht v o 'clock on the morning of the 24th. 

A YOLOANIO CURIOSITY. 

After travelling half a mile, a singular appearance of the lava, at 
a small distance from the shore, attracted our attention, and, on ex 
amination, presented a curious phenomenon. It consisted of a covered 
avenue of considerable extent, from fifty to sixty feet in height, 
formed by the flowing of the lava, in some recent eruption, over the 
edge of a perpendicular pile of ancient volcanic rocks, from sixty to 
seventy feet high. 

It appeared as if, at first, it had flowed over in one vast sheet 
but had afterwards fallen more slowly, and in detached semifluid 
masses. These, cooling as they fell, had hardened and formed a pile 
which, by continued augmentation from above, had ultimately reached 
the top, and united with the liquid lava there. It was evident that 
the lava had still continued to flow, along the outside of the arch 
thus formed, into the plain below, as we observed, in several places, 
the courses of unbroken streams, from the top of the cliff to the bed 
of smooth lava, that covered the beach for several miles. 
The space at the bottom between the ancient rocks and more re- 



131 

eently formed lava, was from six to twelve feet. On one side the lava 
rose, perpendicular and smooth, shewing distinctly the different and 
variously coloured masses of ancient lava of which it was composed; 
some of a bright scarlet, others brown and purple. 

The whole pile appeared to have undergone since Its formation the 
effects of violent heat. The cracks and hollows, horizontally be 
tween the different strata, or obliquely through them, were filled with 
lava of a florid red colour, and much less porous than the general 
mass. This last Mnd of lava must have been brought to a state of 
most perfect liquefaction, as it had filled up every crevice that was 
more than half an inch wide. 

A MAEYELOUS SIGHT. 

It appeared highly glazed, and in some places we could discover 
small round pebbles, from the size of a hazel-nut to that of a hen's 
egg, of the same colour, and having the same vitreous covering, yet 
seeming to have remained solid, while the liquid lava, with which 
they were mixed, had been forced by subterranean fire into all the fis 
sures of the ancient rock. 

The pile on the other side, formed by the dripping of the liquid 
lava from the upper edge of the rocks, presented a striking contrast, 
but not a less interesting sight. It was generally of a dark purple 
or jet black colour, glittering in the rays of the sun> as if glazed over 
with a beautiful vitreous varnish. 

On breaking off any fragments, we found them very porous, and 
considerably lighter than the ancient lava on the other side. Its 
varied forms baffled description, and were equal to the conceptions of 
the most fertile imagination. 

The archway thus formed continued for about half a mile, occasion 
ally interrupted by an opening in the pile of recent lava, caused by 
some projecting rock, or elevation in the precipice above. A spectacle 
awfully sublime and terrific must have been presented, when this 
burning stream rolled in one wide sheet, a fiery cascade, from the 
lofty steep down upon the smoking plain. 

With what consternation and horror must it have filled the 
affrighted inhabitants of the surrounding villages, as they beheld its 
irresistible and devastating course, impressed as they were with the 
belief, that Pele, the goddess whom they had offended, had left her 
lightning, earthquake, and liquid fire, the instruments of her power 
abode in the volcano, and was in person visiting them with thunder, 
and vengeance. 

As we passed along this vaulted avenue, called by the natives 
Keanaee, we beheld a number of caverns and tunnels, from some of 



132 

which streams of lava had flowed. The mouths of others being walled 
up with stones, we supposed were used as sepulchres. 

Mats, spread upon the slabs of lava, calabashes, &c. indicated 
some of them to be the habitations of men; others, near the openings, 
were used as workshops, where women were weaving mats, or beating 
cloth. Some, we also saw, used as storehouses, or depositories of san 
dal wood. 

In many places the water filtered through the lava, and, around 
the spots where it had dropped on the ground, we observed a quan 
tity of fine white spear-shaped crystals of a sharp nitrous taste. 

Having walked a considerable distance along the covered way, 
and collected as many specimens of the lava as we could conveniently 
carry, we returned to the sea-shore. Mr. Harwood being indisposed, 
and unable to travel, and being myself but weak, we proceeded in 
the canoe to Kalahiti, where we landed about 2 p. m. and waited 
the arrival of our companions. The rest of the party travelled along 
the shore, by a path often tedious and difficult. 

FURTHER REMARKABLE YOLCANIC FORMATIONS. 

The lava frequently presented a mural front, from sixty to a hun 
dred feet high, in many places hanging over their heads, apparently 
every moment ready to fall; while beneath them the long rolling 
billows of the Pacific chafed and foamed among the huge fragments 
of volcanic rocks, along which their road lay. 

In many places the lava had flowed in vast torrents over the top 
of the precipice into the sea. Broad flakes of it, or masses like stalac 
tites, hung from the projecting edge in every direction. The atten 
tion was also attracted by a number of apertures in the face of the 
rocks, at different distances fiom their base, looking like so many 
glazed tunnels, from which streams of lava had gushed out and fallen 
into the ocean below, probably at the same time that it had rolled 
down in a horrid cataract from the lofty rocks above. 

They passed through two villages, containing between three and 
four hundred inhabitants, and reached Kalahiti about four in the 
afternoon. Here the people were collected for public worship, and 
Mr. Thurston preached to them from John vi. 38. They gave good 
attention, and appeared interested in what they heard. 

The evening was spent in conversation on religious subjects, with 
those who crowded our lodgings. 

CUSTOMS UPON DEATH OF A CHIEF. 

At this place we observed many of the people with their hair 
either cut or shaved close on both sides of their heads, while it was 
left very long in the middle from the forehead to the back of the 



133 

neck. When we inquired the reason of this, they informed ms, that, 
according to the custom of their country, they had cut their hair, in 
the manner we perceived, on account of their chief who had been 
sick, and who they had heard was dead. 

The Sandwich islanders observe a number of singular ceremonies 
on the death of their kings and chiefs, and have been till very 
recently, accustomed to make these events occasions for the praetiee 
of almost every enormity and vice. The custom we noticed at this 
place is the most general. The people here had followed only one 
fashion in cutting their hair, but we have seen it polled in every 
imaginable form; sometimes a small round place only is made bald 
just on the crown, which causes them to look like Itoman priests; at 
other times the whole head is shaved or cropped close, except round 
the edge, where, for about half an inch in breadth, the hair hangs 
down its usual length. 

Some make their heads bald on one side, and leave the hair twelve 
or eighteen inches long on the other. Occasionally they cut out a 
patch, in the shape of a horse-shoe, either behind, or above the fore 
head; and sometimes we have seen a number of curved furrows cut 
from ear to ear, or from the forehead to the neck. "When a chief who 
had lost a relative or friend had his own hair cut after any particular 
pattern, his followers and dependants usually imitated it in cutting 
theirs. 

Not to cut or shave off the hair, indicates want of respect towards 
the deceased and the surviving friends, but to have it cut close in 
any form is enough. Each one usually follows his own taste, which 
produces the endless variety in which this ornamental appendage of 
the head is worn by the natives during a season of mourning. 

KNOCKING OUT FKONT TEETH. 

Another custom, almost as universal on these occasions, was that 
of knocking out some of the front teeth, practised by both sexes, 
though perhaps most extensively by the men. 

When a chief died, those most anxious to shew their respect for 
him or his family would be the first to knock out with a stone one 
of iheir front teeth. 

The chiefs related to the deceased, or on terms of friendship with 
Mm, were expected thus to exhibit their attachment; and when they 
had done so, their attendants and tenants felt themselves, by the in 
fluence of custom, obliged to follow their example. Sometimes a man 
broke out his own tooth with a stone; more frequently, however, it 
was done by another, who fixed one end of a piece of stick or hard 
wood against the tooth, and struck the other end with a stone, tiU 
it was broken off. 



134 

When any of the men deferred this operation, the women often 
performed it for them while they were asleep. 

More than one tooth was seldom destroyed at one time; but the 
mutilation being repeated on the decease of every chief of rank or 
authority, there are few men to be seen, who had arrived at maturity 
before the introduction of Christianity to the islands, with an entire 
set of teeth; and many by this custom have lost the front teeth on 
both the upper and lower jaw, which, aside from other inconveniences, 
causes a great defect in their speech. 

Some, however, have dared to be singular; and though they must 
have seen many deaths, have parted with but few of their teeth. 
Among this number is Karaimoku, a chief next in authority to the 
king, not more than one of whose teeth are deficient. 

Cutting one or both ears was formerly practised on these occasions; 
but as we never saw more than one or two old men thus disfigured, 
the custom appears to have been discontinued. 

Another badge of mourning, assumed principally by the chiefs, is 
that of tatauing a black spot or line on the tongue, in the same 
manner as other parts of their bodies are tataued. 

A SATURNALIA OF WICKEDNESS AND CRUELTY. 

All these usages, though singular, are innocent, compared with 
others, which, until very recently, were practised on every similar 
event. 

As soon as the chief had expired, the whole neighbourhood exhibited 
a scene of confusion, wickedness, and cruelty, seldom witnessed even, 
in the most barbarous society. 

The people ran to and fro without their clothes, appearing and 
acting more like demons than human beings; every vice was prac 
tised, and almost every species of crime perpetrated. 

Houses were burnt, property plundered, even murder sometimes 
committed, and the gratification of every base and savage feeling 
sought without restraint. 

Injuries or accidents, long forgotten perhaps by the offending party, 
were now revenged with unrelenting cruelty. Hence many of the 
people of Maui, dreading their recurrence, when Keopuolani was 
thought to be near her end, took their effects into the enclosure be 
longing to the missionaries there, and requested permission to re 
main there, hoping to find a sanctuary within their premises amidst 
the general devastation which they expected would follow her decease. 

MOURNING CUSTOMS IN SOUTH PACIFIC. 

The inhabitants of several groups in the Pacific have mourning cere 
monies somewhat resembling these. 



135 



The Friendly islanders cut off a joint f one of their fingers at 
the death of a chief, and, like the Society islanders, cut their tem 
ples, face, and bosoms, with shark's teeth. 

The latter also, during their oto haa, or mourning, commit almost 
as many depredations as the Sandwich islanders. They have, how 
ever, one very delicate method of preserving the recollection of the 
dead, which the latter do not appear to employ; that is, of having a 
small portion of the hair of the deceased passed through a perfora 
tion in one of their ears, ingeniously braided in the form of an ear 
ring, and worn sometimes for life. 

But the Sandwich islanders have another cnstom, almost peculiar 
to themselves, viz. singing at the death of their chiefs, something in 
the manner of the ancient Peruvians. I have been peculiarly affected 
more than once on witnessing this ceremony. 

A MOimmNG- SOHGL 

A day or two after the decease of Keeaumtfku, governor of Maui, 
and the elder brother of Kuakini, governor of Hawaii, I was sitting 
with the surviving relatives, who were weeping around the couch on 
which the corpse was lying, when a middle-aged woman came in at 
the other end of the large house, and having proceeded about half 
way towards the spot where the body lay, began to sing, in a plaintive" 
tone, accompanying her song with affecting gesticulations, such as 
wringing her hands, grasping her hair, and beating her breasts, I 
wrote down her monody as she repeated it. 

She described in a feeling manner the benevolence of the deceased, 
and her own consequent loss. One passage was as follows: 



Ue, ue. ua mate tun ArtL, 
Ua mate tun hatu e tun hoa, 
Tun hoa i ta wa o ta -wi, 
Tun hoa I paa ta aina, 
Tun hoa i tun ilihune, 
Tun hoa i ta ua e ta matani, 
Tun hoa i ta vera o ta la, 
Tuu hoa i ta anu o ta mouna, 
TTLU hoa i ta ino, 
Tnu hoa i ta marie, 
Tun hoa i man tai awaru, 
"Ue, ue, ua hala tun hoa, 
Aohe e hoi hon mal. 



Alas, alas, dead is my chief, 

Dead is my lord and my friend; 

My friend in the season of famine, 

My friend in the time of drought, 

My friend in my poverty, 

My friend in the rain and the wind, 

My friend in the heat and the sun, 

My friend in the cold from the mountain, 

My friend in the storm, 

My friend in the calm, 

My friend in the eight seas;* 

Alas, alas, gone is my friend, 

And no more will return. 



Other exhibitions of a similar kind I witnessed at Maui. 
MOURNING FOB KEOPUOLANI. 

After the death of Keopuolani, we frequently saw the inhabitants 
of a whole district, that had belonged to her, coming to weep on 
account of her death. They walked in profound silence, either in 



* A figurative term for the channels between the different islands of the group. 



136 

single file, or two or three abreast, tlie old people leading the van, and 
the children bringing up the rear. 

They were not covered with ashes, but almost literally clothed in 
sack-cloth. "No ornaments, or even decent piece of cloth, was seen on 
any one. Dressed only in old fishing nets, dirty and torn pieces of 
matting, or tattered garments, and these sometimes tied on their 
bodies with pieces of old canoe ropes, they appeared the most abject 
and wretched companies of human beings I ever saw. 

When they were within a few hundred yards of the house where 
the corpse was lying, they began to lament and wail. The crowds 
of mourners around the house opened a passage for them to approach 
it, and then one or two of their number came forward, and standing 
a, little before the rest, began a song or recitation, shewing her 
birth, rank, honours, and virtues, brandishing a staff or piece of 
sugar-cane, and accompanying their recitation with attitudes 
and gestures expressive of the most frantic grief. When they had 
finished, they sat down, and mingled with the thronging multitudes 
in their loud and ceaseless wailing. 

MOURNING CUSTOMS AMONG- COMMON PEOPLE. 

Though these ceremonies were so popular, and almost universal on 
the decease of their chiefs, they do not appear to have been practised 
by the common people among themselves. The wife did not knock- 
out her teeth on the death of her husband, nor the son Ms, when he 
lost his father or mother, neither did parents thus express their grief 
when bereaved of an only child. Sometimes they cut their hair, but 
in general only indulged in lamentations and weeping for several days. 

Anxious to make ourselves acquainted with their reasons for these 
practices, we have frequently conversed with the natives respecting 
them. 

The former, such as polling the hair, knocking out the teeth, tatau- 
ing the tongue, &e. they say is designed to shew the loss they have 
sustained, and perpetually to remind them of their departed friends. 

Kamehamaru, queen of Kdhoriho, who died on her recent visit to 
England, gave me a fine answer to this effect, on the occasion of 
the death of Keopuolani, her husband 's mother. 

TATOOING THE TONGUE. 

A few days after the interment, I went into a house where a 
number of chiefs were assembled, for the purpose of having their 
tongues tataued; and the artist was performing this operation on her's 
when I entered. He first immersed the face of the instrument, which 
was a quarter of an inch wide, and set with a number of small fish 
bones, into the colouring matter, placed it on her tongue, and giving 



137 

it a quick and smart stroke with a small rod in Ms right hand, punc 
tured the skin, and injected the dye at the same time. Her tongue 
bled much, and a few moments after I entered she made a sign for 
Mm to desist. She emptied her mouth of the blood, and then held 
her hands to it to counteract the pain. 

As soon as it appeared to have subsided a little, I remarked that 
I was sorry to see her following so useless a custom; and asked if it 
was not exceedingly painful f She answered, He eha mui no, he 
nui roa ra kuu aroha! Pain, great indeed; "but greater my affection! 

After further remarks, I asked some of the others why they ehose 
that method of shewing their affectionate remembrance of the dead? 
They said, Aore roa ia e naro! That will never disappear, or be 
obliterated! 

BURNING THE SKIN. 

Another method, very generally practised by all classes on these 
occasions, was that of burning on their skin a large number of semi 
circles disposed in different forms. It was not done by a heated iron, 
but having stripped the bark from a small branch of a tree, about 
an inch in diameter, they held it in the fire till one end of the bark 
was perfectly ignited, and in this state applied it to the face or 
bosom, which instantly raised the skin, and after the blister had sub 
sided the sears remained a number of days. 

WQ never found any apologists for the enormities practised on these 
occasions; and the only excuse they have ever given has been, that 
at the death of a great chief, the paroxysm of grief has been so 
violent as to deprive the people of their reason, hence they neither 
knew nor eared what they did, being hehena, frantic, or out of their 
senses through sorrow. 

CHANGE EFFECTED BY MISSIONARIES. 

Since the introduction of the gospel by Christian missionaries, or 
rather since the death of Keopuolani in September, 1823, all the wicked 
practices, and most of the ceremonies usual on these occasions, have 
entirely ceased. Knocking out the teeth is discontinued; wailing, cut 
ting the hair, and marking the tongue, is still practised; but all the 
evil customs have been most strictly forbidden by the principal chiefs. 

We took leave of the friendly people of Kalahiti about nine a. m. 
on the 25th. Messrs. Thurston, Bishop, and Groodrieh, continued their 
journey along the shore, and I went in the canoe in company with 
Mr. Harwood. 

The coast, along which we sailed, looked literally ironbou-nd. It 
was formed of steep rocks of porphyritic lava, whose surface wore the 
most rugged aspect imaginable. 



138 
FROM KALAHIKI TO KAPUA. 

About two p. m. we reached Taureonanahoa, tliree large pillars of 
lava, about twenty feet square, and apparently sixty or eighty Mgh, 
standing in the water, within a few yards of each other, and adjacent 
to the shore. Two of them were united at the top, but open at their 
base. The various coloured strata of black, reddish, and brown lava, 
being distinctly marked, looked like so many courses of masonry. We 
sailed between them and the main land; and about five in the after 
noon landed at Kapua, a small and desolate-looking village, on the 
south-west point of Hawaii, and about twenty miles distant from 
Kalahiti. Here we had the eanoe drawn up on the beach until our 
companions should arrive. 

After leaving Kalahiti, Messrs. Thurston, Goodrich, and Bishop, pro 
ceeded over a rugged tract of lava, broken up in the wildest con 
fusion, apparently by an earthquake, while it was in a fluid state. 
About noon they passed a large crater. Its rim, on the side towards 
the sea, was broken down, and the streams of lava issuing thence, 
marked the place by which its contents were principally discharged. 
The lava was not so porous as that at Keanaee, but, like much in the 
immediate vicinity of the craters, was of a dark red, or brown fer 
ruginous colour, and but partially glazed over. It was exceedingly 
ponderous and compact, many fragments had quite a basaltic shape, 
and contained quantities of olivin of a green and brown colour. 

CANOEING- THROUGH THE SURF. 

For about a mile along the coast they found it impossible to travel 
without making a considerable circuit inland; they therefore procured 
a canoe, and passed along the part of the coast where the sea rolled 
up against the naked rocks; and about one p. m. landed in a very 
high surf. To a spectator on the shore their small canoe would have 
seemed every moment ready to be buried in the waves; yet, by the 
dexterity of the natives, they were safely landed with no other incon 
venience than a slight wetting from the spray of the surf. 

CAMPING AT HONOMALINO. 

Mr. Thurston preached to the people at tae place where they landed, 
after which they took some refreshment, and kept on their way over 
the same broken and rugged tract of lava till about six p. m. when 
they reached Honomalino. Here they were so much fatigued with the 
laborious travelling of the past day, that they were obliged to put 
up for the night. They procured a little sour poe, and only a small 
quantity of brackish water. Having conducted family worship with 
the people of the place, they laid themselves down to rest on their 



130 

mats spread on the small fragments of lava, of which, the floor of 
the house was composed. 

Early the next morning the party at Honomalino proceeded to 
Kapua ? and about eight a. m, joined those who had slept there. 

A BARREN AND DESOLATE COUNTRY. 

At this place we hired a man to go about seven miles into the moun 
tains for fresh water; but he retnrned with, only one calabash full; a 
very inadequate supply, as our whole company had suffered much from 
thirst, and the effects of the brackish water we had frequently drank 
since leaving Honaunau. 

Nothing can exceed the barren and solitary appearance of this part 
of the island, not only from the want of fresh, water, but from the 
rugged and broken tracts of lava of which it appears to be entirely 
composed. 

Unwilling to spend the Sabbath in the desolate and almost forsaken 
village of Kapua, we prepared for a long day's journey, as we knew 
of no village before us containing more than five or six houses for 
nearly thirty miles * distance. 

Before we left Kapua, we were so favoured as to procure water 
enough to fill our canteens, and about 10 a. m. resumed our journey. 
Messrs. Thurston, Bishop and Goodrich, walked on by the sea-side. 
About noon they reached Kaulanamauna, and shortly after left Kona, 
and entered Kau. 

A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF KONA. 

Kona is the most populous of the six great divisions of Hawaii, and 
being situated on the leeward side, would probably have been the most 
fertile and beautiful part of the island, had it not been overflowed by 
floods of lava. It is joined to Kohala, a short distance to the south 
ward of Towaihae bay, and extends along the western shore between 
seventy and eighty miles, including the irregularities of the coast. 

The northern part, 'including Kairua, Kearake *kua, and Honaunau, 
contains a dense population; and the sides of the mountains are culti 
vated to a considerable extent; but the south part presents a most 
inhospitable aspect. The population is thin, consisting principally of 
fishermen, who cultivate but little land, and that at the distance of 
from five to seven miles from the shore. 

ENTERING THE KATT DISTRICT. 

The division of Kau commences at Kaulanamauna, runs down to the 
south point of the island, and stretches about forty miles along the 
south-east shore. On entering it, the same gloomy and cheerless desert 
of rugged lava spread itself in every direction from the shore to the 



140 

mountains. Here and there at distant Intervals they passed a lonely 
house, or a few wandering fishermen's huts, with a solitary shrub, or 
speeies of thistle, struggling for existence among the ereviees in the 
blocks of scoriae and lava. All besides was e ' one vast desert, dreary, 
bleak, and wild." 

In many places all traces of a path entirely disappeared; for miles 
together they clambered over huge pieces of vitreous scoriae, or rugged 
piles of lava, which, like several of the tracts they had passed in 
Kona, had been tossed in its present confusion by some violent con 
vulsion of the earth. 

VOLCANIC CONDITIONS IN KAU. 

From the state of the lava covering that part of the country through 
which we have passed, we should be induced to think that eruptions 
and earthquakes had been, almost without exception, concomitants of 
each other,- and the shocks must have been exceedingly violent, to 

Slabs of lava, from nine to twelve inches thick, and from four to 
as we every where beheld. 

Slabs of lava, from nine to twelve inches thick, and from four to 
twenty or thirty feet in diameter, were frequently piled up edgewise 
or stood leaning against several others piled up in a similar manner. 
Some of them were six, ten, or twelve feet above the general surface 
fixed in the lava below, which appeared to have flowed round their 
base, and filled up the interstices occasioned by the separation of the 
different pieces. 

One side of these rugged slabs generally presented a compact, 
smooth, glazed, and gently undulated surface, while the other appeared 
rugged and broken, as if torn with violence from the viscid mass to 
which it had tenaciously adhered. Probably these slabs were raised 
by the expansive force of the heated air beneath the sheet of lava. 

KEAWAIKI A PORT OF REFUGE. 

After about eighteen miles of most difficult travelling they reached 
Keavaiti, a small opening among the rocks, where, in case of emerg 
ency, a eanoe might land in safety. Here they found Mr. Harwood 
and myself waiting; for, after leaving Kapua, we had sailed along 
close to the shore, till the wind becoming too strong for us to proceed, 
we availed ourselves of the opening which Keavaiti afforded, to run the 
eanoe ashore, and wait till the wind should abate, though in so doing 
we were completely wet with the surf, and spoiled the few pro 
visions we had on board. 

The wind was still too strong to allow the canoe to proceed on her 
voyage; and those who had travelled by land felt too much fatigued 
to go on without some refreshment and rest. Desirous of spending the 



141 

Sabbath wltii the people at Tairitii, which was still fourteen or fifteen 
miles distant, we determined to rest a few tours, and then prosecute 
our journey by moonlight. 

A number of conical hills, from 150 to 200 feet high, rose imme 
diately in our rear, much resembling sand-hills in their appearance. 
On examination, however, we found them composed of volcanic ashes 
and cinders; but could not discover any mark of their ever having 
been craters. 

HARD CONDITIONS AT KEAWAIKL 

"When those of our party who had travelled by land had recovered 
a little from their fatigue, we partook of such refreshment as re 
mained, and drank the little fresh water we had brought with us in the 
canoe. Being only about a quart between five persons, it was a very 
inadequate supply in such a dry and thirsty land, yet we drank it with 
thankfulness, hoping to procure some at Tairitii early on the following 
morning. 

By the time we had finished our frugal meal, the shades of evening 
began to close around us. We called our little party together, and 
after committing ourselves, and those who travelled with us, to the 
watchful care of our merciful Father, we spread our mats on the small 
pieces of lava, and lay down to rest under the canopy of heaven. A 
pile of blocks of scoria? and lava, part of which we had built np our 
selves, screened our heads from the winds. 

The thermometer at sun-set stood at 73, yet during the evening the 
land wind from the snow-covered top of Mouna Boa blew keenly down 
upon us* We slept, however, tolerably well till midnight, when the 
wind from the shore being favourable, and the moon having risen, we 
resumed our journey. 

TRAVEL BY MOONLIGHT TO KAJLIKU. 

I went with Mr. Harwood in the canoe to Tairitii, which we reached 
a short time before daybreak; but the surf rolling high, we were 
obliged to keep off the shore until daylight enabled us to steer be 
tween the rocks to the landing place. Some friendly natives came 
down to the beach, and pointed out the passage to the steersman, by 
whose kind aid we landed in safety about half past five in the morn 
ing of the 27th. Our first inquiry was for water; Mauae, the gov 
ernor's man, soon procured a calabash full, fresh, and cool, of wliieh 
we drank most copious draughts, then filled the canteens, and pre 
served them for those who were travelling along the shore. 

LACK OF DRINKING- WATER 

About half -past eight, Mr. Thurston hastily entered the house; his 
first salutation was, "Have you got any water!" A full canteen was 



142 

handed to Mm, with which lie quenched Ms thirst, exclaiming, as lie 
returned it, tliat lie had never in Ms life before suffered so much for 
want of water. When lie first discovered the houses, at out two miles 
distant, lie felt Ms tMrst so great, that he left his companions and 
hastened on, running and walking till he reached the place where 
those who arrived in the canoe were stopping. 

After leaving Keavaiti, Messrs. Bishop, Goodrich, and Thurston 
travelled over the rugged lava, till the moon "becoming obscured by 
dark heavy clouds, they were obliged to halt under a Mgh rock of 
lava, and wait the dawn of day, for they found it impossible to pro 
ceed in the dark, without being every moment in danger of stumbling 
over the sharp projections of the rocks, or falling into some of the 
deep and wide fissures that intersected the bed of lava in every 
direction. 

After waiting about an hour, they resumed their journey; and 
Messrs. Bishop and Goodrich reached Tairitii nearly half an hour after 
Mr. Thurston 's arrival. 

At 10 a. m. Mr. Thurston preached to the people of Tairitii, and 
the neighbouring village of Patini, all of whom are fishermen. They 
behaved with propriety, and appeared interested. 

We had sent out Makoa, our guide, soon after our arrival, to inform 
the people that there would be a religious meeting, and invite their 
attendance. He had gone much further than we expected he would; 
and just as Mr. Thurston had finished Ms sermon, he returned, followed 
by a considerable company from an inland settlement, who, to use their 
own words, had come to hear about Jehovah and Jesus Christ. They 
seemed disappointed at finding the service over. As they said they 
could not wait till the evening, they and the people of the village 
assembled in a large canoe-house, and Mr. Thurston preached again 
of salvation through Jesus Christ. They sat very quietly, and listened 
with apparent attention. After they had spent an hour or two in 
conversation with us, they returned, seemingly interested in. what they 
had heard. 

In the afternoon Mr. Thurston preached a third time. Between 
seventy and eighty were present. With most of those who have at 
tended the public worsMp in this place, this day was probably the 
first time they ever heard of Jehovah the living G-od, or Jesus Christ 
the Saviour. We could not but desire and pray that the Holy Spirit 
might make the word spoken in this distant and desolate part of the 
earth, the power of God to the salvation of many that heard it. 

A "SPOUTING HORN" AT KAILIKII. 

July 28th. During the whole of yesterday a most beautiful spouting 
of the water had attracted our attention, which we found was pro- 



143 

diieed in a manner similar to that we Lad witnessed at Kairtta. The 
aperture in tie lava was about two feet in diameter, and every few 
seconds a column of water was thrown up with considerable noiae, and 
a pleasing effect, to the height of thirty-five or forty feet. 

The lava at this place was very ancient, and much heavier than what 
we had seen in Kona. The vesicles in it were also completely filled 
with olivin, which appeared in small, green, hard, transparent crystals, 
in such quantities as to give the rocks quite a green appearance; some 
of the olivin was brown. 

In this neighbourhood we also discovered large masses of porphyritic 
lava, containing crystals of felspar and olivin in great quantities, and 
apparently black schorls. 

LIMIT OF CANOE TRAVEL. 

The trade-winds blowing along the shore very fresh, and directly 
againet us, obliged ns to leave our canoe at this place. Mauae and Ms 
companions having drawn it into an adjacent shed, took off the out 
rigger and left it, together with the mast, sails, and paddles, in the 
care of the man at whose honse we had lodged ; as he was also desirous 
to see the volcano, and, after an absence of several years, to revisit 
Kaimu, in the division of Puna, the place of his birth, he prepared to 
accompany us by land. 

Hitherto we had travelled along the sea-shore, in order to visit the 
most populous villages in the districts through which we had passed. 
But here receiving information that we should find more inhabitants 
a few miles inland, than nearer the sea, we thought it best to direct 
our course towards the mountains. 

Makoa, our guide, procured men to carry our baggage, and at nine 
a. m. we left Tairitii. Our way lay over a bed of ancient lava, smooth, 
considerably decomposed, and generally covered with a thin layer of 
soil. We passed along the edge of a more recent stream of lava, 
rugged, black, and appalling in its aspect, compared with the tract we 
were walking over, which here and there showed a green tuft of grass, 
a straggling shrub, or a creeping convolvulus. 

TRAMPING ALONG THE KAHUKU BLUFF. 

After travelling about a mile, we reached the foot of a steep 
precipice. A winding path led to its top, up which we pursued our 
way, occasionally resting beneath the shade of huge overhanging rocks. 
This precipice is about three hundred feet high, and the rocks on frac 
ture proved a dark grey kind of lava, more compact than that on the 
adjacent plain. 

The whole pile appears to have been formed by successive eruptions 
from some volcano in the interior, as there appeared to be a tMn layer 



144 

of soil "between some of the strata, or different inundations, which we 
supposed was produced by the decomposition of the lava on the surface 
of the lower stratum, before overflowed by the superincumbent mass. 

The rocks appeared to have been rent in a line from the sea-shore 
towards the mountains, and probably the same convulsion which burst 
the rocks asunder, sunk the plain to its present level. 

A CHANGE OF SCENE. 

In half an hour we reached its summit. A beautiful country now 
appeared before us, and we seemed all at once transported to some 
happier island, where the devastations attributed to ISTahoaarii, and 
Pele, deities of the volcanoes, had never been known. 

The rough and desolate tract of lava, with all its distorted forms, 
was exchanged for the verdant plain, diversified with gently rising 
hills, and sloping dales, ornamented with shrubs, and gay with bloom 
ing flowers. We saw, however, no stream of water during the whole 
of the day; but, from the luxuriance of the herbage in every direction, 
the rains must be frequent or the dews heavy. 

About noon we reached Xalehu, a small village, upwards of four 
miles from Tairitii. The kind cottagers brought us some fine water 
melons, which afforded us a grateful repast while we rested during 
the heat of the noonday sun. 

WATERMELONS AT KALEHU. 

Between sixty and seventy persons collected around the house in 
which we were sitting, and as I was so far recovered as to be able 
to preach, I addressed them from Matt. i. 21. They seemed inter 
ested, and afterwards said, that they had heard good news. We re 
mained about an hour, conversing on some of the first principles of the 
religion of Jesus Christ, and then resumed our journey over the same 
beautiful country, which was partially cultivated, and contained a nu 
merous, though scattered, population. 

The prospect was delightful. On one hand the Pacific dashed its 
mighty waves against the roeky shore, and on the other, the kuahivi 
(mountain ridges) of Kau, and snow-top 'd Mouna Boa, rose in the in 
terior, with lofty grandeur. 

UPLAND TARO CULTIVATION. 

Our path led us through several fields of mountain taro, (a variety 
of the arum,) a root which appears to be extensively cultivated in 
many parts of Hawaii. It was growing in a dry sandy soil, into 
which our feet sunk two or three inches every step we took. The 
roots were of an oblong shape, generally from ten inches to a foot in 
length, and four or six inches in diameter. Seldom more than two or 



145 

three leaves were attached to a root, and those of a light green colour, 
frequently blotched and sickly in their appearance. The inside of the 
root SB of a brown or reddish colour, and much inferior to that of 
the arum eseulentum, or lowland taro. It is, however, very palatable, 
and forms a prime article of food in those parts of the island, where 
there is a light soil, and bnt little water. 

AN OVERNIGHT STOP AT KAULU. 

Between three and four o'clock in the afternoon we reached Kauru, 
a small village environed with plantations, and pleasantly situated on 
the side of a wide valley, extending from the mountains to the south 
point of the island. As the men with our baggage had not come up, 
we waited about two hours, when Tuite, the head man of the village, 
arrived, and pressed us to spend the night at Ms house. We accepted 
his invitation, and proposed to Mm to collect the people of the village 
together, to hear about the true God. He consented, and a little before 
sunset about a hundred and fifty assembled in front of Ms house. 

Mr. Thurston, after the usual devotional exercises, preached to them 
for about half an hour, and they paid great attention. During the 
evening, a baked pig, with some potatoes, and taro, was brought for 
our supper, of which we made a hearty repast. 

A FERTILE BUT SPARSELY SETTLED DISTRICT. 

At the request of Makoa, Tuite furnished men to carry our baggage 
to the next district, and soon after daylight on the 29th we left 
Kauru, and, taking an inland direction, travelled over a fertile plain, 
covered with a tMn yet luxuriant soil. Sometimes the surface was 
strewed with small stones, or fragments of lava, but in general it 
was covered with brushwood. 

The population in tMs part did not appear concentrated in towns 
and villages, as it had been along the sea-shore, but scattered over 
the whole face of the country, wMch appeared divided into farms 
of varied extent, and upon these the houses generally stood singly, or 
in small clusters, seldom exceeding four or five in number. 

After walking six or seven miles, we entered the district of Papa- 
pohaku. When we had nearly passed through it, we sat down to rest, 
on a pile of stones by the way side. Between sixty and seventy 
natives soon collected around us; presenting a motley group. Most 
of the children were naked, or at best had only a narrow slip of tapa 
fastened round their loins. 

DESCRIPTION OF PEOPLE OF PAPAPOHAKU. 

Several of the men, on seeing us pass along the road, had left their 
work in the fields and gardens, and, although covered with dust and 

10 



146 

perspiration, had seated themselves in the midst, with their o-os in 
their hand. (This o-o is the principal implement of husbandry which 
a Hawaiian farmer uses. Formerly it was a sharp-pointed stick of 
hard wood; it is now usually pointed with iron. The best are made 
with broad socket chisels, into which they fix a handle four or six feet 
long.) Their only clothing was the maro, a narrow girdle worn round 
the loins, one end of which passes between the legs, and fastens in 

front. 

The old men were most of them dressed in a kihei, as were also 
some of the women, but many of the latter wore only a pan of native 
eloth wound round their loins. Their black hair was in several in 
stances turned up, and painted white all round the forehead, with 
a kind of chalk or clay, which is found in several parts of the island. 

Many also wore a small looking-glass, set in a solid piece of wood, 
and suspended on the bosom by a handkerchief, or strip of native 
cloth, fastened round the neck, to which was sometimes added an 
other article, considered equally useful, and not less ornamental; 
viz. a small wooden brass-tipped tobacco-pipe; the looking-glass and 
tobacco-pipe were sometimes combined in one ornament. 

FOREIGNERS A CURIOSITY. 

Most of these people had probably never seen so large a company 
of foreigners before; and their curiosity, as might be expected, was 
unusually excited. Their countenances, however, indicated no feel 
ings of jealousy, but manifested a degree of pleasure greater than 
ordinary. 

After conversing with them some time on the objects of our tour, 
and their ideas of the true God, we proposed to them to listen to his 
word, and unite with us in worshipping him. They seated themselves 
on the grass. We sung a hymn, and I preached from Psalm exxviii. 1. 
At the conclusion of our religious service we resumed our journey, sev 
eral of the natives following us to the next village. 

THE BEAUTIES OF WAIOHINU. 

Our path running in a northerly direction, seemed leading us towards 
a ridge of high mountains, but it suddenly turned to the east, and 
presented to our view a most enchanting valley, clothed with verdure, 
and ornamented with clumps of kukui and kou trees. On the south 
east it was open towards the sea, and on both sides adorned with gar 
dens, and interspersed with cottages, even to the summits of the hills. 

A fine stream of fresh water, the first we had seen on the island, 
ran along the centre of the valley, while several smaller ones issued 
from the rocks on the opposite side, and watered the plantations be 
low. We drank a most grateful draught from the principal stream, 



147 

and then continued our way along its margin, through Kiol&akaa, 
travelling towards the sea, till we reached Waiohinu, abont ten 
miles from the place where we slept last night. Here we found a very 
comfortable house belonging to Pai, the head man, who invited us in, 
and kindly entertained, us. 

About noon, a hospitable dinner was prepared, of which, with the 
additional luxury of fresh water, we made a comfortable meaL 

FIEST KNOWLEDGE OF JESUS CHRIST. 

At two o'clock in the afternoon the people of the place were col 
lected ontside of the house; and when we had requested them to sit 
down, we conducted a religions exercise similar to that held in the 
morning. Much conversation followed, on the subject of religion. 
They said they had heard of leho (Jehovah) onr God, but had never 
before heard of Jesus Christ; that, nntil now, they did not know there 
was a Sabbath day, on which they onght not to work, bnt that here 
after they would recollect and observe it. They wished, they said, 
to become good men, and to be saved by Jesns Christ. 

Between three and four o'clock we took leave of them, and pur- 
sned onr journey towards the sea-shore. Our road, for a considerable 
distance, lay through the cultivated parts of this beautiful valley: 
the mountain taro, bordered by sugar-cane and bananas, was planted 
in fields sis or eight acres in extent, on the sides of the hills, and 
seemed to thrive luxuriantly. On leaving the valley, we proceeded 
along by the foot of the mountains, in a line parallel with the sea, 
and about a mile and a half from it. 

THE GAME OF PAHE DESCBEBED. 

In our way we passed over a tahua pahe, or pahe floor, about fifty 
or sixty yards long, where a number of men were playing at pahe, 
a favourite amusement with farmers and common people in general. 
The pahe is a blunt kind of dart, varying in length from two to five 
feet, and thickest about six inches from the point, after which it 
tapers gradually to the other end. These darts are made with much 
ingenuity, of a heavy wood. They are highly polished, and thrown, 
with great force or exactness along the level ground, or floor of 
earth, previously prepared for the game. 

Sometimes the excellence of the play consists in the dexterity with 
which the pahe is thrown. On these occasions two darts are laid down 
at a certain distance, three or four inches apart, and he who, in a 
given number of times, throws Ms dart most frequently between these 
two, without striking either of them, wins the game. 

At other times it is a mere trial of strength; and those win who, 
in a certain number of times, throw their darts farthest. A mark 



148 

is made In the ground, to designate the spot from which, they are to 
throw it. The players, balancing the pahe in their right hand, re 
treat a few yards from this spot, and then springing forward to the 
mark, dart it along the gronnd with great velocity. The darts re 
main wherever they stop till all are thrown, when the whole party 
ran to the other end of the floor, to see whose have been the most suc 
cessful throws. 

THE GAME OF MAIKA DESCRIBED. 

This latter game is very laborious, yet we have known the men of 
whole districts engage in it at once, and have seen them playing 
several hours together, under the scorching rays of a vertical sun. 

On the same tahua or floor they also play at another game, re 
sembling the pahe, which they call maita or uru maita. 

Two sticks are stuck in the ground only a few inches apart, at a 
distance of thirty or forty yards, and between these, but without 
striking either, the parties at play strive to throw their stone; at 
other times, the only contention is, who can bowl it farthest along 
the tahua or floor. 

The uru, which they use instead of a dart, is a circular stone 
admirably adapted for rolling, being of compact lava, or a white 
alluvial rock, (found principally in the island of Oahu,) about three 
or four inches in diameter, an inch in thickness around the edge, but 
thicker, and consequently heavier, in the centre. 

COMPETITIVE TOURNAMENTS 

These stones are finely polished, highly valued, and carefully pre 
served, being always oiled and wrapped up in native cloth after hav 
ing been used. The people are, if possible, more fond of this game 
than the pahe; and the inhabitants of a district, not unfrequently chal 
lenge the people of the whole island, or the natives of one island 
those of all the others, to bring a man who shall try his skill with 
some favourite player of their own district or island. 

On such occasions we have seen seven or eight thousand chiefs and 
people, men and women, assembled to witness the sport, which, as 
well as the pahe, is often continued for hours together. 

Many of these amusements require great bodily exertion; and we 
nave often been struck with the restless avidity and untiring eifort 
with which, they pursue even the most toilsome games. 

Sometimes we have expressed our surprise that they should labour 
so arduously at their sport, and so leisurely at their plantations or 
houses, which, in our opinion, would be far more conducive of their 
advantage and comfort. 

They have generally answered, that they built houses and culti- 



149 

vated their gardens from necessity, but followed their amusements be 
cause their hearts were fond of them. 

GAMBLING CHIEF INCENTIVE OP GAMES 

There are some few who play merely for pleasure; but the greater 

part engage in it in hopes of gain. 

"Were their games followed only as sources of amusement, they 
would be comparatively harmless; but the demoralizing influence of 
the various Mnds of gambling existing among them is very extensive. 

Scarcely an individual resorts to their games but for the purpose of 
betting; and at these periods all the excitement, anxiety, exultation, 
and rage, which such pursuits invariably produce, are not only visible 
in every countenance, but fully acted out, and all the malignant pas 
sions which gambling engenders are indulged without restraint. 

DESPEKATE BETTING. 

We have seen females hazarding their beads, scissors, cloth-beating 
mallets, and every piece of eloth they possessed, except what they 
wore, on a throw of the uru or pahe. 

In the same throng might be frequently seen the farmer with his 
o-o, and other implements of husbandry; the builder of canoes, with 
his hatchets and adzes; and some poor man, with a knife, and the 
mat on which he slept, all eager to stake every article they pos^ 
sessed on the success of their favourite player; and when they have 
lost aH, we have known them, frantic with rage, tear their hair from 
their heads on the spot. 

This is not all; the sport seldom terminates without quarrels, some 
times of a serious nature, ensuing between the adherents of the dif 
ferent parties. 

Since schools have been opened in the islands, and the natives 
have been induced to direct their attention to Christian instruction 
and intellectual improvement, we have had the satisfaction to observe 
these games much less followed than formerly; and we hope the period 
is fast approaching, when they shall only be the healthful exercises 
of children, and when the time and strength devoted to purposes so 
useless, and often injurious, shall be employed in cultivating their 
fertile soil, augmenting their sources of individual and social hap 
piness, and securing to themselves the enjoyment of the comforts and 
privileges of civilized and Christian life. 

The country appeared more thickly inhabited than that over which 
we had travelled in the morning. The villages, along the sea shore, 
were near together, and some of them extensive. 



150 
A EELIGIOUS DISCUSSION AT KAPAUKU. 

After travelling about an hour, we came to Kapauku, a pleasant 
village belonging to Naihe. As we passed through, it we found tall 
rows of sugar-cane lining the path on either side, and beneath their 
shade we sat down to rest. 

A crowd of natives soon gathered around us; and after a little 
general conversation, we asked them who was their god? They 
said they had no god; formerly they had many, but now they had 
cast them all away. 

We asked them if they had done well in abolishing them? They 
said, Yes, for the tabu occasioned much labour and inconvenience, and 
drained off the best of their property. 

We asked them if it was a good thing to have no god, and to 
know of no being to whom they ought to render religious homage! 
They said perhaps it was, for they had nothing to provide for the 
great sacrifices, and were under no fear of punishment for breaking 
tabu; that now, one fire cooked their food, and men and women ate 
together the same kind of provisions. 

We asked them if they would not like to hear about the true God, 
and the only Saviour? They said they had heard of Jesus Christ, 
by a boy belonging to ~N"aihe, who came from Oahu about two months 
ago; but he had not told them much, and they should like to hear 
something more. 

NATIVES FAVOBABLY DISPOSED 

I then requested them to sit down, and preached to them on the 
way of salvation by Jesus Christ. When the service was ended, many 
involuntarily exclaimed, ISTui roa maitai! E ake makou i kanaka 
makou no Jesu, a i ora roa ia ia. It is greatly good I We wish to 
become the people of Jesus Christ, and to be saved everlastingly by 
him. 

We recommended them to think on Ms love, and to love him in 
return; to obey him; to keep the Sabbath-day, by abstaining from 
labour, and meeting together to talk about what they had heard; to 
ask God in prayer to teach them all his righteous will; and to send to 
Kaihe their chief, or the missionaries at Oahu, for books, and a per 
son to instruct them. 

Bidding them farewell, we directed our course towards the shore, 
and in about half an hour came to Honuapo, an extensive and popu 
lous village, standing on a level bed of lava which runs out a con 
siderable distance into the sea. 

THE LEGEND OF KAWELOHEA. 

As we approached this place, the natives led us to a steep precipice, 
overhanging the sea, and pointed out a rock in the water below, 



151 

called Kaveroliea. They seemed to regard both the place where we 
were, and the rock below, with strong feelings of superstition; at 
which we were not surprised, when they informed us, that formerly 
a jealous husband, who resided a short distance from the place, mur 
dered Ms wife in a cruel manner with a stone, and afterwards dragged 
her down to the place where we stood, and threw her into the sea; 
that she fell on the rock which we saw, and, immediately afterwards, 
while lie stood ruminating on what he had done, called out to him 
In the most affectionate and lamentable strains, attesting her inno 
cence of the crime for wMeh she had been murdered. 

From the rock, which is still called by her name, they said her 
voice was often heard calling- to her husband, and there her form was 
sometimes seen. They also informed us, that her lamentations were 
considered by them as ominous of some great disaster; as of war, or 
famine, or the death of a distinguished chief. We told them it was 
in imagination only that she was seen, and that her supposed lamen 
tations were but the noise of the surf, or the whistling of the winds. 

PKISOTIYE PEOPLE AT HONUAPO. 

Prom tie manner in which we were received at Honuapo, we 
should not think this village had been often visited by foreigners; 
for on our descending from the Mgh land to the lava on which, the 
town stands, the natives came running out to meet us from all 
quarters, and soon gathered so thickly around us, that we found it 
difficult to proceed. 

Boys and girls danced and hallooed before us; vast numbers walked 
by our side, or followed us, occasionally taking us by the hand, or 
eatcMng hold of some part of our clothes. 

They seemed surprised at our addressing them in their own tongue, 
but were much more so when Mauae, who preceded us with a large 
fan in Ms hand, told them we were teachers of religion, that we had 
preached and prayed at every place where we had stopped, and should 
most likely do so there before we slept. 

"We passed through the town to the residence of the head man, 
situated on the farthest point towards the sea. He invited us to 
his house, procured us water to wash our feet with, and immediately 
sent to an adjacent pond for some fish, for our supper. While that 
was preparing, the people assembled in crowds around the house, 
and a little before sun-set Mr. Thurston preached to them in the 
front yard. Upwards of 200 were present, and, during the whole of 
the service, sat quietly and listened attentively. 

TATOOIN0 SIMILAR TO THAT OF NEW ZEALAND. 
A number of the people at this place had one of their lips tataued, 
after the manner of some of the New Zealand tribes. There was 



152 

more tatauing here than we liad observed at any other place; but it 
was very rndely done, displaying much less taste and elegance tlian 
the figures on the bodies of either the New Zealanders, Tahitians, or 
Marquesians, whieh are sometimes really beautiful. 

After the service, some of our number visited the ruins of a heiau, 
on a point of lava near our lodging. During the evening we made 
some inquiries respecting it, found it had been dedicated to Tairi, 
and was thrown down in the general destruction of idols in 1819. 

STATUS OF 3DOLATEY AND RELIGION". 

They seemed to think it was well that idolatry had been pro 
hibited by the lung; said its frequent requisitions kept them very 
poor, and occasioned them much labour. 

They were, as might be expected, almost entirely ignorant of the 
religion of Jesus Christ. And from what we saw and heard on first 
arriving among them, we should fear they were much degraded by 
immorality and vice. 

One man only from this place had been at Honoruru, in Oahu, 
since the king had been favourably disposed towards Christianity; 
while there, he once attended the public worship in the native lan 
guage, and heard about Jesus Christ, the God of the foreigners; but 
had given a very imperfect account of him. 

The people seemed inclined to listen attentively to what was said 
about salvation through the Bedeemer; and though fatigued by our 
Journey and exercises with the people of the different places where 
we had stopped during the day, we esteemed it a privilege to spend 
the evening in conversation on a topic of so much interest and im 
portance, and experienced no small degree of pleasure, while en 
deavouring to convey to their uninformed, but apparently inquiring 
aainds, a concise and simple view of the leading doctrines and duties 
of our holy religion. 

PEOPLE TALKED ALL NIGHT. 

At a late hour, we asked them to unite with us in our evening 
worship, and afterwards lay down to rest. Many of the people in 
the house, however, continued talking till almost daylight. The at 
tention given by the people to our instructions is not to be considered 
as evidencing their conversion to Christianity, or indicating any de 
cisive change in their views or feelings, but are merely noticed as 
pleasing manifestations of their willingness to listen to the truths 
we are desirous to promulgate amongst them. 

GREAT INTEREST IN RELIGIOUS SUBJECTS. 

On the morning of the 30th, we arose much refreshed, but Makoa 
not having arrived with our baggage, we did not leave Honuapo so 
early as we could have wished. 








X 

o 

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II 

31 

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1 

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154 

Great numbers of the people crowded our house at an early hour, 
and, wMle breakfast was preparing, they were addressed from Psalm 
xevi. 4. When the service was ended, the people were anxious to 
know more about these things; some time was therefore spent in 
conversation with them. We had seldom seen any who appeared more 
interested in the truths of the gospel, than the people of Honuapo. 

About eight a. m. Makoa arrived, but without our baggage. The 
men who were bringing it, he said, could not be persuaded to come 
on last night, but had set out this morning, and would soon over 
take us. 

MAKOA FEARS VOLCANO GODS. 

We now acquainted him with our intention to visit the volcano, 
and requested him to hasten on the men with our baggage, as we 
should want more things there than we could conveniently carry. 

He objected strongly to our going thither, as we should most likely 
be mischievous, and offend Pele or Nahoaarii, gods of the volcano, 
by plucking the ohelo, (sacred berries,) digging up the sand, or 
throwing stones into the crater, and then they would either rise out 
of the crater in volumes of smoke, send up large stones to fall upon 
us and kill us, or cause darkness and rain to overtake us, so that we 
should never find our way back. 

We told him we did not apprehend any danger from the gods; 
that we knew there were none; and should certainly visit the volcano. 

If we were determined on going, he said, we must go by ourselves, 
he would go with us as far as Kapapala, the last village at which we 
should stop, and about twenty miles on this side of it; from thence 
he would descend to the sea-shore, and wait till we overtook him. 

The governor, he said, had told him not to go there, and, if he had 
not, he should not venture near it, for it was a fearful place. 

FROM HONUAPO TO HOKUKANO. 

We waited tiU after nine o'clock, when, the men not arriving with 
our baggage, we proceeded on our way, leaving Makoa to wait for 
them, and come after us as far as Kapapala, where we expected to 
spend the night. As we walked through the village, numbers of the 
people came out of their houses, and followed us for a mile or two, 
when they gradually fell behind. When they designed to leave us, 
they would run on a little way ahead, sit down on a rock, give us 
their parting aroha as we passed, and continue to follow us with their 
eyes till we were out of sight. 

After travelling some time over a wide tract of lava, in some places 
almost as rugged as any we had yet seen, we reached Hokukano. Here 
we found an excellent spring of fresh water, the first we had yet 



155 

een on our tour, though we had travelled; upwards of a 
miles. 

While we were stopping to drink, and rest ourselves, many natives 
gathered around us from the neighbourhood. We requested them to 
accompany us to a cluster of houses a little further on, which they 
very cheerfully did; and here I addressed them, and invited all who 
were athirst, and whosoever would, to come and take of the water 
of life freely. 

They sat quietly on the lava till the concluding prayer was finished, 
when, several simultaneously exclaimed: "He mea maitai ke ora, e 
Baakemake an:'* A good thing is salvation; I desire it. They then, 
proposed several questions, which, we answered apparently to their 
satisfaction, and afterwards kept on our way. 

FISH PONDS AT HEDEA. 

We travelled over another nigged tract of lava about two hundred 
rods wide. It had "been most violently torn to pieces, and thrown 
up in the wildest confusion; in some places it was heaped forty or fifty 
feet high. The road across it was formed of large smooth round 
stones, placed in a line two or three feet apart. By stepping along 
on these stones, we passed over, though not without considerable 
fatigue. 

About half-past eleven we reached Hilea, a pleasant village be 
longing to the governor. As we approached it, we observed a num 
ber of artificial fish-ponds, formed by excavating the earth to the 
depth of two or three feet, and banking up the sides. The sea is let 
into them occasionally, and they are generally well stocked with ex 
cellent fish of the mullet kind. 

We went into the house of the head man, and asked him to collect 
the people together, as we wished to speak to them about the true 
God. He sent out, and most of the people of the village, then at 
home, about two hundred in number, soon collected in his house, which 
was large, where Mr. Thurston preached to them. They appeared 
gratified with what they had heard, and pressed us very much to 
spend the day with them. We could not consent to this, as we had 
travelled but a short distance since leaving Honuapo. 

HOSPITALITY OF HILEA CHIEF. 

The head man then asked us to stop tiE he could prepare some 
refreshment; saying, he had hogs, fish, taro, potatoes, and bananas in 
abundance. We told Mm we were not in need of any thing, and 
would rather go on. He said, probably the governor would be angry 
with Mm, banish Mm, or perhaps take off Ms head, when he should 
hear that he had not entertained his friends as they passed through 



156 

tic "We ate a few ripe plantains which lie placed before us, 

our leave, assuring Mm that we would speak to the 

governor OB the subject of taking off his head, &e. This seemed to 

MM in some measure, and, after accompanying us a short 

he gave TO Ms aroha, and returned. 

OF KBOUA'S FEtfAL DEFEAT. 

As we left BSlea, our guide pointed out a small Mil, called Makanau, 
where Keoma, the last rival of Tamehameha, surrendered Mmself up 
to the warriors under Taiana, "by whom he had been conquered in 
two successive engagements. He was the younger brother of Kauike- 
OTiB, the eldest son and successor of Taraiopu. 

After the battle of Keei, in which Ms brother was slain, he fled 
to HirOy. the large eastern division of the island. The warriors of 
Hiro, with those of Puna, and some parts of Kau, on the south-east, 
together with those of part of Hamakua on the north-east, declared 
themselves in Ms favour, as the immediate descendant of Taraiopu. 
Among them he resided several years, undisturbed by Tamehameha, 
frequently making attacks on the northern and western parts of the 
Maad, in wMel, however, he was generally repulsed with loss. 

Notwithstanding the defeats he had experienced, he was still de 
sirous to obtain the sovereignty of the whole island, to the throne of 
which he considered himself the legitimate heir, and in the year 1789 
marched from ffiro with all his forces, to attack Kau and Kona on 
the western shores, 

A DBSTBTJCTITE ERUPTION. 

He took the inland road, and on Ms way across the island halted 
for the night in the vicinity of the volcano. An eruption took place 
that very night, and destroyed the warriors of two small villages, 
ia aH about eighty men. TMs was considered an ill omen. 

He, however, continued Ms march, and shortly after reached Tairitii. 
Here he was met by a body of Tamehameha 'a warriors under Taiana, 
a chief of whom frequent mention is made in Meares's and Dixon's 
voyages. 

An engagement took place, in wMch he was defeated, and obliged 
to retreat towards ffiro. The victorious party pursued, and over 
took Mm at PuakokoM, in the division of Puna, where another battle 
was fought, in wMch Ms forces were totally routed, and almost all 
them slain. He saved himself by flying to the mountains, attended 
by a few of Ms kahu, or faithful companions. Taiana and his war 
riors returned to WaioMnu, there to remain tffl the place of Ms 
should be discovered* 



157 
SUBEENBEB OP KEOUA. 

After some time, Keona, Kaoreioku, his younger brother, and a 
few friends that were with them, came to Makanau, From hence 
lie despatched a messenger to Taiana, requesting permission to pass 
to the sea-store, in order that he might go and surrender himself to 
Tamehameha, who was then at Towaihae. 

Taiana, and the rest of the warriors, agreed to allow him to pass 
unmolested through their camp, and Keaveaheura, the father of 
Naihe, present chief of Kaavaroa, and Kamahoe, father of Hoapiri, 
two near relatives of Keoua, though attached to Tamehameha, went 
back to assure Mm of Ms safety, and of the friendly feelings of 
Tamehameha towards 



KEOUA' S PROGRESS TO KAWAIHAE. 

He accompanied them to Tairitii, where they embarked in Taiana *s 
canoes, and directed their course along the western shores to Towai 
hae. On their way he stopped at several places, particularly Hono- 
malino, Honatmau, Kaavaroa, Keauhou, and Kairua. The people at 
eaeh of the places, at Honaunau in particular, crowded around him, 
brought him presents of food, hogs, tapa, and fruits, and, by every 
means in their power, demonstrated their attachment to him. Many 
of them wept, some on account of the joy they felt at seeing hi** 
again; others, from a foreboding fear of the result of his surrender to 
Tamehameha. 

He stopped two nights at Paraoa, a small village a few miles to 
the southward of Towaihae, where he received the greatest assurances 
of Tamehameha J s kind intentions; and on the morning of the third 
day, proceeded to Towaihae. 

THE TREACHEROUS MURDER OF KEOUA. 

Tamehameha, with Ms chiefs, was standing on the beach as Ms 
canoe came in sight, and, with most of the cMefs, intended to protect 
him; but Keeaumoku, a chief of the most sanguinary disposition, who 
had grappled with Ms elder brother in the battle at Keei, had deter 
mined on Ms death; and fearing Tamehameha might frustrate his 
purpose, if the canoe was allowed to land, he waded above his middle 
into the sea; and regardless of the orders of Tamehameha, and the 
expostulations of the other chiefs, caught hold of the canoe as it 
approached the shore, and either with Ms pahoa, or a long knife, 
stabbed Keoua to the heart as he sat in the stern. He also mur 
dered seven of Ms companions and friends, who came in the same 
canoe. 

In another canoe was Kaoreioku, Ms younger brother, and the 
father of PauaM, one of the wives of Bihoriho, the late sovereign of 



158 

ttte striet orders to protect it, and their 

were 

Tunehamelia, and many of the chiefs, parfieiilarfy Keaveaheura 
are reported to have regretted Ms death, Keeftnmokn, 

however, Justified Ma horrid act by saying, that if Keoua tad been 
to live, they should never have been secure. 

REPSODUCTIVE PEBBLES OF NINOIJE. 

We had not travelled far before we reached Ninole, a smaE village 
on the sea-shore, celebrated on account of a short pebbly beaeh 
called Koroa, the stones of which were reported to possess very 
singular properties,, amongst others, that of propagating their species, 

The natives told us it was a wahi pana (place famous) for supply 
ing the stones employed in making small adzes and hatchets, before 
they were acquainted with the use of iron; but particularly for fur 
nishing the stones of which the gods were made,, who presided over 
most of the games of Hawaii. Some powers of discrimination, they 
told us, were necessary to discover the stones which would answer to 
lie deified. 

THE MANUFACTURE OF GK>DS. 

When selected, they were taken to the heiau, and there several 
ceremonies were performed over them. Afterwards, when dressed, 
and taken to the place where the games were practised, if the parties 
to whom, they belonged were successful, their fame was established; 
but, if unsuccessful for several times together, they were either 
"broken to pieces, or thrown contemptuously away. 

When any were removed for the purpose of being transformed into 
gods, one of each sex was generally selected, and were always wrapped 
very carefully together in a piece of native cloth. After a certain 
time, they said a small stone would be found with them, which, when 
grown to the size of its parents, was taken to the heiaB or temple, 
and afterwards made to preside at the games. 

We were really surprised at the tenacity with which this last opinion 
was adhered to, not only by the poor people of the place, but by 
several others, with whom we have since conversed, and whom we 
should have supposed better informed. It required all the argument 
and ridicule that we could employ, to make them believe it could not 
possibly be so. Koroa was also a place of importance in times of 
war, as the best stones used in their slings were procured here. 

GAME OF KONANE DESCBIBEB. 

This place is also celebrated as furnishing the small black and 
white stones used by the natives in playing at konane, a native game, 
resembEng drafts, and apparently more intricate. 



15 

is generally mad up 

wards of two hundred squares, in a row. It is a 

favourite amusement with the old men; we have 

commenced early in the morning, on 

We examined some of the The to b 

pieces of trap, or compact lava. The white of 

white coral, common to all the islands of the Pacific. Tfee 
of both were worn sway, and the attrition by the con 

tinual rolling of the surf on the beach, had also given them a con 
siderable polish* 

AT PUNALUU TRAVELING INLAND. 

After travelling about two miles, we came to Pnnarun, where the 
people of that and the next Tillage, Wailau, collected together in a 
large house, and were addressed on the nature and attributes of the 
true God, and the way of salvation. 

In general, speaking to the people in the open air was preferred, 
as we then had more hearers than when we addressed them in a 
house. But in the middle of the day we usually found it too hot to 
stand so long in the sun. The services which we held in the morning 
and evening were always out of doors. 

We now left the road by the sea-side, and directed our course to 
wards the mountains. Our path, lay over a rich yellow-looking soil of 
decomposed lava, or over a fine black vegetable mould, in which we 
occasionally saw a few masses of lava partially decomposed, sufficient 
to convince us that the whole had once been overflowed, and that 
lava was the basis of the whole tract of country. There was but 
fittle cultivation, though the ground appeared well adapted to the 
growth, of all the most valuable produce of the islands. 

DOMESTIC LIFE OF NATIVES AT MAKAAKA 

After walking up a gentle ascent about eight miles, we came to a 
solitary hamlet, called Makaaka, containing four or five houses, in 
which, three or four families were residing. We entered one of them 
to take some refreshment and rest after the fatigue of travelling in 
the heat of the day. The people of the house, though poor, were hos 
pitable, and gave us cheerfully a few roots of taro out of their own 
oven. 

The house was large, and beneath one roof included their workshop, 
kitchen, and sleeping-room, without any intervening partitions. 

On one side two women were beating native cloth, and the men 
were at work on a new canoe. In the same place were several larger 
ones, one upwards of sixty feet long, and between two or three feet 
deep, hollowed out of a single tree. The workmen told us they were 



160 

a of that for Kaikioeva, guardian of the young prince 

tenants they were. 

Xetr the end of the house, whieh was quite open, was their 

a was preparing a quantity of arum or taro for 
tie oven. Tke roots were oblong, from six inches to a foot in length, 
or fomr inches in diameter. The substance of the root is 
Eke of a potato, but more fibrous; and to the taste, 

is exceedingly pungent and acrid. 

METHODS OF COOKING DESCBIBED. 

The tender leaves of this plant are sometimes wrapped up in plan- 
leaves, "baked; and eaten by the natives; but in general the root 
is as an article of f ood. 

The oven was a hole in the earth, three or four feet in diameter, 
nearly a foot deep. A number of small stones were spread over 
the bottom, a few dried leaves laid on them, and the necessary 
quantity of sticks and firewood piled up, and covered over with small 
stonei. Tie dry leaves were then kindled, and while the stones 
were heati&g, the man scraped off the skin or rind of the taro with 
a shell, and split the roots into two or three pieces. 

When the stones were red-hot, they were spread out with a stick, 
tie renaMng fire-brands taken away; and when the dust and ashes, 
0a fie stones at the bottom, had been brushed off with a green bough, 
tie taro, wrapped in leaves, was laid on them till the oven was full, 
a few more leaves were spread on the taro; hot stones were 
then plaecd on these leaves, and a covering six inches tMek of leaves 
ani earth spread over the whole. In this state the taro remained to 
steam or bake about half an hour, when they opened their oven, and 
took out as many roots as were needed. 

The arum or taro is an excellent vegetable, boiled as we are accus- 
to dress potatoes, but is not so farinaceous and pleasant as 
when baked in a native oven. 

Sometimes the natives broil their food on heated stones, or roast it 
before their fire; but these ovens are most generally used for cooking 
their several kinds of victuals. Potatoes and yams are dressed in the 
same manner m the taro; but pigs, dogs, fish, and birds, are wrapped 
in green leaves before they are put into the oven. 

HOSPITALITY OF NATIVES. 

We saw some Museovy dueks feeding in the garden, and offered to 
purchase one; but they said they were rearing them for their landlord 
mi. could not part with any; they furnished us, however, with a 
fowl, with -wfciefc, and some biscuit we had with us, we made a toler- 
awe smeaL 



161 

We two lomra, we did to 

to tie inhabitants the Saviour. 

We offered to remunerate for we feat 

they refused to take any thing. We the a 

present of a looking-glass a of ami 

resumed our Journey over the verdant coaBtryv frequently 

crossing small valleys and. water-course!, which, however, mH 

dry. 

The surface of tie country was covered with a light 
and clotted with tall grass, but the and bed of every water 

course we passed were composed of volcanic roek, a kind of 
or dark grey compact lava, with fine grains of olivin, the different 
strata lying in a direction gently incEned towards the sea. 

KAALAALA ANB KAFAFALA THICKLY SETTLED. 

The land, though very good, was but partially cultivated, till we 

came to Kaaraara, where we passed through large fields of tero and 
potatoes, with sugar-cane and plantains growing very luxuriantly. 

Maruae, the chief of the place, came down to the road side as we 
passed by, and asked us to stay for the night at Ms house; but as 
Kapapala was only four miles distant, we thought we could reach it 
before dark, and therefore thanked Mm, and proposed to walk OB. 
As our boys were tired with their bundles, we asked Mm to allow a 
man to carry them to Kapapala. He immediately ordered one to go 
with. us 7 and we passed on through a continued succession of planta- 
iions, in a high state of cultivation, 

VOI/OA2STIO MANIFESTATION 

During the whole of the time we had been traveling on the high 
land, we had perceived a number of columns of smoke and vapour, 
rising at a considerable distance, and also one large steady column, 
that seemed little affected by the wind; and this, we were informed, 
arose from the great crater at Kirauea. The smaller columns were 
emitted at irregular intervals of several seconds between each- Om 
inquiry we learned, that they arose from deep chasms in the earth, 
and were accompanied by a hot and sulphureous vapour. 

CONDITIONS AT KAPAPALA. 

About seven o^elock in the everting we reached Kapapala, and 
directed our weary steps to the house of Tapuahi, the head man. He 
kindly bade us welcome, spread a mat in the front of Ms house for 
us to sit down upon, and brought us a most agreeable beverage, 
calabash full of good cool fresh water. 

The thermometer at sun-set stood at TO , and we sat for some 

11 



162 

the people around us. The air from the 

to be keen. We thea went into the house, amdy 

we ia a tropical climate, in the month of July, we 

* Ire very eontforfable. It was kindled in a hollow place in 

tie of the earthen floor, surrounded "by large square stones, 

heat. Bat as there was only one aperture, 
a* in the of the ancient Britons, answered the triple 

of a iFj a window, and a chimney, the smoke was sometimes 



A PI0 OF THE FAMILY. 

Pew of tie Hawaiian females are without some favourite animal. 

It is a dog-. Here, however, we observed a species of pet 

we had not seea before. It was a curly-tailed pig, about a year 

and a old, tlree or f crar feet long, and apparently well fed. He 

to two sisters of our host, who formed part of his family, 

mud joined the social circle around the evening hearth* 

In the ueigfrbonrhood of E&pspala we noticed a variety of the 

paper-midftenyv somewhat different from that generally cultivated, 

grew tyontanecraftlj, and appeared indigenous. Large quanti- 

tin oC fte dried bark of this plant, tied up in bundles, like hemp or 

tax, ww plei up i* tlie house where we lodged. It is used in mann- 

& Mml of tapa, caled msinake, prized throughout the islands 

on aeroamt of its strength and durability. 

e%M o'eloelc a pig was baked, and some taro prepared by 
mr lost for supper. At our particular request he was induced to 
partake of it, ttougli contrary to the etiquette of Ms country. 

Wien we had finished, TapuaM and Ms household assembled for 
family worship, after which we retired to rest. We had travelled 
mew than twenty miles, and two of our number had since the morn 
ing apokea four times to the people. 

t SO? ^^ mmim D the 31st > tlie P eo P le of tie P 1 ^^ ^re col- 
mmaA vwr bow. I requested them to sit down in front, and, 

w^S mg a lyni% P^^ed to them a short and plain discourse. 
.Tterte<wd^ The people remained 

in tfee ^kae for nearly an hour, and made many inquiries. 

TOI^CAMTO ACTIVITY AT POKAHOHOA. 

~ * ^ mUmber 1WBi t0 vMt 

^ Testerday. After 



As we the places whence the smoke issued^ we passed 

a of and deep chasms, from two inches to six 

la width. 

of rocks had evidently "been rent by some violent 

of the earth, at no very distant period; and when we 

in right of the ascending columns of smoke and vapour, we 

immediately before us a valley, or hollow, about half a mile 

formed by the sinking of the whole surface of ancient lava, 

to a depth of fifty feet below its original level. 

Its was intersected by fissures in every direction; and 

tie centre of the hollow, two large chasms, of irregular form 

breadth; were seen, stretching from the mountain towards the 

Mrs, in a scrath-and-by-west direction, and extending either way as 

far as the eye could reach. 

The principal chasm was in some places so narrow that we eonld 
over it, but in others it was ten or twelve feet across. It was 
from these wider portions that the smoke and vapours arose. 

As we descended into this valley, the ground sounded hollow, and 
in several places the lava cracked under our feet. Towards the centre 
it so hot that we could not stand more than a minute in the 

place, 

THE (HJIIXB FEARS PULE. 

As we drew near one of the apertures that emitted smoke and 
vapour, our guide stopped, and tried to dissuade us from proceeding 
any farther, assuring us he durst not venture nearer for fear of Pele, 
the deity of the volcanoes. 

We told him there was no Pele of which he need be afraid; but 
that if he did not wish to accompany us, he might go back to the 
trashes at the edge of the valley, and await our return. He imme 
diately retraced Ms steps, and we proceeded on, passing as near some 
of the smoking fissures, as the heat and sulphureous vapour rising 
fmm them would admit. 

We looked down into several, but it was only in three or four that 
we could see any bottom. The depth of these appeared to be about 
fifty 0p sixty feet, and the bottoms were composed of loose fragments 
of raeks and large atones, that had fallen in from the top or sides 
of the chasm. 

Most of them appeared to be red-hot; and we thought we saw 
flames in one^ but the smoke was generally so dense, and the heat so 
great, that we eonld not look long, nor see very distinctly the bot 
tom of any of them* 

BBT1ILS OF ERUPTION. 

Owe legs, hands, and faces, were nearly scorched by the heat. 
Into one of the small fissures w put our thermometer^ which had 



165 

at 84; it instantly rose to 11S% prob&bly, 

risen much higher, could we have held it longer there. 

After walking along the middle of the hollow for nearly a mile, we 
to a place where the chasm was about three feet across, at its 
upper edge, thongh apparently mnch wider below, forty- 

feet in length; and from which, a large quantity of lava re 

cently vomited. It had "been thrown in detached semifluid pieces to a 
considerable distance in every direction, and from both of the 

opening had flowed down in a number of smaller streams. 

The appearance of the tufts of long grass through whiek it had 
run; the scorched leaves still remaining on one side of a tree, while 
the other side was reduced to charcoal, and the strings of lava tang 
ing from some of the "branches like stalactites; together with the 
fresh appearance of the shrubs, partially overflowed, and broken 
down, convinced us the lava nad been thrown out only a few days 
"before. It was highly seoriaeeous, of a different kind from the 
ancient bed of which, the whole valley was composed, being of a jet- 
black colour, and bright variegated lustre, brittle, and porous; while 
the ancient lava was of a gray or reddish colour, compact, and broken 
with difficulty. 

VOLUMES OF SMOKE AFD VAPOR. 

We found the heat to vary considerably in different parts of the 
surface; and at one of the places, where a quantity of lava had 
been thrown ont, and from wMeli a volume of smoke continually 
issued, we could stand several minutes together, without inconven 
ience. We at first attributed this to the subterranean fires having 
become extinct beneath, bnt the greater thickness of the crust of 
ancient lava, at that place, afterwards appeared to us the most prob 
able cause, as the volumes of smoke and vapour wMch constantly 
ascended, indicated the vigorous action of fire below. 

I took a drawing of tMs place; and when we had collected as many 
specimens of the lava as we could conveniently carry back to our 
lodgings, we returned to our guide, whom we found waiting at th 
spot where we first entered the hollow. 

DATE OF PONAHOAHOA ERUPTION. 

As he was a resident in Kapapala, and owned a small garden near, 
we endeavoured to learn from him something of the history of the 
phenomenon before us. 

He told us that the two large chasms were formed about eleven 
moons ago; that nothing else had been visible till nearly two moons 
back, when a slight earthquake was experienced at Kapapala^ and the 
next time he eame by, the ground had fallen in, forming the hollow 
that we saw, which also appeared full of fissures. 



160 

as he was going to Ms plantation, lie said, 

he a. issuing from the apertures, and a quantity of 

all around; the branches of the trees that stood near 
brolen and burnt, and several of them still smoking. 

VOLCAXO AT PONAHOAHOA, KAIL 

gratified our curiosity, we prepared to leave this infant vol 
cano, for to us it appeared. Although, the surface, at least, of the 
around lad a volcanic origin, it seems to have remained 
a number of years, perhaps ages. The lava is decom- 
frequently & foot in depth, and is mingled with a prolific soil, 
in vegetation, and profitable to its proprietors; and we felt a 
of melaneboly interest in witnessing the first exhibitions of re 
turning action after so long a repose in this mighty agent, whose 
irresistible energies will, probably, at no very remote period, spread 
over a district now smiling in verdure, repaying the toils, 
mud gladdening the heart, of the industrious cultivator. 

Poaahohoa, the plaee we had visited, is sitnated in the district of 

Kftppal& 5 in the north-east part of the division of Kan, and is, as near 

aa we could Judge, from ten to twelve miles from the sea-shore, and 

twenty miles from the great volcano at the foot of Mouna Boa. 

The road by which we retnrned lay through, a number of fields of 

mountain taro, winch appears to be cultivated here more extensively 

than ike sweet potato. 

USES OF THE WILIWILI TREE. 

On tie edge of one of these fields we sat down in the grass to rest, 
beneath a clump of beantifnl trees, the Erythrina eorollodendrum; 
a tree we frequently met with in the mountains, sometimes covered 
irith beantifnl flowers, and always affording an agreeable shade. It 
is by the natives oviriviri, or viriviri. Its branches are mneh 

in erecting fences, on account of the readiness with which they 
root when planted in the ground. The wood is also employed 
for malting the carved stools placed under their canoes, when drawn 
0m tie beaeh, or laid up in their houses, The best kind of surf -boards 
are also made of this wood, which is lighter than any other the natives 
possess. 

Dm mr way back, we also passed several hills, whose broad base 
and Irregular tops shewed them originally to have been craters. They 
wt be very aneient, as they were covered with shrubs and trees. 
From them must have ome the then molten, but now indurated, flood 

over wM^E we were travelling 8 . 



167 



TOLCASTIO 

Several columns of were 

recently made. 

About two p. m. we reacted oar lodgings, tie 

who had slewed us the way, with a remuneration for Ms trouble. 

Mr. Harwood, who had arrived during our a f 

on reacting Kaaraare last night, he up his 

Maraae, the ehief of the place, by whom lie had been enter 

tained. Matiae, and Ms two companions, who had also at 

ara, arrived with him, but nothing had "been heard of or our 

baggage; and we began to suspect lie would not follow us, evea so 
far as lie had promised. 

TRAVELLERS PROM KEALAKEKUA. 

Between three and four o'clock in the afternoon of the 31st of 
July, a party of travellers, consisting of four men and a woman, 
entered the house in which we were stopping, and sat down, to rest. 
We soon learned that they belonged to Kearakomo, in Puna, whither 
they were going, by a road that also led to the great volcano; and 
having before experienced the great inconvenience of travelling with 
out a guide over a country of which we were entirely ignorant, it 
appeared desirable that some of us at least should go with them. We 
expressed our intention to accompany them. They were pleased, and 
told us they would wait till we were ready, 

Ho tidings had yet been received of llakoa, or our baggage, our 
biscuit was nearly expended, and being without even a change of 
linen, we did not think it expedient to leave this place altogether 
before our baggage should arrive, especially as we knew it would be 
several days before we should reach any of the villages on the shores 
of Puna, Messrs. Bishop and Goodrich, therefore, thought best to 
wait at least another day, while the rest of us should proceed with 
the travellers. 

Having made this arrangement, we immediately packed up our pro 
visions, which were but a scanty supply, and filled our canteens with 
water. The natives filled their calabashes; and about five p. m. 
Messrs. Thurston, Harwood, and myself, left Kapapala, in company 
with the people of Puna. 

A GATE RESIDENCE AT KAPUAHI. 

We proceeded a short distance to a place called KapuaM, {the 
hearth of fire,) where we stopped at the entrance of a large cave, 
arched over by a thick crust of ancient lava. Here two or three 
families, consisting of men, women, and children, were residing. Its 
interior was rather dark, as the entrance was the only aperture that 



168 

ligM; yet tie inhabitants of this dreary abode seemed 
contented, and perhaps felt themselves favoured by Pele, 
in a fnraished free of labour or expense. 

employed in making mats, and beating tapa; 
the children playing the fragments of lava on the out- 

the were preparing an oven in which to bake some tare. 

We to pnrelase a few fowls of them, but they had none to 

of. They gave us, however, two or three roots of tare, and a 

of spring water. Bidding them farewell, we pur- 

our way over a beautiful country, gradually sloping towards the 

right, the oeean ? at a distance of from ten to fifteen 

more abruptly on the left, where it was crowned 

the which extended like a vast belt round the base of the 

part of llonna Boa. 

A CAVE LODGING AT KEAPUANA. 

After travelling between three and four miles, we reacted Kea- 

a large cavern, frequently used as a lodging-place by weary 

or travellers. The sun was nearly down, and the guides 

to for the night in the cave, rather than proceed any 

further, sleep in the open air. The proposal was agreed to, and 

we gather a quantity of fern leaves and grass for our bed, 

some fuel for the evening fire, we descended about four- 

feet to tie month of the cavern, which was probably formed in 

the manner as those we had explored in the vicinity of Kairua. 

"Hie entrance, which was eight feet wide and five Mgn, was formed 

lay an, arch of ancient lava, several feet in thickness. 

The interior of the cavern was about fifty feet square, and the arch 
feat covered it, ten feet high. There was an aperture at tne northern 
end, about three feet in diameter, occasioned by the falling in of the 
lava, which, admitted a current of keen mountain air through the 
whole of the night. 

WMle we were clearing out the small stones between some of the 
Blocks of lava that lay scattered around, a large fire was Mndled near 
tfee entrance, which, throwing its glimmering light on the dark vol 
canic sides of the cavern, and illuminating one side of the huge masses 
^ lava, exhibited to our view the strange features of our apartment, 
which resembled, in no small degree, scenes described in tales of 
Tcunance* 

When we had cleared a sufficient space, we spread our beds of fern- 
leaves and grass on the rough floor of the cavern, and then mingled 
with the cheerful circle who- were sitting round the fire. We sung a 
lymn in the native language, and afterwards committed ourselves and 
feflw4mveHers to the Mad keeping of Him, whose wakeful eye and 
cane mo dark emvern ean exclude* 



160 

FIRST VIEW OF KI&AtTCA'S 

the natives were sitting round tie Sre, Mr, I 

ascended to the upper regiozij walked to a at a 

distance from the mouth, of the eavern, to fry if we 
eern the light of the volcano. The wind Mew tie 

tains; the noise of the rolling surf ? to whieh we had been 
on the store, was not heard; and the stillness of tie night only 
disturbed "by the eMrping of the insects in the grass. The sky 
clear, except in the eastern horizon, wtere a few light clouds arose, 
and slowly floated across the expanse of heaven. 

On looking towards the north-east., we saw a broad column of light 
rising to a considerable elevation in the air ? and immediately above it 
some bright clouds, or thin vapours, beautifully tinged "with red on 
the under side. "We had no doubt that the column of light 
from the large crater, and that its fires illuminated the surrounding 
atmosphere. The fleecy clouds generally passed over the luminous 
column ia a south-east direction. As they approached it, the side 
towards the place where we stood became generally bright; after 
wards the under edge only reflected the volcanic fire; and in a It tie 
time each, cloud passed entirely away, and was succeeded "by another. 

We remained some time to observe the beautiful prenomenon occa 
sioned by the reflection of the volcanic fire, and the more magnificent 
spectacle presented by the multitude and brilliancy of the heavenly 
"bodies. The season was solemn and delightful. 

ON THE EOAB TO THE VOLCANO. 

Bef rested by a comfortable night's sleep, we arose before day 
light on the morning of the first of August, and after stirring up 
the embers of our fire, rendered, with grateful hearts, our morning 
tribute of praise to our almighty Preserver, 

As the day began to dawn, we tied on onr sandals, ascended from 
the subterraneous dormitory, and pursued onr journey, directing our 
eourse towards the column of smoke, which bore E. K", E. from the 
eavern. 

The path for several miles lay through a most fertile tract of coun 
try, covered with bushes, or tall grass and fern, frequently from three 
to five feet high, and so heavily laden with dew, that before we had 
passed it, we were as completely wet as if we had walked through 
a river. 

The morning air was cool, the singing of birds enlivened the woods, 
and we travelled along in Indian file nearly four miles an hour, al 
though most of the natives carried heavy burdens, which were tied 
on their backs with small bands over their shoulders, in the same 
manner that a soldier fastens on Ms knapsack. Having also ourselves 



110 

a bible, inkstand, note-book, com- 

He. a of water from the 

a port-folio, or papers, with specimens of 

oar party appeared, in this respect at least, 
eit 

BY A CHASM. 

After a distance over the open country, we came 

to a into we had not penetrated far, before all 

of a entirely disappeared. We kept on some time, bat 

to a by a deep chasm, over which we saw no 

of Here the natives ran about in every direction 

for of footsteps, jast as a dog runs to and fro when 

fee the of Ms master. 

After about half an hour, they discovered a path, wMch 

lei to the southward, in order to avoid the deep clasm 
ia the lava. 

SUGAB CAKE REFRESHMENT. 

the wtere we crossed over, there was an extensive 

Tfee sat down oa the top of the arch by which it was 

a*d eating tfeeir sugar-cane, a portable Mnd of pro- 

0m their journeys, wMle we explored the cavern 

im <rf finling fresh water, In several places drops of water^ 

clear, constantly filtered through the vaulted arch, and 

fell into placed nuderaeatii to receive it. Unfortunately 

for ug, these were all nearly empty. Probably some tMrsty traveller 

there but a short time before. 

A SANBT DESERT. 

the wood, we entered a wasrte of dry sand, about four miles 

The travelling over it was extremely fatiguing, as we sunk in 

to oar at every step. The sand was of a dark olive colour, fine 

mat parts f it adhering readily to the magnet, and being 

lip in heaps in every direction, presented a surface resembling 

exempted, flat of drifted snow. 

It was mmloobtedly volcanic; but whether thrown out of any of the 

craters in its present form, or made up of small particles of 

lava, and tie crystalline oEvin we had observed so abnn- 

In tto la m f tie southern siore, and drifted by the constant 

fmm the vast tract of lava to the eastward, we could not 



we itad nearly passed through it, we sat down on a heap of 
to revt and refresh ourselves, having taken nothing since the 
moon. About ten oVtoek, Messrs. Bishop and Goodrich 



171 

the we were They fey 

travellers, that two or three 

them, deeming It to TO 

a guide, early morning set oat to fol 

low tie of the party. 

VOLCAXIC FORMATIONS 

Having refreshed onrselvesj we resumed oar journey, taliag a north 
erly direction towards the columns of smoke, which we could cow dis 
tinctly perceive. Our way lay over a wide waste of lava, of a 
colour, compact and heavy, with a shining vitreous surface, 
sometimes entirely covered with obsidian., and frequently thrown up, 
by the expansive force of vapour or heated air, into coniea! monnds ? 
from six to twelve feet high, which were, probably, by the power 
rent into a number of pieces, from the apex to the base. The hollows 
between the mounds and long ridges were filled with volcanic sand, 
and fine particles of olivin, or decomposed lava. 

This vast tract of lava resembled in appearance an inland 
bounded by distant mountains. Once it had certainly been in a fluid 
state, but appeared as if it had become suddenly petrified, or turned 
into a glassy stone, while its agitated billows were rolling to and fro. 

Not only were the large swells and hollows distinctly marked, but 
in many places the surface of these billows was covered by a smaller 
ripple, Hie that observed on the surface of the sea at the first spring 
ing up of a breeze, or the passing currents of air which produce what 
the sailors call a cat y s-paw. The billows may have been raised by 
the force which elevated the mounds or hills, but they look as if tie 
whole masSj extending several miles, had, when in a state of perfect 
fusion, been agitated with, a violent undulating or heaving motion. 

A HABD B0AB. 

Tne sun bad now risen in Ms strength, and Ms bright rays, reflected 
from the sparkling sand, and undulated surface of the vitreous lava, 
dazzled onr signt and caused, considerable pain, particularly as the 
trade-wind blew fresh in our faces, and continually drove into our 
eyes particles of sand. 

TMs part of our journey was unusually laborious, not only from 
the heat of the sun and the reflection from tlie lava, but also from the 
unevenness of its surface, wMch. obliged us constantly to tread on am 
inclined plane, in some places as smooth and almost as slippery as 
glass, where the greatest caution was necessary to avoid a falL Fre 
quently we chose to walk along on the ridge of a billow of lava, 
though considerably circuitous, rather than pass up and down its 
polished sides. Taking the trough, or hollow between the waves, was 



172 

found safer, "but much more fatiguing, as we sunk every step ancle- 
deep into the sand. 

The natives ran along the ridges, stepping like goats from one 
ridge to another. They, however, occasionally descended into the 
hollows, and made several marks with their feet in the sand at short 
distances, for the direction of two or three native boys with our pro 
visions, and some of their companions, who had fallen behind early in 
the morning, not being able to keep up with the foremost party. 

CRATEES AND ACTIYE YOLCANIC CRACKS. 

Between eleven and twelve we passed a number of conical hills on 
our right, which the natives informed us were craters. A quantity of 
sand was collected round their base, but whether thrown out "by them, 
or drifted thither by the wind, they could not inform us. 

In their vicinity we also passed several deep chasms, from which, 
in a number of places, small columns of vapour arose, at frequent 
and irregular intervals. They appeared to proceed from Elrauea, the 
great volcano, and extended towards the sea in a south-east direction. 
Probably they are connected with Ponahohoa, and may mark the 
course of a vast subterraneous channel leading from the volcano to 
the shore. The surface of the lava on both sides was heated, and the 
vapour had a strong sulphureous smell. 

DEPOSITS OF PUMACE LAYA. 

"We continued our way beneath the scorching rays of a vertical sun 
till about noon, when we reached a solitary tree growing in a bed of 
sand, spreading its roots among the crevices of the rocks, and casting 
its grateful shade on the barren lava. Here we threw ourselves down 
on the sand and fragments of lava, stretched out our weary limbs, and 
drank the little water left in our canteens. 

In every direction we observed a number of pieces of spumous lava, 
of an olive colour, extremely cellular, and as light as sponge. They 
appeared to have been drifted by the wind into the hollows which they 
occupied. 

The high bluff rocks on the north-west side of the volcano were dis 
tinctly seen; the smoke and vapours driven past us, and the scent of 
the fumes of sulphur, which, as we approached from the leeward, we 
had perceived ever since the wind sprung up becoming very strong, 
indicated our proximity to Kirauea. 

EATITO OHELO BERRIES. 

Impatient to view it we arose, after resting about half an hour, and 
pursued our journey. In the way we saw a number of low bushes 
"bearing beautiful red and yellow berries in clusters, each berry being 



173 

about the size and shape of a large currant. The bushes on which 
they grew were generally low, seldom reaching two feet in height; 
the branches small and clear, leaves alternate, obtuse with a point, 
and serrated; the flower was monopetalous, and, on being examined, 
determined the plant to belong to the class decandria, and order 
monogynia. 

The native name of the plant is ohelo. The berries looked tempting 
to persons experiencing both hunger and thirst, and we eagerly 
plucked and ate all that came in our way. They are juicy, but rather 
insipid to the taste. 

NATIVE FEARS OF PELE 

As soon as the natives perceived us eating them, they called out 
aloud, and begged us to desist, saying we were now within the pre 
cincts of Pele's dominions, to whom they belonged, and by whom 
they were rahuiia, (prohibited,) until some had been offered to her, 
and permission to eat them asked. "We told them we were sorry they 
should feel uneasy on this account, that we acknowledged Jehovah 
as the only divine proprietor of the fruits of the earth, and felt 
thankful to him for them, especially in our present circumstances. 

Some of them then said, "We are afraid. We shall be overtaken 
by some calamity before we leave this place." 

We advised them to dismiss their fears, and eat with us, as we knew 
they were thirsty and faint. They shook their heads, and perceiving 
us determined to disregard their entreaties, walked along in silence. 

KILAUEA DESCRIBED. 

We travelled on, regretting that the natives should indulge notions 
so superstitious, but clearing every ohelo bush that grew near our 
path, till about two p. m. when the Crater of Erauea suddenly burst 
upon our view. 

We expected to have seen a mountain with a broad base and rough 
indented sides, composed of loose slags or hardened streams of lava, 
and whose summit would have presented a rugged wall of scoria, 
forming the rim of a mighty caldron. But instead of this, we found 
ourselves on the edge of a steep precipice, with a vast plain before us, 
fifteen or sixteen miles in circumference, and sunk from 200 to 400 
feet below its original level. 

The surface of this plain was uneven, and strewed over with large 
stones and volcanic rocks, and in the centre of it was the great crater, 
at the distance of a mile and a half from the precipice on which we 
were standing. 

Our guides led us round towards the north end of the ridge, in order 
to find a place by which we might descend to the plain below. 




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176 

NATIVE TRIBUTE TO PELE. 

As we passed along, we observed the natives, who had hitherto 
refused to touch any of the ohelo berries, now gather several bunches, 
and after offering a part to Pele, eat them very freely. They did 
not use much ceremony in their acknowledgment; but when they had 
plucked a branch, containing several clusters of berries, they turned 
their faces towards the place whence the greatest quantity of smoke 
and vapour issued, and, breaking the branch they held in their hand 
in two, they threw one part down the precipice, saying at the same 

time, . 

"E Pele, eia ka ohelo 'au; e taumaha aku wau ia oe, e ai hoi au 
tetahi." "Pele, here are your ohelos: I offer some to you, some I 

also eat.'* 

Several of them told us, as they turned round from the crater, that 
after such acknowledgments they might eat the fruit with security. 

"We answered we were sorry to see them offering to an imaginary 
deity the gifts of the true G-od; but hoped they would soon know 
better, and acknowledge Jehovah alone in all the benefits they re 
ceived. 

DESCENDING INTO KIL.AUEA. 

We walked on to the north end of the ridge, where, the precipice 
being less steep, a descent to the plain below seemed practicable. It 
required, however, the greatest caution, as the stones and fragments 
of rock frequently gave way under our feet, and rolled down from 
above; but, with all our care, we did not reach the bottom without 
several falls and slight bruises. 

The steep which we had descended was formed of volcanic matter, 
apparently a light red and gray kind of lava, vesicular, and lying in 
horizontal strata, varying in thickness from one to forty feet. In a 
small number of places the different strata of lava were also rent in 
perpendicular or oblique directions, from the top to the bottom, either 
by earthquakes, or other violent convulsions of the ground connected 
with the action of the adjacent volcano. 

ON THE EDGE OF THE PIT. 

After walking some distance over the sunken plain, which in 
several places sounded hollow under our feet, we at length came to 
the edge of the great crater, where a spectacle, sublime and even 
appalling, presented itself before us 

"We stopped, and trembled. " 

Astonishment and awe for some moments rendered us Haute, and, 
like statues, we stood fixed to the spot, with our eyes riveted on the 
abyss below. 



177 

Immediately before us yawned an Immense gulf, in the form of a 
crescent ; about two miles in length, from north-east to south-west, 
nearly a mile in width, and apparently 800 feet deep. 

A FLOOD OP BUENING- LAVA 

The bottom was covered with lava, and the south- west and northern 
parts of it were one vast flood of burning matter, in a state of terrific 
ebullition, rolling to and fro its * f fiery surge ' ; and naming billows. 

Fifty-one conical islands, of varied form and size, containing so 
many craters, rose either round the edge or from the surface of the 
burning lake. 

Twenty-two constantly emitted columns of gray smoke, or pyramids 
of brilliant flame; and several of these at the same time vomited from 
their ignited mouths streams of lava, which rolled in blazing torrents 
down their black indented sides into the boiling mass below. 

The existence of these conical craters led us to conclude, that the 
boiling caldron of lava before us did not form the focus of the vol 
cano; that this mass of melted lava was comparatively shallow; and 
that the basin in which it was contained was separated, by a stratum 
of solid matter, from the great volcanic abyss, which constantly poured 
out its melted contents through these numerous craters into this upper 
reservoir. 

VAST COLUMNS OF VAPOR 

We were further inclined to this opinion, from the vast columns of 
vapour continually ascending from the chasms in the vicinity of the 
sulphur banks and pools of water, for they must have been produced 
by other fire than that which caused the ebullition in the lava at the 
bottom of the great crater; and also by noticing a number of small 
craters, in vigorous action, situated high up the sides of the great 
gulf, and apparently quite detached from it. 

The streams of lava which they emitted rolled down into the lake, 
and mingled with the melted mass there, which, though thrown up by 
different apertures, had perhaps been originally fused in one vast 
furnace. 

800 FEET DOWN TO THE LAKE. 

The sides of the gulf before us, although composed of different 
strata of ancient lava, were perpendicular for about 400 feet, and 
rose from a wide horizontal ledge of solid black lava of irregular 
breadth, but extending completely round. 

Beneath this ledge the sides sloped gradually towards the burning 
lake, which was, as nearly as we could judge, 300 or 400 feet lower. 
It was evident that the large crater had been recently filled with 
liquid lava up to this black ledge, and had, by some subterranean 

12 



178 

canal, emptied itself into the sea, or upon the low land on the shore; 
and in all probability this evacuation had caused the inundation of 
the BTapapala coast, which took place, as we afterwards learned, about 
three weeks prior to our visit. 

SOARING OP TAST FURNACE. 

The gray, and in some places apparently calcined, sides of the great 
crater before us; the fissures which intersected the surface of the 
plain on which we were standing; the long banks of sulphur on the 
opposite side of the abyss; the vigorous action of the numerous small 
craters on its borders; the dense columns of vapour and smoke that 
rose at the north and south end of the plain; together with the ridge 
of steep rocks by which it was surrounded, rising probably in some 
places 300 or 400 feet in perpendicular height, presented an immense 
volcanic panorama, the effect of which was greatly augmented by the 
constant roaring of the vast furnaces below. 

After the first feelings of astonishment had subsided, we remained 
a considerable time contemplating a scene, which it is impossible to 
describe, and which filled us with wonder and admiration at the almost 
overwhelming manifestation it affords of the power of that dread 
Being who created the world, and who has declared that by fire he 
will one day destroy it. We then walked along the west side of the 
crater, and in half an hour reached the north end. 

NATIVE FEARS OF PELE AGAIN. 

While walking over the plain, which was covered with a thin layer 
of what appeared like indurated sand, but which we afterwards found 
to be decomposed lava, the natives requested us not to kaha, a heru 
ka one, strike, scratch, or dig the sand, assuring us it would displease 
Pele, and be followed by an irruption of lava, or other expression of 
vengeance from this goddess of the volcano, of whose power and dis 
pleasure they had manifested the greatest apprehensions ever since 
our approach to Kirauea. It appears singular that similar ideas 
respecting the consequences of disturbing the earth in the vicinity of 
volcanoes, should prevail here, as among the natives of the New 
Hebrides. 

SIMILAR SUPERSTITIONS AT NEW HEBRIDES. 

Porster, in his account of a visit to a place somewhat resembling 
this, in the island of Tanna, speaking of their making a hole, and 
burying their thermometer, says, "The natives, who observed that we 
stirred in the solfatarra, (as he called the places where the smoke 
and vapour issued,) desired us to leave it, telling us it would take 
fire, and resemble the volcano, which they called Assoor. They seemed 



179 

to "be extremely apprehensive of some mischance, and were very un 
easy as often as we made the least attempt to disturb the sulphurous 
earth. " Forst. Toy. vol. ii. page 308. 

FRESH WATER ENCOUNTERED. 

At the north end of the crater we left the few provisions and little 
baggage that we had, and went in search of water, which we had been 
informed was to be found in the neighbourhood of a number of 
columns of vapour, which we saw rising in a northerly direction. 
About half a mile distant, we found two or three small pools of per 
fectly sweet, fresh water; a luxury which, notwithstanding the re 
ports of the natives, we did not expect to meet with in these regions 
of fire. It proved a most grateful refreshment to us after travelling 
not less than twenty miles over a barren thirsty desert. 

These pools appeared great natural curiosities. The surface of the 
ground in the vicinity was perceptibly warm, and rent by several deep 
irregular chasms, from which steam and thick vapours continually 
arose. In some places these chasms were two feet wide, and from 
them a volume of steam ascended, which was immediately condensed 
by the cool mountain air, and driven, like drizzling rain, into hollows 
in the compact lava on the leeward side of the chasms. 

The pools, which were six or eight feet from the chasms, were sur 
rounded and covered by flags, rushes, and tall grass. Nourished by the 
moisture of the vapours, these plants flourished luxuriantly, and, in 
their turn, sheltered the pools from the heat of the sun, and prevented 
evaporation. 

We expected to find the water warm, but in this we were also agree 
ably disappointed. 

EXPLORING NORTH OF THE CRATER 

When we had quenched our thirst with water thus distilled by 
nature, we directed the natives to build a hut in which we might pass 
the night, in such a situation as to command a view of the burning 
lava; and while they were thus employed, we prepared to examine 
the many interesting objects around us. Mr. Bishop returned, with 
a canteen of water, to meet Mr. Harwood, who had not yet come up. 

Mr. Thurston visited the eastern side of the great crater, and I 
went with Mr. Goodrich to examine some extensive beds of sulphur at 
the north-east end.' 

After walking about three-quarters of a mile over a tract of decom 
posed lava, covered with ohelo bushes and ferns, we came to a bank 
about a hundred and fifty yards long, and in some places upwards of 
thirty feet high, formed of sulphur, with a small proportion of red 
clay or ochre. The ground was very hot; its surface rent by fissures; 



180 

and we were sometimes completely enveloped in the thick vapours 
that continually ascended from these cracks. 

THE SULPHUR BANKS. 

A number of apertures were visible along the whole extent of the 
bank of sulphur; smoke and vapours arose from these fissures also; 
and the heat of the sulphur around them was more intense than in 
any other part. Their edges were fringed with fine crystals, in various 
combinations, like what are called flowers of sulphur. 

We climbed about half way up the bank, and endeavoured to break 
off some parts of the crust, but soon found it too hot to be handled. 
However, by means of our walking sticks, we detached some curious 
specimens. Those procured near the surface were crystallized in 
beautiful acieular prisms, of a light yellow colour; while those found 
three or four inches deep in the bank, were of an orange yellow, 
generaHy in single or double tetrahedral pyramids, and full an inch 
in length. 

A singular hissing and cracking noise was heard among the crystals, 
whenever the outside crust of the sulphur was broken and the atmos 
pheric air admitted. The same noise was produced among the frag 
ments broken off, until they were quite cold. The adjacent stones and 
pieces of clay were frequently inerusted, either with sulphate of 
ammonia, or volcanic sal ammoniac. Considerable quantities were 
also found in the crevices of some of the neighbouring rocks, which 
were much more pungent than that exposed to the air. 

Along the bottom of the sulphur bank we found a number of 
pieces of tufa, or clay-stone, which appeared to have been fused, ex 
tremely light and cellular. It seemed as if sulphur, or some other 
inflammable substance, had formerly occupied the cells in these stones. 

A thick fog now came over, which, being followed by a shower 
of rain, obliged us to leave this interesting laboratory of nature, and 
return to our companions. 

On the eastern side of the crater, we saw banks of sulphur less 
pure, but apparently more extensive, than those we had visited; but 
their distance from us, and the unfavourable state of the weather, 
prevented our examining them. 

FLOCKS OF WILD GEESE 

On our way to the sulphur banks, we saw two flocks of wild geese, 
which came down from the mountains, and settled among the ohelo 
bushes, near the pools of water. They were smaller than the common 
goose, had brown necks, and their wings were tipped with the same 
colour. The natives informed us there were vast flocks in the interior, 
although they were never seen near the sea. 



181 

Just as the sun was setting we readied the place where we liad left 
OUT baggage, and found Messrs. Bishop and Harwood sitting near the- 
spot, where the natives, with a few green branches of trees, some 
fern leaves, and rushes, had erected a hut. 

MORE SUPERSTITIOUS FEARS OF PELS. 

We were none of us pleased with the site which they had chosen. 
It was at the north-east end of the crater, on a pile of rocks over 
hanging the abyss below, and actually within four feet of the 
precipice. "When we expressed our disapprobation, they said it was 
the only place where we might expect to pass the night undisturbed 
by Pele, and secure from earthquake and other calamity, being the 
place in which alone Pele allowed travellers to build a hut. 

We told them it was unnecessarily near, and, being also unsafe, we 
wished to remove. 

They answered, that as it was within the limits prescribed by Pele 
for safe lodging, they should be unwilling to sleep any where else, 
and had not time to build another hut for us. 

We then directed them to collect a quantity of fire-wood, as we 
expected the night would be cold, although the thermometer then 
stood at 69. We were the more anxious to have the fuel collected 
before the shades of night should close upon us, as travelling in some 
places was extremely dangerous. 

DANGEROUS GROUND UNDERFOOT. 

The ground sounded hollow in every direction, frequently cracked, 
and, in two instances, actually gave way while we were passing over 
it. Mr. Bishop was approaching the hut, when the lava suddenly 
broke under him. He instantly threw himself forward, and fell flat 
on his face over a part that was more solid. 

A boy, who followed me with a basket to the sulphur banks, and 
walked about a yard behind Mr. Goodrich and myself, also fell in. 
There was no crack in the surface of the lava over which he was 
walking, neither did it bend under his weight, but broke suddenly, 
when he sunk in up to his middle. His legs and thighs were con 
siderably bruised, but providentially he escaped without any other 
injury. 

The lava in both places was about two inches in thickness, and 
broke short, leaving the aperture regular and defined, without even 
cracking the adjoining parts. On looking into the holes, we could see 
no bottom, but on both sides, at a short distance from the aperture, 
the lava was solid, and they appeared to have fallen into a narrow 
chasm covered over by a thin erust of lava, already in a state of de 
composition. 



182 

ME. THUBSTON'S ADVENTURE 

night came on, we kindled a good fire, and prepared our frugal 
supper. Mr. Thurston, however, had not yet returned, and, as the 
darkness of the night increased, we "began, to feel anxious for Ms 
safety. The wind came down from the mountains in violent gusts, 
dark clouds lowered over us, and a thick fog enveloped every object; 
even the fires of the volcano were but indistinctly seen. 

The darkness of the night advanced, but no tidings reached us of 
Mr. Thurston. About seven o'clock we sent out the natives with 
torches and firebrands, to search for him. They went as far as they 
durst, hallooing along the border of the crater, till their lights were 
extinguished, when they returned, without having seen or heard any 
thing of Mm. We now increased our fire, hoping it might serve as a 
beacon to direct him to our hut. Eight o'clock came, and he did not 
appear. 

We began seriously to fear that he had fallen into the crater itself, 
or some of the deep and rugged chasms by which it was surrounded. 
A native, who accompanied Mr. Goodrich on a subsequent visit to the 
volcano, fell into one of these chasms; he was severely bruised by the 
fall, and could only be extricated from Ms perilous situation by a rope 
lowered down from the surface. In this state of painful suspense 
we remained till nearly half -past eight, when we were happily relieved 
by his sudden appearance. He had descended, and walked along the 
dark ledge of lava on the east side of the crater, till a chasm obliged 
Mm to ascend. Having with difficulty reached the top, he travelled 
along the southern and western sides, till the light of our fire directed 
him to our encampment. The extent of the crater, the unevenness of 
the path, the numerous fissures and rugged surface of the lava, and 
the darkness of the night, had prevented Ms earlier arrival. 

A STRENUOUS CAMP. 

We now partook with cheerfulness of our evening repast, and after 
wards, amidst the whistling of the winds around, and the roaring of 
the furnace beneath, rendered our evening sacrifice of praise, and com 
mitted ourselves to the secure protection of our God. We then spread 
our mats on the ground, but as we were all wet through with the rain, 
against which our hut was but an indifferent shelter, we preferred to 
sit or stand round the fire, rather than lie down on the ground. 

THE VOLCANO AT NIGHT. 

Between nine and ten, the dark clouds and heavy fog, that since 
the setting of the sun had hung over the volcano, gradually cleared 
away, and the fires of Kirauea, darting their fierce light athwart the 



183 

midnight gloom, unfolded a siglit terrible and sublime beyond all we 
iiad yet seen. 

The agitated mass of liquid lava, like a flood of melted metal, raged 
with tumultuous whirl. The lively flame that danced over its un 
dulating surface, tinged with sulphureous blue, or glowing with 
mineral red, east a broad glare of dazzling light on the indented sides 
of the insulated craters, whose roaring months, amidst rising flames, 
and eddying streams of fire, shot up, at frequent intervals, with very 
loud detonations, spherical masses of fusing lava, or bright ignited 
stones. 

The dark bold outline of the perpendicular and jutting rocks around, 
formed a striking contrast with the luminous lake below, whose vivid 
rays, thrown on the rugged promontories, and reflected by the over 
hanging clouds, combined to complete the awful grandeur of the 
imposing scene, 

A MAGNIFICENT PHENOMENON. 

We sat gazing at the magnificent phenomena for several hours, 
when we laid ourselves down on our mats, in order to observe more 
leisurely their varying aspect; for, although we had travelled up 
wards of twenty miles since the morning, and were both weary and 
cold, we felt but little disposition to sleep. This disinclination was 
probably increased by our proximity to the yawning gulf, and our 
conviction that the detachment of a fragment from beneath the over 
hanging pile on which we were reclining, or the slightest concussion 
of the earth, which every thing around indicated to be no unfrequent 
occurrence, would perhaps precipitate us, amidst the horrid crash of 
f ailing rocks, into the burning lake immediately before us. 

NATIVE VIEWS CONCERNING KILAUEA. 

The natives, who probably viewed the scene with thoughts and 
feelings somewhat different from ours, seemed, however, equally in 
terested. They sat most of the night talking of the achievements of 
Pele, and regarding with a superstitious fear, at which we were not 
surprised, the brilliant exhibition. They considered it the primeval 
abode of their volcanic deities. The conical craters, they said, were 
their houses, where they frequently amused themselves by playing at 
Konane (the game resembling drafts, described on page 158); the 
roaring of the furnaces and the crackling of the flames were the kani 
of their hura, (music of their dance,) and the red flaming surge was 
the surf wherein they played, sportively swimming on the rolling 
wave. Swimming in the sea, when the weather is tempestuous and 
the surf high, is a favourite amusement throughout the Sandwich and 
other islands in the Pacific. 



184: 

NATIVE TRADITIONS CONCERNING VOLCANO. 

As eight of the natives with us belonged to the adjoining district, 
we asked them to tell us what they knew of the history of this vol 
cano, and what their opinions were respecting it. From their account, 
and that of others with whom we conversed, we learned, that it had 
been burning from time immemorial, or, to use their own words, 'mai 
ka po mai," from chaos till now, (the Hawaiian traditions, like those 
of the ancients, refer to night, or a chaotic state, the origin of the 
world, and almost all things therein, the greater part of their gods not 
excepted; the present state they call the Ao marama, Day, or state 
of light; they speak of creation as a transition from darkness to 
light; and when they wish to express the existence of any thing from 
the beginning, they say it has been so mai ka po mai, from the night, 
or state of darkness or confusion, till now;) and had overflowed some 
part of the country during the reign of every king that had gov 
erned Hawaii: that in earlier ages it used to boil up, overflow its 
banks, and inundate the adjacent country; but that, for many kings 7 
reigns past, it had kept below the level of the surrounding plain, 
continually extending its surface and increasing its depth, and occa 
sionally throwing up, with violent explosion, huge rocks or red-hot 
stones. These eruptions, they said, were always accompanied by 
dreadful earthquakes, loud claps of thunder, with vivid and quick- 
succeeding lightning. No great explosion, they added, had taken place 
since the days of Keoua; but many places near the sea had since 
been overflowed, on which occasions they supposed Pele went by a 
road under ground from her house in the crater to the shore. 

These few facts were gathered from their accounts of its origin and 
operation; but they were so incorporated with their traditions of its 
supernatural inhabitants, and fabulous stories of their romantic ad 
ventures, that we found no small difficulty in distinguishing fiction 
from fact. 

MYTHOLOGY OF THE VOLCANO. 

Among other things, we were told, that though, according to the 
traditions preserved in their songs, Kirauea had been burning ever 
since the island emerged from night, it was not inhabited till after 
the Tai-a-kahina'rii, sea of Kahina'rii, or deluge of the Sandwich 
Islands. Shortly after that event, they say, the present volcanic 
family came from Tahiti, a foreign country, to Hawaii. 

The names of the principal individuals were: Kamoho-arii the 
Mng Moho; moho sometimes means a vapour, hence the name might 
be the king of steam or vapour-Ta-poha-i-tahi-ora, the explosion in 
the place of life-Te-ua-a-te-po, the rain of night-Tane-hetiri, hus 
band of thunder, or thundering tane (Tane is the name of one of their 



185 

gods, as well as the name of the principal god formerly worshipped 
by the Society islanders; in both languages tlie word also means a 
husband) and Te-o-ahi-tama-taua, fire-thrusting cHld of war; tliese 
were all "brothers, and two of them, Vulcan-like, were deformed, hav 
ing hump "backs Pele, principal goddess 3kfakore-wawahi-waa, fiery- 
eyed canoe-breaker Hiata-wawahi-lani, heaven-rending cloud-holder 
Hiata-noholani, heaven-dwelling cloud-holder Hiata-taarava-mata, 
quick glancing eyed cloud-holder, or the cloud-holder whose eyes turn, 
quickly and look frequently over her shoulders Hiata~hoi-te-pori-a- 
Pele, the cloud-holder embracing or kissing the bosom of Pele Hiata- 
ta-bu-enaena, the red-hot mountain holding or lifting clouds Hiata- 
tareiia, the wreath or garland-encircled cloud-holder and Hiata-opio, 
young cloud-holder. 

These were all sisters, and, with many others in their train, on 
landing at Hawaii, are said to have taken up their abode in ELrauea. 
Something of their characters may be inferred from the few names we 
have given. Whenever the natives speak of them, it is as dreadful 
beings. 

VOLCANO THE ABODE OF THE GOBS, 

This volcano is represented as having been their principal residence 
ever since their arrival, though they are thought to have many other 
dwellings in different parts of the island, and not a few on the tops 
of the snow-covered mountains. To these some of them frequently 
remove. Sometimes their arrival in a district was foretold by the 
priests of the heiaus there, and always announced by the convulsive 
trembling of the earth, the illuminating fire in their houses, (craters,) 
the flashes of lightning, and the roar of awful thunder. 

OFFERINGS TO THE VOLCANO GODS. 

They never journeyed on errands of mercy; to receive offerings, or 
execute vengeance, where the only objects for which they left their 
palace, "ITui wale," said the people with whom we were talking, 
"ka kanaka i make ia rakou," (alluding to those destroyed by the 
inundations,) Great indeed is the number of men slain by them; ua 
rau, ua rau, ua rau, ka puaa i tioraia na rakou, (this is a figurative 
expression signifying a great number, as we are accustomed to hear 
of thousands, and thousands, and thousands,) four hundreds, four hun 
dreds, four hundreds of hogs have been thrown to them. (Vast num 
bers of hogs, some alive, others cooked, were thrown into the craters 
during the time they were in action, or when they threatened an erup 
tion; and also, during an inundation, many were thrown into the 
rolling torrent of lava, to appease the gods, and stay its progress.) 



186 

VENGEANCE OF THE VOLCANO GODS 

The whole Island was considered as bound to pay tixem tribute, or 
support their heiaus, and kahu, (devotees;) and whenever the chiefs 
or people failed to send the proper offerings, or incurred their dis 
pleasure "by insulting them or their priests, or breaking the tabu 
(saered restrictions) of their domains in the vicinity of the craters, 
they filled Kirauea with lava, and spouted it out, or, taking a sub 
terranean passage, marched to some one of their houses (craters) in 
the neighbourhood where the offending parties dwelt, and from thence 
came down upon the delinquents with all their dreadful scourges. 

If a sufficient number of fish were not taken to them by the in 
habitants of the sea-shore, they would go down, and with fire kill the 
fish, fill up with pahoehoe (lava) the shallow places, and destroy all 
the fishing grounds. 

COMBAT BETWEEN KAMAPUAA AND PELE. 

We were told that several attempts had been made to drive them 
off the islands, and that once they were nearly overpowered by Tama- 
puaa, the Centaur of Hawaii, a gigantic animal, half hog and half 
man. He travelled from Oahu to countries beyond the heavens, viz. 
beyond the visible horizon, the boundary where they supposed the 
heavens to be, in form of a hollow cone, joined to the sea. 

He also visited Kirauea, and made proposals to become the guest 
and suitor of Pele, the elder sister. When she saw him standing on 
the edge of the crater, she rejected his proposals with contempt, call 
ing him a hog, the son of a hog. On her ascending from the crater 
to drive him away, a fierce combat ensued. 

Pele was forced to her volcano, and threatened with destruction 
from the waters of the sea, which Tamapuaa poured into the crater 
till it was almost full, and the fires were nearly extinct. Pele and 
her companions drank up the waters, rose again from the craters, and 
finally succeeded in driving Tamapuaa into the sea, whither she fol 
lowed him with thunder, lightning, and showers of large stones. 

DESTRUCTION OF KEOtTA'S ARMY. 

They also related the account of the destruction of part of Keoua's 
camp by a violent eruption, of the volcano, which, from their descrip 
tion, must have been sudden and awful. 

Pele, they said, was propitious to Tamehameha, and availed herself 
of the opportunity afforded by the contiguous encampment of Keoua 
to diminish his forces and aid the cause of his rival. 

We asked why Keoua was unpopular with Pele. They said, "We 
do not exactly know. Some say, he had not sent sufficient offerings 
to the heiaus; others, that he had no right to make war against 



1ST 

Tamehameha, as lie had before concluded a treaty of peace with. Mm; 
and others, that he had broken the tabu of the place by eating the 
ohelos, marking and disturbing 1 the sand, or pulling up a sacred kind 
of grass growing in the neighbourhood." 

THE EXPLOSIVE ERUPTION OP 1790. 

Whatever was the cause, Pele, they said, was "huhu roa/ 7 ex 
ceedingly angry, and, soon after sun-set, repeatedly shook the earth 
with the most violent heaving motion, sent up a column of dense black 
smoke, followed by the most brilliant flames. 

A violent percussion was afterwards felt, streams of bright red lava 
were spouted up, and immense rocks in a state of ignition thrown 
to a great height in the air. A volley of smaller stones, thrown with 
much greater velocity and force, instantly followed the larger ones, 
and struck some of them, when the latter frequently burst with a re 
port like thunder, accompanied by the most vivid flashes of lightning. 

Many of Keoua's people were killed by the falling fragments of 
rocks, and many were actually buried beneath the overwhelming mass 
of ashes and lava. Some of the natives say, the warriors of two dis 
tricts, about eighty men, perished on this occasion. 

Not intimidated by this event, which many considered as a pre 
monition of his fate, Keoua continued his march, and the volcano 
continued its action, confining, however, its operation within the 
boundaries of Kirauea. 

We had heard the account several times before, with some little 
variation as to the numbers killed, and the appearance of Pele to 
Keoua, in the column of smoke as it rose from the crater, and, with 
the exception of this last circumstance, believe it to be true. 

NATIVE VISIONS OF THE VOLCANO GODS. 

Frequently during the night the natives thought they saw some one 
or other of the deities, but immediately afterwards they doubted. 
At these times, if we asked them where they saw Pele, they would 
sometimes point to the red lava, at others to the variegated flame; and 
on our saying we could not perceive any distinct form, they generally 
answered by assuring us, that during the night some one or other of 
them would certainly be seen. 

We jocosely requested them to inform us as soon as any appeared; 
and even to awake us, should we happen to be asleep. At the same 
time we told them, that when we considered their ignorance of the 
true God, and of the causes by which the action of volcanoes was 
sustained, we were not surprised at their supposing them to be the 
habitations of their deities, and their operations those of supernatural 
beings. 



188 

As far as their language and mental capability admitted, we en 
deavoured to explain some of the causes of volcanic fire; and illus 
trated them by the force of gunpowder, with the effects of which the 
natives are familiar ; assuring them that the expansive force of steam 
is much greater than that of gunpowder. 

Our principal solicitude, however, was to lead their minds to God, 
who created the world, and whose almighty power controls the ele 
ments of nature in all their diversified operations ; but of whom, 
though they beheld the wondrous works of his hand, they were 
lamentably ignorant. 

DIMENSIONS OP THE CRATER 

After two or three hours' sleep, we arose before it was day, and, 
gathering round our fire, sang our morning hymn of praise, in which 
we were joined by the natives who were with us. The sun had now 
risen, and, as we had no provisions left, we felt it necessary to pre 
pare for our departure. Mr. Goodrich walked along the north side of 
the crater, in order to enable us to form as accurate an opinion as 
possible of its actual dimensions; and, from the observations of Mr. 
Goodrich and Mr. Thurston, as well as those the rest of us made when 
we walked along the north and east sides, we think the crater is 
not less than five, or five-and-a-half, miles in circumference. 

The following extract of a letter from Mr. Chamberlain is copied 
from a recent .American publication: 

DESCRIPTION OF EJLAUEA BY GOODRICH 

"Mr. Goodrich and myself visited the volcano again, and, with a 
line, measured the upper edge of the crater, and found it to be seven 
miles and a half in circumference. We then descended, and measured 
the side of the ledge, and satisfied ourselves, that, at the depth of 
500 or 600 feet, the circumference is at least five miles and a half. 
We did not get the exact depth of it, but judge it not less than one 
thousand feet. We had good opportunities for forming a judgment." 

In a letter to Professor Silliman of New Haven, Mr. Goodrich cor 
roborates the above, and states also, that he walked across the bot 
tom, where the lava was hard, the surface of which, though appar 
ently smooth as seen from the top, was raised in hills or sunk in 
valleys; that dense sulphureous fumes and gases, very suffocating, 
some of them resembling muriatic gas, ascended from almost all parts 
of the bottom, making in their escape a "tremendous roaring, like the 
discharge of steam from the boiler of a steam engine;" at one place 
the fiorid lava was boiling like a fountain, and spouting up lava forty 
or fifty feet into the air. Philosophical Magazine for September, 
1826. 



189 
DEPTH OF THE CKATER. 

We regret that we had not means for ascertaining more accurately 
its depth. 

We lowered down a line one hundred feet from the edge o the 
plain on which our hut was erected, "but it did not appear to reach 
near half-way to the "black ledge of lava; and judging the proportion 
below to be equal to that above, it could not be less than 700 or 800 
feet to the liquid lava. 

"We also threw down some large stones ; which after several seconds 
struck on the sides, and then bounded down to the bottom, where 
they were lost in the lava. "When they reached the bottom they ap 
peared like pebbles, and we were obliged to watch their course very 
steadily to perceive them at all. 

A SECOND VISIT TO KILATJEA 

In company with Dr. Blatchely, Messrs. Chamberlain and Ely, 
American missionaries, and a gentleman resident in Oahu, I have 
since visited Kirauea, when we again endeavoured to measure its 
circumference. 

Mr. Chamberlain walked round the northern end from east to west, 
as near the edge as it was prudent to go, and, numbering his paces, 
made that part of it 3 1/16 miles; from which, we think, the above 
estimate does not exceed the actual extent of the crater. 

We also lowered down a line 230 feet long, but it did not reach 
the horizontal ledge of lava. The fissures in the vicinity of the sul 
phur banks, and pools of water, were more numerous, and the smoke 
and vapour that ascended from them greater in quantity, than during 
our first visit. 

CHANGES AT THE VOLCANO. 

The volcano was much more quiescent; but some violent convulsions 
had taken place in the interim, for several masses of rock had fallen 
from the high precipices in the neighbourhood. The fires in the south 
and west parts burned but feebly; and though there was but little fire 
in the north and east sections of the volcano, it was evident that the 
whole of the lava in this part had been in a state of agitation since 
we had seen it. 

Some of the small craters, on the southern sides of the great abyss, 
were extinguished; but several new craters had been formed on the 
opposite side, and bore marks of having been in vigorous action but a 
very short period before. 

Soon after leaving our encampment this morning, we come to the 
pools of water, where we filled our canteens. 



190 
THE JOUBNEY FROM KILAUEA TO HILO. 

Here also our party separated; Messrs. Goodrieh and Harwood pro 
ceeding across the interior through the villages of Ora to Waiakea, 
in the division of Hiro, while the rest of us passed along the east side 
of the crater, towards the sea-shore. 

The path was in many places dangerous, lying along narrow ridges, 
with fearful precipices on each side, or across deep chasms and hol 
lows that required the utmost care to avoid falling into them, and 
where a fall would have been fatal, as several of the chasms seemed 
narrowest at the surface. 

In one place, we passed along for a considerable distance under a 
high precipice, where, though the country was perfectly level at the 
top, or sloped gradually towards the sea, the impending rocks tow 
ered some hundred feet above us on our left, and the appalling flood 
of lava rolled almost immediately beneath us on our right. 

LAYA SPECIMENS AND PELE'S HAIR. 

On this side we descended to some small craters on the declivity, 
and also to the black ledge; where we collected a number of beautiful 
specimens of highly seoriacious lava, the base approaching to volcanic 
glass. It was generally of a black or red colour, light, cellular, brit 
tle, and shining. 

We also found a quantity of volcanic glass drawn out into filaments 
as fine as human hair, and called by the natives rauoho o Pele, (hair 
of Pele). It was of a dark olive colour, semi-transparent, and brittle, 
though some of the filaments were several Inches long. Probably 
it had been produced by the bursting of igneous masses of lava, 
thrown out from the craters, or separated in fine-spun threads from 
the boiling fluid, when in a state of perfect fusion, and, borne by 
the smoke or vapour above the edges of the crater, had been wafted 
by the winds over the adjacent plain; for we also found quantities of 
it at least seven miles distant from the large crater. 

LAYA CONES AND TUNNELS. 

We entered several small craters, that had been in vigorous action 
but a very short period before, marks of most recent fusion presenting 
themselves on every side. Their size and height were various, and 
many, which from the top had appeared insignificant as mole-hills, 
we now found twelve or twenty feet high. The outside was composed 
of bright shining seoriacious lava, heaped up in piles of most singular 
form. The lava on the inside was of a light or dark red colour, with a 
glazed surface, and in several places, where the heat had evidently 
been intense, we saw a deposit of small and beautifully white crystals. 



191 

We also entered several covered channels, or tunnels, down wliicli 
the lava had flowed into the large abyss. They had been formed 
by the cooling of the lava on the sides and surface of the stream, while 
it had continued to flow on underneath. As the size of the current 
diminished, it had left a hard crust of lava of unequal thickness over 
the top, supported by walls of the same material on each side. Their 
interior was beautiful beyond description. 

DESCRIPTION OF LAVA GATES 

In many places they were ten or twelve feet nigh, and as many 
wide at the bottom. The roofs formed a regular arch, hung with red 
and "brown stalaetitic lava, in every imaginable shape, while the floor 
appeared like one continued glassy stream. The winding of its cur 
rent and the ripple of its surface were so entire, that it seemed as 
if, while in rapid motion, the stream of lava had suddenly stopped, 
and "become indurated, even before the undulations of the surface had 
subsided. 

We traced one of these volcanic chambers to the edge of the preci 
pice that bounds the great crater, and looked over the fearful steep, 
down which the fiery cascade had rushed. In the place where it had 
fallen, the lava liad formed a spacious basin, which, hardening as it 
cooled, had retained all those forms which a torrent of lava, falling 
several hundred feet, might be expected to produce on the viscid 
mass below. 

VARIETIES OF EJECTED BOCK. 

In the neighbourhood we saw several large masses of basaltic rock, 
of a dark gray colour, weighing probably from one to four or five 
tons, which although they did not bear any marks of recent fire, 
must have been ejected from the great crater during some violent 
eruption, as the surrounding rocks in every direction presented a very 
different appearance; or they might have been thrown out in a liquid 
state, combined with, other matter that had formed a rock of a less 
durable kind, wMch, decomposing more rapidly, had been washed 
away, and left them in detached masses scattered on the plain. 

They were hard, and, when fractured, appeared a lava of basalt, 
containing very fine grains of compact felspar and augite; some of 
them contained small particles of olivin. 

We also saw a number of other rocks in a state of decomposition, 
which proved to be a species of lava, containing globules of zeolite. 
The decomposition of these rocks appeared to have formed the present 
surface of much of the west, north, and east parts of the plain 
immediately surrounding the crater. 



192 

"When we had Broken off specimens of these, and of some red 
earthy-looking stones, which seemed to have the same base as the 
other, but to have lost their compact texture, and to have experienced 
a change of colour, from a further degree of decomposition, we passed 
along to the east side, where I took a sketch of the south-west end 
of the crater. 

KILAUEA-IKI DESCBIBED. 

As we travelled on from this spot, we unexpectedly came to another 
deep crater, nearly half as large as the former. The native name of 
it is Kirauea-iti, (little Kirauea). It is separated from the large 
crater by an isthmus nearly a hundred yards wide. Its sides, which 
were much less perpendicular than those of the great crater, were 
covered with trees and shrubs, but the bottom was filled with black 
lava, either fluid or scarcely cold, and probably supplied by the great 
crater, as the trees, shrubs, and grass on its sides, shewed it had 
remained many years in a state of quiescence. Though this was the 
only small one we saw, our companions informed us there were many 
in the neighbourhood. 

A RUINED HEIAIT AT KILAUEA. 

They also pointed out to us the ruins of Oararauo, an old heiau, 
which crowned the summit of a lofty precipice on our left. It was 
formerly a temple of Pele, of which Kamalcaakeakua, (the eye of 
god,) a distinguished soothsayer, who Sled in the reign of Tameha- 
meha, was many years priest. 

Large offerings were frequently made of hogs, dogs, fish, and fruits, 
but we could not learn that human victims were ever immolated on 
its altars. These offerings were always cooked in the steaming chasms, 
or the adjoining ground. Had they been dressed any where else, or 
prepared with other fire, they would have been considered polluted, 
and have been expected to draw down curses on those who presented 
them. 

CONDITIONS IN THE TICINITY OF KILAUEA. 

The ground throughout the whole plain is so hot, that those who 
come to the mountains to procure wood for building, or to cut down 
trees and hollow them out for canoes, always cook their own food, 
whether animal or vegetable, by simply wrapping it in fern leaves, 
and burying it in the earth. 

The east side of the plain was ornamented with some beautiful 
species of filiees; also with several plants much resembling some of the 
varieties of eycas, and thickly covered with ohelo bushes, the berries 
of which we ate freely as we walked along, till, coming to a steep 
precipice, we ascended about 300 feet, and reached the high land on 



193 

the side towards the sea,, which commanded a fine view of Mouna 
Boa, opposite to which we had been travelling ever since we left 
Punaruu. 

The mountain appeared of an oval shape, stretching along in a 
southwest direction, nearly parallel with the south-east shore, from 
which its base was generally distant twenty or thirty miles. 

A ridge of high land appeared to extend from the eastern point 
to the south-west shore. Between it and the foot of Mouna Boa was 
a valley, as near as we could judge, from seven to twelve -miles wide. 

MAUNA LOA SNOW CAPPED. 

The summit of Mouna Eoa was never free from snow, the higher 
parts of the mountain's side were totally destitute of every kind of 
vegetation; and by the help of a telescope we could discover numerous 
extinguished craters, with brown and black streams of indurated lava 
over the whole extent of its surface. 

The foot of the mountain was enriched on this side by trees and 
shrubs, which extended from its base six or seven miles towards the 
summit. 

FIBST WHITES TO VISIT KILAUEA. 

The volcano of Kirauea, the largest of which we have any account, 
and which was, until visited by us, unknown to the civilized parts of 
the world, is situated in the district of Kapapala, nearly on the 
boundary line between the divisions of Kau and Puna, twenty miles 
from the sea-shore. 

"We could form no correct estimate of its elevation above the level 
of the sea; the only means we had of judging being the difference of 
temperature in the air, as shewn by our thermometer, which, on the 
shore, was usually at sunrise 71, but which, in the neighbourhood of 
the volcano, was, at the same hour, no higher than 46. 

From the isthmus between Earauea-nui, or Great Elirauea, and Lit 
tle Kirauea, the highest peak of Mouna- Kea bore by compass N". N. "W. 
and the centre of Mouna-Eoa W. S. W. 

The uneven summits of the steep rocks, that, like a wall, many 
miles in extent, surrounded the crater and all its appendages, shewed 
the original level of the country, or perhaps marked the base, and 
formed as it were the natural buttresses of some lofty mountain, 
raised in the first instance by the accumulation of volcanic matter, 
whose bowels had been consumed by volcanic fire, and whose sides had 
afterwards fallen into the vast furnace, where, reduced a second time 
to a liquefied state, they had been again vomited out on the adjacent 
plain. 

13 



194 

SPECULATIONS CONCERNING THE VOLCANO. 

But the magnificent fires of IQrauea, which we tad viewed with, such 
admiration, appeared to dwindle into insignificance, when we thought 
of the probable subterranean fires immediately beneath us. 

The whole island of Hawaii, covering a space of four thousand 
square miles, from the summits of its lofty mountains, perhaps 15,000 
or 16,000 feet above the level of the sea, down to the beach, is, accord 
ing to every observation we could make, one complete mass of lava, 
or other volcanic matter, in different stages of decomposition. 

Perforated with innumerable apertures in the shape of craters, the 
island forms a hollow cone over one vast furnace, situated in the 
heart of a stupendous submarine mountain, rising from the bottom 
of the sea; or possibly the fires may rage with augmented force be 
neath the bed of the ocean, rearing through the superincumbent 
weight of water the base of Hawaii, and, at the same time, forming 
a pyramidal funnel from the furnace to the atmosphere. 

CAPT KING CONCERNING KEA AND LOA. 

In Cook's Voyages, Captain King, speaking of Mouna-Kaah, (Kea,) 
remarks that it "may be clearly seen at fourteen leagues' distance." 

Describing Mouna-Boa, and estimating it according to the tropical 
line of snow, he observes, "This mountain must be at least 16,020 
feet high, which exceeds the height of the Pico de Teyde, or Peak of 
Teneriffe, by 724: feet, according to Dr. Heberden's computation, or 
3680 according to that of Chevalier de Borda. The peaks of Mouna 
Kaah appeared to be about half a mile high; and as they are entirely 
covered with snow, the altitude of their summits cannot be less than 
18,400 feet. But it is probable that both these mountains may be 
considerably higher; for in insular situations, the effects of the warm 
sea air must necessarily remove the line of snow, in equal latitudes, 
to a greater height, than where the atmosphere is chilled on all sides 
by an immense tract of perpetual snow." 

LEAVING THE VOLCANO. 

Though we left our encampment at daybreak, it was eleven o'clock 
in the forenoon before we took our final leave of Kirauea. 

The path by which we descended towards the sea was about south- 
east-by-east. On the high lands in the vicinity of the crater, we 
found the ground covered with strawberry plants, on some of which 
were a few berries, but the season for them appeared to be gone by 
The plants and vines were small, as was also the fruit, which in its 
colour and shape resembled the hautboy strawberry, though in taste it 
was much more insipid. 



195 

Strawberries, as well as raspberries, are indigenous plants, and are 
found in great abundance over most of the high, lands of Hawaii; 
though we do not know of their existence in any other islands of the 
group. 

The ground over which we walked was composed of ancient lava, 
of a light brown colour, broken into small pieces, resembling coarse 
dry gravel, to the depth of two or three inches, below which it was 
one solid mass of lava. The surface was covered with ohelo bushes, 
and a few straggling ferns and low shrubs, which made travelling 
much more agreeable than when we approached the volcano. 

KEANAKAKOI CRATER. 

"Within a few miles of Kirauea, we passed three or four high and 
extinct craters. One of them, Keanakakoi, the natives told us, sent 
forth, in the days of Eiroa, king of Hawaii about fourteen genera 
tions back, most of the lava over which we were travelling. The 
sides of these craters were generally covered with verdure, while the 
brown irregular-shaped rocks on their indented summits frowned like 
the battlements of an ancient castle in ruins. 

We occasionally passed through rather extensive shrubberies of 
bushes and small trees growing in the decomposed lava and sand, and 
striking their roots among the cracks which were filled up with the 
same material. 

DESCRIPTION OF APPROACHES TO PUNA. 

As we approached the sea, the soil became more generally spread 
over the surface, and vegetation more luxuriant. 

About two p. m. we sat down to rest. The natives ran to a spot 
in the neighbourhood, which had formerly been a plantation, and 
brought a number of pieces of sugar-cane, with which we quenched 
our thirst, and then walked on through several plantations of the 
sweet potato, belonging to the inhabitants of the coast, until about 
three o'clock, when we reached the edge of the high ground, which, 
at a remote period, probably formed the south-east coast. 

We stopped at a solitary cottage, where we procured a copious 
draught of fresh water, to us a most grateful beverage, as we had 
travelled ever since the morning without any refreshment, except a 
few berries and a piece of sugar-cane. 

We descended 300 or 400 feet, by a narrow winding path, covered 
with overhanging trees, and bordered by shrubs and grass. We then 
walked over a tract of lava, broken and decomposed, and about four 
or five miles wide, at the end of which another steep appeared. 

These steep precipices form concentric ridges of volcanic rock 
round the greater part of this side of the island. Down this we de- 



196 

seended. by following the course of a rugged current of ancient lava, 
for about 600 feet perpendicular depth, when we arrived at the plain 
below, wMeh was one extended sheet of lava, without shrub or 
bush, stretching to the north and south as far as the eye could reach, 
and from four to six miles across, from the foot of the mountain to 
the sea. 

POOR WATER AT KEALAKOMO 

The natives gave us the fabulous story of the combat between 
Pele and Tamapuaa, as the origin of this flood of lava. 

This vast tract of lava was black, shining, and cellular, though not 
very brittle, and was more homogeneous than that which covered the 
southern shores of the island. 

We crossed it in about two hours, and arrived at Kearakomo, the 
second village In the division of Puna. TTe stopped at the first 
house we came to, and begged some water. The natives brought us 
a calabash-full, of which we drank most hearty draughts, though it 
was little better than the water of the sea, from which it had per 
colated through the vesicles of the lava into the hollows from nine 
to twelve feet distant from the ocean. It barely quenched our thirst 
while we were swallowing it, but it was the best we could procure, 
and we could hardly refrain from drinking at every hollow to which 
we came. 

ACCOMMODATIONS BAD NATIVES DRUNK. 

After walking about a mile along the beach, we came to a house, 
which our guide pointed out as our lodgings. It was a miserable hut, 
and we asked if we could not find better accommodations, as we in 
tended to spend the Sabbath in the village? Mauae told us it waa 
the only one in the place that was not crowded with people, and he 
thought the most comfortable one we could procure. 

The viUage is populous, and the natives soon thronged around us. 
To our great regret, two-thirds of them appeared to be in a state of 
intoxication, a circumstance we frequently had occasion to lament, in 
the villages through which we passed. Their inebriation was gen 
erally the effect of an intoxicating drink made of fermented sugar 
cane juice, sweet potatoes, or ti root. 

MAKING LIQUOR FROM THE TI PLANT. 

The ti plant is common in all the South Sea islands, and is a variety 
of dracasna, resembling the draca^na terminalis, except in the colour 
of its leaves, which are of a lively shining green. It is a slow-grow 
ing plant, with a large woody fusiform root, which, when first dug 
out of the ground, is hard and fibrous, almost tasteless, and of a 
white or light yellow colour. 



197 

The natives "bake It In large ovens underground, In the same man 
ner as they dress the arum and other edible roots. After baking, It 
appears like a different substance altogether, "being of a yellowish 
brown colour, soft though fibrous, and saturated with a highly 
saccharine juice. It is sweet and pleasant to the taste, and much of 
It Is eaten in this state, but the greater part Is employed in making 
an Intoxicating liquor much used by the natives. 

They bruise the baked roots with a stone, and steep them with 
water in a barrel or the bottom of an old canoe, till the mass Is in 
a state of fermentation. The liquor is then drawn off, and some 
times distilled,, when it produces a strong spirit; but the greater part 
of It is drank in its fermented state without any further perparation. 

The root is certainly capable of being used for many valuable pur 
poses. A good beer may be made from it; and in the Society Islands, 
though never able to granulate it, we have frequently boiled its juice 
to a thick syrup, and used it as a substitute for sugar, when destitute 
of that article. 

OTHER, USES OF THE TI PLANT. 

We should think it an excellent antiscorbutic, and as such, useful 
to ships on long voyages. 

Captains visiting the Society Islands frequently procure large quan 
tities of it to make beer with during their voyage, as it will keep good 
six weeks or two months after it is baked. It is not so plentiful in 
the Sandwich Islands as it was before the natives used it for the 
above purpose, but in some of the other islands of the Pacific it is 
abundant, and may be easily procured. 

On my return in the American ship Eussell, Captain Coleman, we 
procured a quantity that had been baked, at Eurutu, near the Society 
Islands, and brought it round Cape Horn. It lasted five or six 
weeks, and would probably have kept longer, as the only change we 
perceived during that time was a slight degree of acidity in the 
taste. Cattle, sheep, and goats, are fond of the leaves; and as they 
contain more nutriment than any other Indigenous vegetable, and 
may be kept on board ships several weeks, they are certainly the 
best provender that can be procured in the islands for stock taken 
to sea. 

TI LEAVES USED AS FLAGS OF TRUCE. 

Other parts of the draesena are also useful. The natives fre 
quently plant the roots thickly around their enclosures, interweave 
the stems of the plant, and form a valuable permanent hedge. 

The branch was always an emblem of peace, and in times of war, 
borne, together with a young plantain tree, as a flag of truce by 
the messengers who passed betwe'en the hostile parties. 



198 

The leaves, woven together "by their stalks, formed a short cloak, 
which the natives wore in their mountainous journeys; they also 
make the most durable thatch for the sides and roofs of their best 
houses, are employed in constructing their tents in war, and tem 
porary abodes during their inland excursions. 

About sunset we sent to the head man of the village for some 
refreshment, but he was intoxicated,* and though we had walked up 
wards of twenty miles since morning, and had subsisted on but scanty 
fare since leaving Kapapala, we could only procure a few cold 
potatoes, and two or three pieces of raw salt fish. 

SUPERSTITIOUS FEAR OP PELE. 

Multitudes crowded around our hut; and with those that were sober 
we entered into conversation. "When they learned that we bad been 
to Kirauea, they were unwilling to believe we had broken the sulphur 
banks, eaten the ohelo berries, descended to the craters, or broken 
any fragments of lava from them, as they said Pele ma, Pele and her 
associates, would certainly have revenged the insult. However, when 
our boys shewed them the ohelo berries, with the specimens of sul 
phur and lava that we had brought away, they were convinced that 
we had been there, but said we had escaped only because we were 
haore, foreigners. No Hawaiian, they added, would have done so- 
with impunity, for Pele was a dreadful being. 

The apprehensions uniformly entertained by the natives, of the 
fearful consequences of Pele's anger, prevented their paying very 
frequent visits to the vicinity of her abode; and when, on their inland 
journeys, they had occasion to approach Kirauea, they were scrupu 
lously attentive to eveiy injunction of her priests, and regarded 
with a degree of superstitious veneration and awe, the appalling spec 
tacle which the crater and its appendages presented. 

The violations of her sacred abode, and the insults to her power, 
of which we had been guilty, appeared to them, and to the natives 
in general, acts of temerity and sacrilege; and, notwithstanding the 
fact of our being foreigners, we were subsequently threatened with, 
the vengeance of the volcanic deity, under the following circum- 
stanes. 

A PRIESTESS OF PELE THREATENS VENGEANCE. 

Some months after our visit to Kirauea, a priestess of Pele came 
to Lahaina, in Maui, where the principal chiefs of the islands then 
resided. The object of her visit was noised abroad among the people, 
and much public interest excited. One or two mornings after her 
arrival in the district, arrayed in her prophetic robes, having the 
edges of her garments burnt with fire, and holding a short staff or 



199 

spear in her hand, preceded by her daughter, who was also a candi 
date for the office of priestess, and followed by thousands of the 
people, she came into the presence of the chiefs; and having told who 

she was, they asked what communications she had to make. 

She replied, that, in a, trance or vision, she had been with Pele, 
"by whom she was charged to complain to them that a number of 
foreigners had visited Earauea; eaten the sacred berries; broken her 
houses, the craters; thrown down large stones, &e. to request that 
the offenders might be sent away; and to assure them, that if these 
foreigners were not banished from the islands, Pele would certainly, 
in a given number of days, take vengeance by inundating the country 
with lava, and destroying the people. She also pretended to have 
received, in a supernatural manner, Rihoriho's approbation of the 
request of the goddess. 

PELE'S PRIESTESS REPUDIATED BY KAAHUMANU. 

The crowds of natives who stood waiting the result of her inter 
view with the chiefs, were almost as much astonished as the priestess 
herself, when Kaahumanu and the other chiefs ordered all her para 
phernalia of office to be thrown into the fire; told her the message 
she had delivered was a falsehood, and directed her to return home, 
cultivate the ground for her subsistence, and discontinue her jour 
neys of deception among the people. 

This answer was dictated by the chiefs themselves. 

The missionaries at the station, although they were aware of the 
visit of the priestess, and saw her, followed by the thronging crowd, 
pass by their habitation on her way to the residence of the chiefs, 
did not think it necessary to attend or interfere, but relied entirely 
on the enlightened judgment and integrity of the chiefs, to suppress 
any attempts that might be made to revive the influence of Pele 
over the people; and in the result they were not disappointed, for 
the natives returned to their habitations, and the priestess soon after 
left the island, and has not since troubled them with the threaten- 
ings of the goddess. 

KAPIOLANI'S VISIT TO EZLAUEA. 

On another occasion, Kapiolani, a pious chief -woman, the wife of 
Kaihe, chief of Kaavaroa, was passing near the volcano, and ex 
pressed her determination to visit it. 

Some of the devotees of the goddess met her, and attempted to dis 
suade her from her purpose; assuring her that though foreigners 
might go there with security, yet Pele would allow no Hawaiian to 
intrude. 



200 

Kapiolani, however, was not to be thus diverted, but proposed that 
they should all go together; and declaring that if Pele appeared, or 
inflicted any punishment, she would then worship the goddess, but 
proposing that if nothing of the kind took place, they should renounce 
their attachment to Pele, and join with her and her friends in 
acknowledging Jehovah as the true God. 

They all went together to the volcano; Kapiolani, with her attend 
ants, descended several hundred feet towards the bottom of the 
crater, where she spoke to them of the delusion they had formerly 
laboured under in supposing it inhabited by their false gods; they 
sung a hymn, and after spending several hours in the vicinity, pur 
sued their journey. What effect the conduct of Kapiolani, on this 
occasion, will have on the natives in general, remains yet to be dis 
covered. 

RECENT VOLCANIC ACTIVITY AT KEALAALA AND MAHUKA. 

The people of Kearakomo also told us, that no longer than five 
moons ago, Pele, had issued from a subterranean cavern, and over 
flowed the low land of Kearaara, and the southern part of Kapapala. 
The inundation was sudden and violent, burnt one canoe, and car 
ried four more into the sea. 

At Mahuka, the deep torrent of lava bore into the sea a large rock, 
according to their account, near a hundred feet high, which, a short 
period before, had been separated by an earthquake from the main 
pile in the neighbourhood. It now stands, they say, in the sea, nearly 
a mile from the shore, its bottom surrounded by lava, its summit 
rising considerably above the water. 

^ We exceedingly regretted our ignorance of this inundation at the 
time when we passed through the inland parts of the above-men 
tioned districts, for had we known of it then, we should certainly 
have descended to the shore, and examined its extent and appearance. 
We now felt convinced that the chasms we had visited at Ponaho- 
hoa and the smoking fissures we afterwards saw nearer Kirauea 
marked the course of a stream of lava, and thought it probable that 
though the lava had burst out five months ago, it was still flowing in 
a smaller and less rapid stream. 

Perhaps the body of lava that had filled Kirauea up to the black 
ledge which we saw, between three and four hundred feet above the 
liquid lava, at the time we visited it, had been drawn off by this 
subterranean channel, though the distance between the great crater 
and tf>e land overflowed by it, was not less than thirty or thirty- 



201 
A NIGHT AND DAT AT KEALAKOMO. 

When the day "began to close, and we wished the natives to retire, 
we told them that to-morrow was the sacred day of Jehovah, the 
trne God, and directed them to come together early in the morning, 
to hear Ms word, and nnite with us in Ms worship. We then spread 
OUT mats upon some poles that lay at one end of the house, and, as 
we had no lamp, and could procure no candle-nuts, we laid ourselves 
down as soon as it became dark, and, notwithstanding our uncom 
fortable lodging place, slept very soundly till day-break. 

l Welcome, sweet day of rest, 77 was the language of our hearts, as 
on the morning of the 3d we beheld the Sabbath's early light dawn 
on the desolate shores of Pnna, and saw the bright luminary of day, 
emblem of the Sabbath's Lord, rise from the eastern wave of the 
extended Pacific. 

After the fatiguing journey, and unusual excitement, of the past 
week, a day's rest was necessary, and we were happy to spend it 
in the populous, though desolate-looking village of Kearakonio, as it 
afforded us an opportunity of unfolding the Saviour's love to many of 
its inhabitants, and inviting them to seek that everlasting rest and 
happiness reserved for his followers in the heavenly world. 

SUNDAY MORNING- SERVICE S WITH THE NATIVES. 

Between six and seven o'clock, about two hundred of the people 
collected in front of our house. We sung a hymn; one of our number 
preached to them a discourse, wMeh occupied rather more than half 
an hour; and another concluded the service with prayer. They were 
all sober, and appeared attentive. Several proposed questions to us; 
and when we had answered them, we directed them to return to their 
houses, to abstain from fishing and other ordinary employments, and, 
when the sun was over their heads, (the manner of expressing mid 
day,) to come together again, and hear more about Jehovah and 
Jesus Christ. Many, however, continued talking with the natives be 
longing to our company, and gazing at us through most of the day. 

HOSPITALITY OF NATIVES. 

About nine a. m. a friend of Mauae brought us a bundle of potatoes 
and a fowl. We procured another; our native boys cooked them in 
an oven, of stones under ground, and they made us a good breakfast. 
All that we wanted was fresh water, that which we were obliged to 
drink being extremely brackish. 3?or it, however, and our other re 
freshments, we felt thankful; and considered the inconvenience of 



202 

wanting fresh water very trifling, compared with, the pleasure which 
passing a Sabbath among the poor benighted people around, imparted, 
in declaring to them the love of G-od, and inviting them to partake 
of the bread which came down from heaven, and to drink of the foun 
tain of the water of life. 

FURTHER SERVICES AND HOSPITALITY. 

At 12 o'clock, about three hundred of the people again assembled 
near our dwelling, and we held a religious exercise similar to that 
which they had attended in the morning. 

The head man of the village was present during the service. He 
came into our house after it was over, and told us all Ms provisions 
were at his farm, which was some distance inland, and that tomor 
row he intended to bring us a pig, and some potatoes. We thanked 
him, but told him probably we should proceed on our way early in the 
morning. He went away, and in a short time returned with a raw 
salted albicore, and a basket of baked sweet potatoes, which he said 
was all he could furnish us with to-day. 

We spent the afternoon in conversation with those who crowded 
our hut, and wished to inquire more fully about the things of which 
they had heard. 

Between five and six in the evening, the people again collected for 
worship in front of our house, when they were addressed from Isaiah 
Ix. 1. "Arise, shine, for thy light is come." They listened with 
attention to the advantages of Christian light and knowledge, con 
trasted with pagan ignorance and misery, and several exclaimed at 
the close of the service, Oia no. Poereere makou. E ake makou i 
hoomaramarania ia. "So it is. We are dark. We desire to be en 
lightened. ' ' 

FRESH WATER A LUXURY. 

In the evening, we were so favoured as to procure a calabash-full 
of fresh water from the caves in the mountains, where it had filtered 
through the strata of lava, and was received into vessels placed there 
for that purpose. It tasted bitter, from standing long in the cala 
bashes; but yet it was a luxury, for our thirst was great, notwith 
standing the quantities of water we had drank during the day. 

About sunset we ate some of our raw fish and half-baked potatoes. 
When it began to grow dark, we concluded the day with prayer, 
imploring the gracious influences of the Holy Spirit to follow our 
feeble attempts to declare his truth, and make it effectual to the 
spiritual welfare of the people. 

We afterwards lay down upon our mats, but passed an uncom 
fortable night, from the swarms of vermin which infested the house, 



203 

and the indisposition induced by the nature of the food and water we 
had taken since leaving the volcano. 

We held worship with the people of the village at sunrise on the 
4th, and after a short address, in which we earnestly recommended 
them to give themselves up to the Saviour, we bade them farewell, 
and set out again on our journey. 

Leaving Kearakomo, we travelled several miles in a north-easterly 
direction along the same bed of lava that we had crossed on Satur 
day evening. 

WHY NATIVES LITE ALONG THE SHORE. 

The population of this part of Puna, though somewhat numerous, 
did not appear to possess the means of subsistence in any great 
variety or abundance; and we have often been surprised to find the 
desolate coasts more thickly inhabited than some of the fertile 
tracts in the interior; a circumstance we can only account for, by 
supposing that the facilities which the former afford for fishing, 
induce the natives to prefer them as places of abode; for they find 
that where the coast is low, the adjacent water is generally shallow. 

We saw several fowls and a few hogs here, but a tolerable number 
of dogs, and quantities of dried salt fish, principally albicores and 
bonitos. This latter article, with their poe and sweet potatoes, con 
stitutes nearly the entire support of the inhabitants, not only in this 
vicinity, but on the sea-e oasts of the north and south parts of the 
island. 

DRIED FISH AN ARTICLE OF COMMERCE. 

Besides what is reserved for their own subsistence, they cure large 
quantities as an article of commerce, which they exchange for the 
vegetable productions of Hiro and Mamakua, or the mamake and 
other tapas of Ora and the more fertile districts of Hawaii. 

When we had passed Punau, Leapuki, and Kamomoa, the country 
began to wear a more agreeable aspect. Groves of cocoa-nuts orna 
mented the projecting points of land, clumps of kou-trees appeared 
in various directions, and the habitations of the natives were also 
thickly scattered over the coast. 

THE HEIAU OF WAHAULA. 

At noon we passed througn Pulana, where we saw a large heiau 
ealled Wahaura, Bed Mouth, or Red-feather Mouth, built by 
Tamehameha, and dedicated to Tairi, his war-god. Human sacrifices, 
we were informed, were occasionally offered here. 



204 

Shortly after, we reached Kupahua, a pleasant village, situated on a 
rising ground, in the midst of groves of shady trees, and surrounded 
"by a well-cultivated country. Here we stopped, and, having collected 
tie people of the village, I preached to them. They afterwards 
proposed several interesting inquiries connected with what they had 
heard, and said it was a good thing for us to aroha, or have com 
passion on them. They also asked when we would come again. 

AT KALAPANA RESIDENCE OP PRIEST KAPIHI 

Leaving this interesting place, we passed on to Kalapana, a small 
village on the sea-shore, distingished as the residence of Kapihi, the 
priest, who, in the days of Tamehameha, told the king, that after 
death he and all his ancestors would live again on Hawaii. 

"We saw a large heiau, of which he was chief priest, "but did not see 
many people in the houses as we passed by. Kapihi had many 
disciples, who believed, or pretended to believe, his predictions. 

Frequent offerings were made to Kuahairo, his god, at other parts 
of the island more frequently visited by the king, and this probably 
drew away many of the people from Kalapana. 

AT KAIMU -ROYAL RECEPTION TO MAUAE. 

About three p. m. we approached Kaimu. This was the birth-place 
of Mauae, and the residence of most of his relations. He was a 
young man belonging to the governor, who had been sent with the 
canoe, and who, since leaving Honuapo, had acted as our guide. He 
walked before us as we entered the village. The old people from the 
houses welcomed him as he passed along, and numbers of the young 
men and women came out to meet him, saluted him by touching 
noses, and wept for joy at his arrival. Some took off his hat, and 
crowned Mm with a garland of flowers; others hung round Ms neck 
wreaths of a sweet-scented plant resembling ivy, or necklaces com 
posed of the nut of the fragrant pandanus odoratissime. 

"When we reached the house where his sister lived, she ran to meet 
Mm, threw her arms around his neck, and having affectionately 
embraced him, walked hand in hand with him through the village. 

Multitudes of young people and children followed, chanting his 
name, the names of his parents, the place and circumstances of his 
birth, and the most remarkable events in the history of his family, 
in a lively song, which, he afterwards informed us, was composed on 
the occasion of his birth. The following fragments of the commence 
ment, wMeh I afterwards wrote down from the mouth of one of his 
aged relatives who was with us, will suffice as a specimen, as the 
whole is too long for insertion: 



205 



FRAGMENT OF A SONG ON THE NAME OF MAUAE. 



Inoa o iMauae a Para, 
He aha maton auanei 

Manae, te wahine horua ntd, 
Wabine maheai pono. 

Tun ra te Ravaia 

1 ta wahine maheai, 

I pono wale ai te ama o orua. 
I ravaia te tane, 
I mahe ai te wahine, 
Mahe te ai na te ohua, 

I ai na te puari. 

Malama te ora na te hoapiriwale. 
E Mahe ai na Tuitelani. 
Owerawahie i uta i Tapapala. 

Tupu man ua ore te pan. 
Oneanea te aina o Tuaehu. 

Ua tu ra te manu. i te pari Ohara- 

haia. 

Ewara te po, ewara te ao, 
Ua pan te aho o na hoa maheai, 

I te tanu wale i te ran, a maloa 

Ua mate i te la, 
Ua tu nevaneva. 
I ta matani, ua ino auaurere, 

Ua tu ta repo i Hiona : 

Pura ta onohi i ta u i ta repo 

Tauai, O Tauai, aroha wale 
Te ama i roto o te tai, 

E noho marie oe I roto o te tai, 

E hariu ai te aro i rebua. 

Pura ta onohi i ta matani, 
Ta tatau ta iri onionio, 

Ta repo a Tan i Pohaturoa, 

Te a i Ohiaotalani 

Ma tai te aranui e hiti ai 

1 te one i Tainra, 
Ma uta i ta tuahivi, 
Te aranui i hunaia 
Narowale Tirauea i te ino. 
Noho Pele i Tirauea, 

I tahu man ana i te rua. 



Name of Mauae, 1 (son) of Para, 

How shall we declare ? 

O Mauae, woman famous at horaa, 

Woman tilling well the ground. 

Give the fisherman, 

To the woman (who) txlleth the ground; 

Happy will be the land of you two, 

A fi&herman the husband, 

The wife a tiller of the ground. 

Cultivated food for the aged, and the 
young ; 

Food for the company of favourite war 
riors, 

Kegarded the life of the friend 

Cultivated for Tuitelani 3 

Burnt were the woods inland of Tapa 
pala. 

Long parched had been the precipice. 

Lonely was the land of Tuaehu. 

The bird perched on Oharahara rocks. 

Eight the nights, eight the days, 
Gone was the breath of those who help 

the tillage, 
With planting herbs (they) were 

fatigued ; 

Fainting under the sun, 
(They) looked anxiously around 
By the wind, the flying scudding 

tempest, 
Thrown up was the earth (or dust) at 

Hiona : 

Red were the eye-balls with the dust 
Tauai,* O Tauai, loved he 
The land in the midst of the sea, 
Thou dwellest quietly in the midst of 

the sea, 
And turnest' thy face to the pleasant 

wind, 

Red were the eye balls with the wind, 
(Of those) whose skin was spotted with 

tatau, 

The sand of Tail (lay) at Pohaturoa, 5 
The lava at Ohiaotalani. 6 
By the sea was the road to airive 
At the sandy beach of Taimu, 
Inland by the mountain ridges, 
The path that was concealed. 
His was Tirauea 7 by the tempest. 
Pele 8 abode in Tirauea, 
In the pit, ever feeding the fires 



1 Mother of the young man. s Horua, a native game 8 Name of a chief. 
* Atooi 5 Districts. G North peak of the volcano T The great volcano. 8 God 
dess of volcanoes. 



They continued chanting their song, and thus we passed through 
their plantations, and groves of cocoanut trees, till we reached his 
father's house, where a general effusion of affection and joy pre 
sented itself, which it was impossible to witness without delight. 

MAUAE'S FAMILY REUNION. 

A number of children, wno ran on before, had announced his ap 
proach; his father, followed by his brothers and several other rela 
tions, came out to meet him, and, under the shade of a wide-spreading 
kou-tree, fell on his neek, and wept aloud for some minutes; after 
which they took him by the hand, and led him through a neat little 
garden into the house. 

He seated himself on a mat on the floor, while his brothers and 
sisters gathered around him; some unlossed his sandals, and rubbed 
his limbs and feet; others clasped his hand, frequently saluting it 
by touching it with their nose; others brought him a calabash of 
water, or a lighted tobacco pipe. 

One of his sisters, in particular, seemed much affected; she clasped 
Ms hand, and sat for some time weeping by his side. At this we 
should have been surprised, had we not known it to be the usual man 
ner, among the South Sea Islanders, of expressing unusual joy or 
grief. In the present instance, it was the unrestrained expression 
of joyful feelings. Indeed, every one seemed at a loss how to mani 
fest the sincere pleasure which his unexpected arrival, after several 
years' absence, had produced. 

WELL PROVIDED FOB WITH FOOD AND FRESH WATER. 

On first reaching the house, we had thrown ourselves down on a 
mat, and remained silent spectators, not, however, without being 
considerably affected by the interesting scene. 

We had been sitting in the house about an hour, when, a small 
hog, baked under-ground, with some good sweet potatoes, was brought 
in for dinner, of which we were kindly invited to partake. As 
there was also plenty of good fresh water here, we found ourselves 
more comfortably provided for than we had been since leaving Ka- 
papala on Thursday last. 

At six o'clock in the evening, we sent to collect the people of the 
village to hear preaching. Between three and four hundred assem 
bled, under a clump of shady cordia trees, in front of the house, 
and I preached to them from Psalm xxii. verses 27 and 28. 

Our singing appeared to interest them, as well as other parts of 
the service, and at the conclusion several exclaimed, "Jehovah is a 
goad &od; I desire him for my God." 



207 

About this time llakoa arrived with our baggage. We were glad 
to see Mm, and inquired where he had been during the past weekf 
He said he remained only one night at Honuapo, and followed on the 
next morning; observing, at the same time, we must have travelled 
fast, or he should have been here before us, as he had not gone 
round by the volcano, but had proceeded in a straight Hne from 
Kapapala to Kearakomo. 

NATIVE TRADITIONS CONCERNING THE VOLCANO. 

The evenings we spent with the people of the place in conversa 
tion on various subjects, but principally respecting the volcano which 
we had recently visited. They corroborated the accounts we had 
before heard, by telling us it had been burning from time imme 
morial, and added, that eruptions from it had taken place during 
every king's reign, whose name was preserved in tradition, or song, 
from Akea, first king of the island, down to the present monarch. 

Kaimu, the district where we were, was overflowed in the days of 
Arapai, but how many generations it was since he reigned, we could 
not learn, as they were not agreed about it among themselves. 

They also repeated the account of the inundation of Kearaara, and 
the low land of Kapapala, five moons ago, and some of them told us 
they had seen the large rock carried out into the sea at Mahuka. 
Like the people of Kearakomo, they believed Kirauea to be the abode 
of supernatural beings. 

They recapitulated the contest between Pele and Tamapuaa, and 
related the adventures of several warriors, who, with spear in hand, 
had opposed the volcanic demons when coming down on a torrent of 
lava. They could not believe that we had descended into the crater, 
or broken off pieces of Pele 's houses, as they called the small craters, 
until the specimens of lava, &e. were produced, when some of them 
looked very significantly, and none of them cared much to handle 
them. 

We tried to convince them of their mistake in supposing Kirauea 
was inhabited, and unfolded to them, in as simple a manner as pos 
sible, the nature of volcanoes, and of their various phenomena, assur 
ing them, at the same time, that they were under the sovereign con 
trol of Jehovah, the only true God. Some said, "Ae paha, M "Yes, 
perhaps;" others were silent. 

PREACHING AND TALKING AT KAIMTJ. 

lumbers of the people were present at our evening worship, which 
we conducted in their language. 

After a very comfortable night's rest, we arose at daybreak on the 
5th. 



208 

At sun-rise the people assembled more numerously than they had 
done on the preceding evening, and I preached to them from these 
words, "Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, 
and sent Ms Son to be the propitiation for our sins." They appeared 
to listen with interest, and numbers sat down under the kou-trees, 
talking among themselves on the subject, for a long time after the 
services had closed. 

After breakfast we walked through the district, entered several of 
the cottages, and talked with the people. 

GREAT EARTHQUAKE AT KAIMU IN 1823. 

We also examined the effects of an earthquake experienced in this 
place about two months before. We were informed that it took place 
about ten o'clock in the evening. The ground, after being agitated 
some minutes with a violent tremulous motion, suddenly burst open, 
for several miles in extent, in a direction from north by east, to 
south by west, and emitted, in various places at the same instant, 
a considerable quantity of smoke and luminous vapour, but none of the 
people were injured by it. 

A stone wall, four feet thick and six feet high, enclosing a garden 
at the north end of the village, was thrown down. 

A chasm about a foot wide marked distinctly its course; this was 
generally open, though in some places it seemed as if the earth had 
closed up again. 

AN EARTHQUAKE CHASM. 

We entered a house, sixteen feet by twelve in the inside, through 
which it had passed. Ten persons, viz. one man, six women, and 
three children, were asleep here at the time it occurred. They were 
lying on both sides of the house, with their heads towards the centre; 
some of them very near the place where the ground was rent open. 
The trembling of the ground, they said, awoke them, but before 
they could think what it was that had disturbed them, the earth 
opened with a violent percussion; a quantity of sand and dust was 
thrown up with violence, and smoke and steam were at the same time 
emitted. 

After a short interval, a second percussion was felt, vapour again 
arose, and at the opposite end of the house to that in which they 
were lying, they saw a light blue flame, which almost instantly dis 
appeared. 

We asked them if they were not alarmed? They said they were at 
first, but after remaining awake some time, and finding the shock 
was not repeated, they lay down and slept till morning, when 
they filled up the fissure with grass and earth! 



209 

We examined the aperture, that still remained open at one end of 
the house., and found its sides perpendicular, and its breadth one foot 
and eleven inches. The north-west corner of the house was broken by 
the shock. 

TRACING- THE EARTHQUAKE CRACK. 

TTe next traced its course through the fields of potatoes. In some 
places the ground seemed hardly disturbed, yet it sunk six or eight 
inches beneath our tread. At other places we saw apertures upwards 
of two feet wide. The potatoes that were growing immediately in 
the direction of the fissure, were all spoiled. Several roots of consid 
erable size were thrown out of the ground, and, according to the 
representations of the natives, appeared as if they had been scorched. 

At the south end of the village, it had passed through a small 
well, in which originally there was seldom more than eighteen inches ' 
depth of water, though since that period there has been upwards of 
three feet. 

The crack was about ten inches wide, running from north to south 
across the bottom of the well. The water has not only increased in 
quantity, but suffered a great deterioration in quality, being now 
very salt; and its rising and falling with the ebbing and flowing of 
the tide, indicates its connexion with the waters of the ocean, from 
which it is distant about 300 yards. 

Convulsions of this kind are common over the whole island: they 
are not, however, so frequent in this vicinity as in the northern and 
western parts, and are seldom violent, except when they immediately 
precede the eruption of a volcano. 

The superstitions of the natives lead them to believe they are pro 
duced by the power of Pele, or some of the volcanic deities, and con 
sider them as requisitions for offerings, or threatenings of still greater 
calamities. 

DESCRIPTION AND POPULATION OP KAIMU AND MAKENA. 

In the afternoon, Messrs. Thurston and Bishop walked over to 
Makena, a pleasant village about a mile to the southward of Kaimu, 
where they collected about one hundred people, to whom Mr. Thurs 
ton preached in one of their houses. A greater number would prob 
ably have attended, but for the rain which fell during most of the 
afternoon. Mr. Bishop numbered the houses in the village, and found 
them, including Makena, to be 145. 

Kaimu is pleasantly situated near the sea shore, on the S. E. side 
of the island, standing on a bed of lava considerably decomposed, 
and covered over with a light and fertile soil. It is adorned with 
plantations, groves of cocoa-nuts, and clumps of kou-trees. It has a 

14 



210 

fine sandy beach, where canoes may land with safety; and, according 
to the houses numbered to-day, contains about 725 inhabitants. 

Including the villages in its immediate vicinity, along the coast, 
the population would probably amount to 2000; and, if water could 
be procured near at hand, it would form an eligible missionary 
station. 

There are several wells in the village, containing brackish water, 
which has passed from the sea, through the cells of the lava, under 
going a kind of illtration, and is collected in hollows scooped out to 
receive it. 

The natives told us, that, at the distance of about a mile there was 
plenty of fresh water. 

KAIMU NATIVES SOBER AND INDUSTRIOUS. 

The extent of cultivation in the neighbourhood, together with the 
decent and orderly appearance of the people, induced us to think 
they are more sober and industrious than those of many villages 
through which we have passed. 

The rain continuing through the afternoon, prevented our preach 
ing to the people, but many, influenced probably by motives of 
curiosity, collected in the house where we lodged, in conversation with 
whom we passed the evening. 

Their ignorance and superstition awakened lively sympathy in our 
minds. They are still "without God in the world," and are satis 
fied with their state. 

RELIG-IOUS BELIEFS AND THEORIES. 

Like the inhabitants of Honuapo and Kapauku, and most of those 
we had conversed with on the subject, they rejoiced in the abolition 
of the national idolatry. Its general features precluded their ever 
contemplating it with pleasure or satisfaction, and every memento 
that remains, only serves to awaken the recollection of its cruelty, 
and the oppressive bondage under which they were enslaved while it 
continued. From this they feel themselves emancipated, and seem 
also to enjoy, in some degree, the social and domestic comfort re 
sulting from their dwelling together in one house, sitting down to 
the same repast, and eating the same kind of food. But though they 
approved of the destruction of the national idols, many were far from 
having renounced idolatry, and were in general destitute of all 
knowledge of that dispensation of grace and truth which came by 
Jesus Christ. They related many tales about their gods, and seemed 
firm believers in the existence of deities in the volcanoes. 



211 

NATIYE THEORIES CONCERNING LIFE AFTER DEATH. 

Respecting family idols, the natives in general suppose that after 
the deatiL of any member of a family, the spirit of the departed 
hovers about the places of its former resort, appears to the survivors 
sometimes in a dream, and watches over their destinies; henee they 
worship an image with which they imagine the spirit is in some way 
connected. 

"We endeavoured to convince them of their mistake respecting the 
objects of their worship, spoke to them of Jehovah, the only being to 
whom religious homage should be rendered, and of that life and 
immortality revealed in the sacred scriptures. 

Before we retired, we wrote a letter to the governor, informing 
him of our progress, the hospitality of the people in general, and 
the kind attention we had received from Mauae, who intended to 
return from this place to Kairua. 

At daybreak on the 6th, Mauae and his family united with us in 
our morning worship, after which we recommended him to improve 
the time he might spend here, in teaching Ms brothers and sisters 
to read and write, in telling them of the true God, and persuading 
them, and the people of the place, to avoid intoxication and every 
other vice, and to regard the sabbath-day by refraining from labour 
and amusement. He promised to try what he could do; and, when 
we had taken leave of the family, he walked with us through the 
village, pointed out the best road, then gave us his parting aroha, 
and returned to his house. 

DISCUSSIONS WITH THE NATIVES AT KEOUOHANA. 

After travelling nearly two hours, we arrived at Keouohana, where 
we sat down to rest beneath the shade of some cocoa-nut trees. 

Makoa, our guide, spoke to the head man, and he directed the* 
people to collect near his house. About 100 soon assembled, and when- 
we had explained to them in few words, the object of our visit, we 
re quested them to sit down, and listen to the tidings we had brought. 
They immediately obeyed. 

"We sang a hymn in their language, after which an address was 
given, and the service concluded in the usual manner. As soon as 
it was finished, they began to talk about what we had told them. 
Some said it was very good: they had never heard before of a God 
who had sent his Son to save men. Others said, it was very well 
for the haore (foreigners) to believe it, but Tane, Bono, Tanaroa, 
and Tu, were the gods of the Sandwich Islanders. 

Makoa, who was a chief speaker among them on such occasions, 
said they must all attend to the new word, must forsake thieving 
and drunkenness, infanticide and murder, and do no work on the 



212 

la tabu, (day sacred;) adding, at the same time, tiiat the king had. 
received the palapala, books, &c. and went to church on the saered 
day, as did also Kuakini, the governor. 

The head man "brought us some ripe plantains, of which we ate a 
few, and then proceeded on our way, leaving them busy in conversa 
tion about the news they had heard,* which, in all probability, were 
"strange things" to their ears. 

AT KEHENA AN INGENIOUS LANDING DEVICE. 

After travelling a mile and a half along the shore, we came to 
Kehena, a populous village,* the people seemed, from the number of 
their canoes, nets, &e. to be much engaged in fishing. Their con 
trivance for launching and landing their canoes, was curious and 
singular. 

The bold coast is formed of perpendicular or overhanging rocks, 
from forty to sixty feet high, against which, this being the wind 
ward part of the island, the swell beats violently. 

In one place, where there were a few low rocks about thirty feet 
from the shore, they had erected a kind of ladder. Two long poles, 
one tied to the end of the other, reached from these rocks to the 
top of the cliffs. Two other poles, tied together in the same manner, 
were fixed parallel to the first two, and about four or five feet distant 
from them. Strong sticks, eight or ten feet long, were laid across 
these at right angles, and about two or three inches apart, which 
being fastened to the long poles with ie, (the tough fibrous roots of a 
climbing sort of plant, which they find in the woods,) formed the 
steps of this ingenious and useful ladder. 

LANDING OF THE CANOES. 

The canoes of the place were light and small, seldom carrying more 
than one man in each. A number were ]ust landing, as we arrived at 
the place. Two men went down, and stood close to the water's edge, 
on the leeward or southern side of the rock. 

The canoes were paddled up one at a time. The person in each, 
then watching a convenient opportunity, rowed swiftly to shore, when 
the rolling billow carried the canoe upon the rock, and it was seized 
by two men who stood there to receive it. At the same instant that it 
was grasped on each side by the men on the rock, the one in the canoe, 
who steered it, jumped into the sea, swam to the shore, and assisted 
them in carrying it up the ladder to the top of the cliff, where they 
placed it upon curiously carved stools, made of the wood of the 
erythrina, and returned to the rock to await the arrival of another 
canoe. In this way five or six were brought up while we stood 
looking at them, and I took a sketch of their useful contrivance. 



213 

We then walked to the house of tlie head man, which was large, and 
contained several families. A number of people soon gathered round 
us; and when they had expressed their wishes to hear what we had 
to say, I addressed them on the subject of our religion. 

HOSPITABLE RECEPTION AT KAMAILI. 

Leaving Kehena, we walked on to Kamaili, a pleasant village, 
standing in a gently sloping valley, cultivated and shaded by some 
large coeoa-nut trees. Here we stopped to take breakfast, having 
travelled about four hours and a half. The hospitable inhabitants, at 
the request of our guide, soon brought us some fresh fish, a nice pig, 
with potatoes and taro, and a calabash of good water. 

The people who were not employed on their plantations, or in 
fishing, afterwards assembled, and were addressed from Psalm Ixvii. 7. 
Considerable conversation followed, and they detained us some time 
to answer their questions, or to explain more fully the things that 
had been spoken. It was truly gratifying to notice the eagerness with 
which they proposed their inquiries. After spending about half an 
hour in endeavouring to satisfy 200 or 300 of them, we took leave, 
and pursued our journey. 

Our path from Kaimu had been smooth and pleasant, but shortly 
after leaving Kamaili, we passed a very rugged tract of lava nearly 
four Bailes across. The lava seemed as if broken to pieces as it cooled; 
it had continued to roll on like a stream of large scoria, or cinders. 
Our progress across it was slow and fatiguing. 

On our way, our guide pointed out Karepa, an ancient heiau, for 
merly dedicated to Tu and Bono, and built in the days of Teavemau- 
hiri, or Tanakini, king of this part of the Island. We could not learn 
whether this was the heiau of Bono, in which the bones of Captain 
Cook were deposited, and worshipped. 

MEETING- THE NATIVES AT OPIHIKAO 

About half -past one, we arrived at Opihikao, another populous vil 
lage, situated within a short distance of the sea. The head man, Ka- 
raikoa, brought out a mat, spread it under the umbrageous shade of a 
kou-tree in front of his door, and invited us to sit down and rest, as 
the sun was vertical, and travelling laborious. We seated ourselves 
beside him, and, so soon as he learned from Makoa the nature of our 
errand, he sent of his own accord, and collected the people to hear 
what we had to say to them. 

When they had assembled, we stood up and sung a hymn, after 
which one of our number preached to them frrom Job xxi. 15. It 
was undoubtedly the first time most, if not all of them, had attended a 
meeting of the kind; and the preacher was frequently interrupted 



214 

"by several, who exclaimed, "Owau kahi e malama ia Jehova, e ake 
an i ora ia J"esn Kraist:" I am one that will serve Jehovah; I 
desire to be saved "by Jesus Christ. 

We invited them to ask us any question respecting what they had 
heard; and, in answering those they proposed, we spent some time 
after the service was concluded. 

THBOUG-H KAUAEA AND MALAMA RECENT ERUPTION THERE. 

We then proceeded about two miles, principally through cultivated 
grounds, to Kauaea. About 300 people, excited by curiosity, soon col 
lected around us, to whom Mr. Thurston preached. 

We afterwards sat down and talked with them, and then resumed 
our journey through the district of Malama, the inland part of which 
was inundated by a volcanic eruption about thirty years since. The 
part over which we passed, being nearer the sea than that which 
the lava had overflowed, was covered with soil, and smiling with 
verdure. 

AT KEAHIALAKA. 

Fear five p. m. we reached Keahialaka, the residence of Kinao, 
chief or governor of Puna We found him lying on a couch of 
sickness, and felt anxious to administer to his comfort, yet did not 
like at so early an hour to halt altogether for the night. I there 
fore remained with the sick chief, while Messrs. Thurston and 
Bishop went on to a village at the east point, about two miles distant. 

When they reached Pualaa, the above-mentioned village, they were 
kindly welcomed by the head man, who soon had the people of the 
place collected at their request, and to them Mr. Thurston proclaimed 
the news of salvation through Jesus Christ. The chief furnished the 
travellers with a hospitable supper and comfortable lodgings. 

DISCUSSIONS WITH A SICK CHIEF. 

Just before the setting of the sun, I preached to the people at the 
viUage where I was staying, and spent the evening with the chief, 
who was afflicted with a pulmonary complaint, and almost reduced to a 
skeleton, earnestly recommending him to fly to Jesus, the great 
physician of souls. He seemed at first much attached to the super 
stitions of his ancestors, said he had performed every ceremony that 
he thought likely to be of any avail, and would do any thing to live- 
but added, E make paha auanei, Perhaps I must soon die. 

The love of the Saviour, and his suitableness to the situation of the 
poor chief, were pointed out, and he was requested rather to seek 
unto Him for the salvation of his soul, than to priests, and the incan 
tations of sorcerers, for the prolongation of his mortal life which 



215 

although of infinitely less moment than the well-being of his soul, 
was yet entirely beyond their power. He listened attentively, and at 
a late hour requested me to pray for him to Jesus Christ. The 
family collected during the time of prayer, at the close of which the 
chief lay down on his mat, but said he could not sleep. 

We were fatigued with the labours of the day, though we had not 
travelled so far as usual. The country had been much more populous 
than any we had passed since leaving Kona, and we felt thankful 
for the opportunities that we had this day enjoyed of speaking to 
so many about those things which concern their everlasting peace. 
May the Holy Spirit water the seed this day sown! 

Messrs. Thurston and Bishop conducted the usual worship with the 
people, who, at an early hour the next morning, crowded the house 
where they had lodged, I spent some time in endeavoring to inform 
the dark mind of the dying chief, on points of the last importance, 
again directed him to that compassionate Saviour, who invites all to 
come unto him, receives even those who apply at the eleventh hour, 
and is able to save to the uttermost those who trust in. his mercy. 
I afterwards prayed with him and his family, and then bade them 
farewell. 

SUPERSTITIONS OF THE NATIVES CONCERNING SICKNESS. 

The situation of Kinao was affecting. He appeared in the midst of 
his days, probably not more than thirty or forty years of age; and 
though formerly robust and healthy, he was now pale, emaciated, 
and reduced almost to a skeleton. Enveloped in all the darkness of 
paganism, and perhaps agitated with fearful uncertainties respecting 
a future state, he clung eagerly to life, yet seemed to feel a convic 
tion of his approaching end daily increasing. Like his countrymen in 
general, he supposed his disease inflicted, in consequence of the prayers 
of some malicious enemy, or the vindictive displeasure of the gods 
of his country; hence he had consulted the sorcerers, expended on 
them his property, and attended to all their injunctions, if by any 
means his life might be spared. 

The popular superstitions of the islanders lead them to imagine, 
that an individual who possesses the means of employing a sorcerer, 
may afflict with painful disease, and even occasion the death of, any 
person against whom he may indulge feelings of hatred or revenge. 

They also believe that the sorcerers, by certain incantations, can 
discover the author or cause of the disease, and refer it back to the 
party with whom it originated. So prevalent are these notions, that 
the people generally believe every individual, who does not meet his 
death by some act of violence, is destroyed by the immediate power 
of an unpropitious deity, by poison, or the incantations of the sorcer 
ers employed by some cruel enemy. 



216 

POWERS AND CEREMONIES OP THE SORCERERS. 

This belief gives tlie sorcerers great Influence among the middling 
and lower orders; and in times of protracted sickness, their aid is 
almost invariably sought by all who can procure a dog and a fowl 
for the sacrifice, and a piece or two of tapa as a fee for the priest. 

A dog and a fowl are all that are necessary for the ceremony; 
but the offerings to the god, and the fees to the priest, are regulated 
according to the wealth or rank of the individuals on whose behalf 
the aid of sorcery is employed. 

The ceremonies performed are various; but the most general is the 
kuni ahi, broiling fire, a kind of anaana, or sorcery, used to discover 
the person whose incantation has induced the illness of the party for 
whom it is performed. 

"When a chief wishes to resort to it, he sends for a priest, who, on 
his arrival, receives a number of hogs, dogs, and fowls, together with 
several bundles of tapa. 

Before he commences any of Ms operations, all persons, except 
the parties immediately concerned, retire from the house, which the 
priest tabu's, and prohibits strangers from entering. 

He then kindles a small fire somewhere near the couch of the in 
valid, and covers it with stones. This being done, he kills one of 
the dogs by strangling it, and cuts off the head of one of the fowls, 
Muttering all the while his prayers to the god he invokes. 

INCANTATIONS OF THE SORCERERS. 

The dog, fowl, and pig, if there be one, are then cut open, em- 
bowelled, and laid on the heated stones, the priest continuing his 
incantations, and watching, at the same time, the offerings broiling 
on the fire. 

A small part only of these offerings are eaten, by the priest, the 
rest remain on the fire until consumed, when the priest lies down 
to sleep; and if his prayers are answered, he informs the poor 
sufferer, on awaking, who or what is the cause of his sickness. 

Additional presents are then made to the god, and other prayers 
offered, that the sickness may seize the person whose incantations in 
the first instance caused it, or, if in consequence of any delinquency 
towards the god on the part of the sufferer, that he would abate his 
anger, and remove the disease. 

But if, during his sleep, the priest has no revelation or dream, he 
informs his employers, on awaking, that he has not succeeded, and 
that another kuni ahi must be prepared, before he can satisfy them 
respecting the cause of the sickness. On such occasions the unsuc 
cessful priest is often dismissed, and another sent for, to try his in 
fluence with the god. 



217 

Different priests employ different prayers or Incantations, and are 
careful to keep the knowledge of them confined to their families, as 
each, one supposes, or wishes the people to think, his own form the 
best; hence we have often heard the natives, when talking on the 
subject, say, "He pule mana ko me," A powerful prayer has such 
a one: and the priest or sorcerer who is supposed to have most in 
fluence with the god, is most frequently employed by the people, and 
hence derives the greatest emoluments from Ms profession. 

Though "Ori is the principal god of the sorcerers, each tribe has its 
respective deities for these occasions. Thus the poor deluded people 
are led to Imagine that the beings they worship are continually 
exerting their power against each other; or that the same god who, 
when a small offering only was presented, would allow sickness to 
continue till death should destroy the victim of Ms displeasure, would, 
for a larger offering, restrain Ms anger and withdraw the disease. 

The sorcerers were a distinct class among the priests of the island, 
and their art appears to claim equal antiquity with the other parts 
of that cruel system of idolatry by which the people have been so 
long oppressed; and though it has survived the destruction of the 
national idolatry, and is still practised by many, it is entirely dis 
continued by the principal chiefs in every island, and by all who 
attend to Christian instruction. 

AT PUALAA DISCUSSION WITH THREE PRIESTS. 

It was about eight o'clock in the morning of the 7th when I joined 
Messrs. Thurston and Bishop at Pualaa, where we took breakfast, 
and afterwards spent the forenoon in conversation with the natives 
who thronged around us. 

Two or three old men, whom we afterwards learned were priests, 
seemed to dispute what we said about Jehovah's being the only true 
God, and the Christian the only true religion. They said they thought 
their tao (traditions) respecting Tu, Tanaroa, Bono, or Orono, and 
Tairi, were as authentic as the accounts in our book, though ours, 
from the circumstance of their being written, or, as they expressed 
It, "hana paia i ka palapala/' (made fast on the paper,) were bet 
ter preserved, and more akaaka, clear, or generally intelligible. 

To this we replied at some length, after which the old men ceased 
to object, but continued to withhold their assent. Numbers sat 
around, and seemed interested in the discussion. We continued 
talking to them on the subject of their traditions, one of which we 
wrote down as they repeated it. 

LAYA FLOW DUEING- TIME OF CAPT. COOK. 

About half-past eleven we took leave of them, and directed our 
way across the eastern point. A most beautiful and romantic 



218 

landscape presented Itself on our left, as we travelled out of Pualaa. 
The lava was covered with, a tolerably thick layer of soil, and the 
verdant plain, extending several miles towards the foot of the moun 
tains, was agreeably diversified by groups of picturesque hills, origi 
nally craters, but now clothed with grass, and ornamented with 
clumps of trees. 

The natives informed us, that three of these groups, Honuaura, 
Malama, and Manu, being contiguous, and joined at their base, 
arrested the progress of an immense torrent of lava, which, in the 
days of Taraiopu, the friend of Captain Cook, inundated all the 
country beyond them. "We soon left this cheerful scenery, and en 
tered a rugged tract of lava, over which we continued our way 
till about two p. m.j when we reached Kapoho. 

DESCRIPTION OF KAPOHO AND GREEN LAKE CRATER. 

A cluster, apparently of hills three or four miles round, and as 
many hundred feet high, with deep indented sides, overhung with 
trees, and clothed with herbage, standing in the midst of the barren 
plain of lava, attracted our attention. 

We walked through the gardens that encircled its base, till we 
reached the S. E. side, where it was much lower than on the northern 
parts. Here we ascended what appeared to us to be one of the hills, 
and, on reaching the summit, were agreeably surprised to behold a 
charming valley opening before us. It was circular, and open 
towards the sea. 

The outer boundary of this natural amphitheatre was formed by 
an uneven ridge of rocks, covered with soil and vegetation. Within 
these there was a smaller circle of hills, equally verdant, and orna 
mented with trees. The sides of the valley, which gradually sloped 
from the foot of the hills, were almost entirely laid out in plantations, 
and enlivened by the cottages of their proprietors. 

In the centre was an oval hollow, about half a mile cross, and 
probably two hundred feet deep, at the bottom of which was a beau 
tiful lake of brackish water, whose margin was in a high state of 
cultivation, planted with taro, bananas, and sugar-cane. 

The steep perpendicular rocks, forming the sides of the hollow, 
were adorned with tufts of grass, or blooming pendulous plants, while, 
along the narrow and verdant border of the lake at the bottom, the 
bread-fruit, the kukui, and the ohia trees, appeared, with now and 
then a lowly native hut standing beneath their shade. 

A SCENE OF BEAUTY. 

We walked to the upper edge of the rocks that form the side of the 
hollow, where we viewed with pleasure this singularly beautiful scene. 



219 

Tlie placid surface of the lake, disturbed only by tlie boys and girls 
diving and sporting in its waters, the serpentine walks among the 
luxuriant gardens along its margin, the tranquil occupations of the in 
habitants, some weaving mats, others walking cheerfully up and down 
the winding path among the steep rocks, the sound of the cloth-beat 
ing mallet from several directions, and the smiling gaiety of the 
whole, contrasted strongly with the panorama we had recently beheld 
at Kirauea. Yet we felt persuaded, that this now cheerful spot 
had once presented a similar spectacle, less extended, but equally 
grand and appalling. 

TRADITIONS OF THE NATIVES CONCERNING EAPOHO. 

The traditions of the people informed us, that the valley itself 
was originally a crater, the indented rocks along the outer ridge 
forming its rim, and the opening towards the sea its mouth. But had 
tradition been silent, the volcanic nature of the rocks, which were 
basaltic, or of compact lava in some parts and cellular in others, the 
structure of the large basin in which we were standing, and the deep 
hollow in the centre which we were viewing, would have carried 
conviction to the mind of every beholder, that it had onee been the 
seat of volcanic fires. 

We asked several natives of the place, if they had any account of 
the king in whose reign it had burned; or if they knew any songs 
or traditions, in which it was stated how many kings had reigned in 
Hawaii, or how many chiefs had governed Puna, either since it first 
broke out, or since it became extinct; but they could give us no in 
formation on these subjects. 

They told us the name of the place was Kapoho (the sunken in,) 
and of the lake, Ka wai a Pele (the water of Pele). 

The saltness of the water in this extinguished volcano proves the 
connexion of the lake with the sea, from which it is about a mile 
distant; but we could not learn that it was at all affected by the 
rising or falling of the tides. 

GAME OF HORUA, OR SLEDDING, DESCRIBED. 

The natives also told us that it was one of the places from which 
the volcanic goddess threw rocks and lava after Kahavari, for refus 
ing his papa, or sledge, when playing at horua. 

The horua has for many generations been a popular amusement 
throughout the Sandwich Islands, and is still practised in several 
places. It consists in sliding down a hill on a narrow sledge, and 
those who, by strength or skill in balancing themselves, slide farthest, 
are considered victorious. 



220 

The papa, or sledge, is composed of two narrow runners, from seven 
to twelve or eighteen feet long, two or three inches deep, highly 
polished, and at the foremost end tapering off from the under side 
to a point at the upper edge. These two runners are fastened to- 
<*ether by a number of short pieces of wood laid horizontally across. 
To the upper edge of these short pieces two long tough sticks are 
fastened, extending the whole length of the cross pieces, and about 
five or six inches apart. 

Sometimes a narrow piece of matting is fastened over the whole 
upper surface, except three or four feet at the foremost end, though 
in general only a small part for the breast to rest on is covered. 

At the foremost end there is a space of about two inches between 
the runners, but they widen gradually towards the hinder part, where 
they are distant from each other four or five inches. 

The person about to slide grasps the small side-stick firmly with his 
right hand, somewhere about the middle, runs a few yards to the 
brow of the hill, or starting-place, where he grasps it with his left 
hand, and at the same time with all his strength throwing himself 
forward, falls fiat upon it, and slides down the hill, his hands re 
taining their hold of the side-sticks, and his feet being fixed against 
the hindermost cross-piece of the sledge. 

Much practice and address are necessary, to assume and keep an 
even balance on so narrow a vehicle, yet a man accustomed to the 
sport will throw himself, with velocity and apparent ease, 150 or 
200 yards down the side of a gradually sloping hill. 

GAME OF HOLDA AT KULA. 

About three o'clock we resumed our journey, and soon reached 
Kula, a romantic spot, where Kahavari took leave of his sister. 

The hill on which he was sliding when he incurred the displeasure 
of the terrible goddess, the spot where he rested, and first saw her 
pursuing him, were visible; and the traditionary story of his encoun 
ter with Pele is so interesting, that we think we shall be pardoned 
for inserting it. 

In the reign of Keariikukii, an ancient king of Hawaii, Kahavari, 
chief of Puna, and one of his punahele, (favourite companions,) went 
one day to amuse themselves at the horua on the sloping side of a 
hill, which is still called Ka horua-ana o Kahavari, (the sliding place 
of Kahavari). 

Vast numbers of the people collected at the bottom of the hill, to 
witness the game; and a company of musicians and dancers repaired 
to the spot, to add to the amusement of the spectators. The buskined 
youths had begun their dance, and, amidst the sound of the drums 
and the songs of the musicians, the horua commenced between Kaha 
vari and his favourite. 



221 

KAHAVAHI'S ADVENTURE WITH PELE 

Pele, the goddess of the volcano, came down from Kirauea to wit 
ness the sport. 

She stood on the top of the hill, in the form of a woman, and chal 
lenged Kahavari to slide with her. He accepted the offer, and they 
set off together down the MIL Pele, less acquainted with the art of 
balancing herself on the narrow sledge than her rival, was "beaten, 
and Kahavari was applauded by the spectators as lie returned up the 
side of the hill. 

Before they started again, Pele asked him to give her his papa. 
He, supposing from her appearance that she was no more than a 
native woman, said, Aore, no! t Are you my wife, that you should 
obtain my sledge f JJ and, as if impatient at being delayed, adjusted 
his papa, ran a few yards to take a spring, and then, with all his 
strength, threw himself upon it, and shot down the hill. 

PELE MAKES A LAVA FLOW. 

Pele, incensed at his answer, stamped on the ground, and an earth 
quake followed, which rent the hill in sunder. She called, and fire 
and liquid lava arose, and, assuming her supernatural form, with 
these irresistible ministers of vengeance, she followed down the hill. 

When Kahavari reached the bottom of the hill, he arose, and, on 
looking behind, saw Pele, accompanied by thunder and lightning, 
earthquake, and streams of burning lava, closely pursuing him. He 
took up his broad spear, which he had stuck in the ground at the be 
ginning of the game, and, accompanied by his friend, fled for his life. 

The musicians, dancers, and crowds- of spectators, were instantly 
buried beneath the fiery torrent, which bearing on its foremost wave 
the enraged goddess, continued to pursue Kahavari and his friend. 

They ran till they came to an eminence, called Buukea. Here Kaha 
vari threw off his tuirai, cloak of netted ti leaves, and proceeded 
towards his house, which stood near the shore. 

KAHAVARI ABANDONS MOTHER, WIFE AND CHILDREN. 

He met his favourite hog Aroipuaa, saluted him by touching noses, 
and ran to the house of his mother who lived at Kukii, saluted her 
by touching noses, and said, Aroha ino oe, eia ihonei paha oe e make 
ai, ke ai mainei Pele: Compassion great to you, close here perhaps is 
your death,* Pele comes devouring. 

Leaving her, he met his wife, Kanakawahine. He saluted her. The 
burning torrent approached, and she said, "Stay with me here, and 
let us die together. " He said, "No; I go, I go." 

He then saluted his two children Paupouru and Kaohe, and said, 
"Ke ue nei au ia orua," I grieve for you two. 



222 

The lava rolled near, and lie ran till a deep chasm arrested Ms 
progress. He laid down Ms spear, and on it walked safely over. His 
friend called out for Ms help; he held out Ms spear over the chasm; 
his companion took hold of it, and he drew Mm securely over. 

KAHAVARI ESCAPES. 

By this time Pele was coming down the chasm with accelerated 
motion. He ran till he reached the place where we were sitting. 

Here he met Ms sister Koae, but had only time to say, Aroha oe! 
"Alas for you!" and then ran on to the sea-shore. His younger 
brother had just landed from his fishing canoe, and had hastened to 
his house to provide for the safety of his family, when Kahavari 
arrived; he and his friend leaped into the canoe, and with his broad 
spear paddled out to sea. 

Pele perceiving his escape, ran to the shore, and hurled after him, 
with prodigious force, huge stones and fragments of rock, which feU 
tMckly around, but did not strike Ms canoe. 

A SPECIMEN OF HAWAIIAN TRADITIONS. 

When they had paddled a short distance from the shore, the Kumu- 
kahi (east wind) sprung up. He fixed Ms broad spear upright in the 
canoe, which answering the double purpose of mast and sail, he soon 
reached the island of Maui. Here they rested one night, and pro 
ceeded to Eanai. On the day following he removed to Morokai, and 
from thenee to Oahu, the abode of Koronohairaau Ms father, and 
Kanewahinekeaho Ms sister, to whom he related his disastrous perils, 
and with whom he took up his permanent abode. 

The above tale is a tolerable specimen of most of their traditions, 
though it is among the least marvellous of the many fabulous stories 
we have met with, and the truth may easily be separated from the 
fiction. 

A sudden and unexpected eruption of a volcano, when a chief and 
Ms people were playing at horua, is probably its only foundation. 

ILLUSTRATION OF LOW STATUS OF WOMEN 

It exhibits, however, much of the general character of the people, 
the low estimation in which the females were held, and the wretched 
state of their social and domestic society, in which those fond at 
tachments, that in civilized and Christian life endear the different 
members of kindred and family to each other, appear scarcely to have 
existed. 

The absence of relative affections shewn by Kahavari, who, not 
withstanding the entreaties of his wife, could leave her, Ms eMldren, 
Ms mother, and his sister, to certain destruction, meets with no repre- 



223 

tension; neither is any censure passed on Ms unjust seizure of the 
canoe belonging to Ms brother, who was engaged in saving his own 
family, while Ms adroitness in escaping the dreadful calamity of 
which he had been the sole cause, is applauded In terms too indelicate 
to be recorded. 

The natives pointed out a number of rocks in the sea, which, they 
said, were thrown by Pele to sink the canoe in which Kahavari 
escaped. 

KAHAVARI'S HILL A BUGGED COUNTRY, 

After travelling a short distance, we saw the Bu o Kahavan, (Hill 
of Elahavari,) the place where he stopped, after sliding down-hill, 
and perceiving the goddess pursuing him. It was a black frowning 
crater, about 100 feet Mgh, with a deep gap in its rim on the eastern 
side, from which the course of the current of lava could be distinctly 
traced. 

Our way now lay over a very rugged tract of country. Sometimes 
for a mile or two we were obliged to walk along on the top of a 
wall four feet high and about three feet wide, formed of fragments 
of lava that had been collected from the surface of the enclosures 
which these walls surrounded. We were, however, cheered with a 
beautiful prospect; for the land, which rose gradually towards the 
mountains, a few miles to the westward of us, presented an almost 
enchanting appearance. 

The plain was covered with verdure; and as we advance, a woody 
eminence, probably some ancient crater, frequently arose from the 
gently undulated surface, wMle groups of Mils, clothed with trees 
of various foliage, agreeably diversified the scene. 

The shore, which was about a mile to the eastward of us, was 
occasionally lined with the spiral pandanus, the waving cocoa-nut 
grove, or the clustering huts of the natives. 

AT ZAHUWAI AND HONOLULU. 

At half -past four we reached Kahuwai, where we sat down and 
took some refreshment, while Makoa was engaged in bringing the 
people of the place together. About one hundred and fifty assem 
bled around the door, and were addressed. 

After conversing some time, we travelled in an inland direction 
to Honoruru, a small village situated in the midst of a wood, where 
we arrived just at the setting of the sun. 

Whilst the kind people at the house where we put up were pre 
paring our supper, we sent and invited the inhabitants of the next 
village to come and hear the word we had to speak to them. They 
soon arrived; the large house in which we had taken up our lodg- 



224 

ings was filled, and a discourse was delivered from John xii. 46. 
C I am come a light into the world/' &c. 

RELIGIOUS SERVICES AT WAIAKAHIULA. 

"We afterwards spent a hour In conversation and prayer with the 
people of these sequestered villages, who had perhaps never before 
been visited "by foreigners, and then lay down on our mats to rest. 

"We arose early on the 8th, and Mr, Thurston held morning wor 
ship with the friendly people of the place. Although I had been 
much indisposed through the night, we left Honoruru soon after sis 
a. m. and, travelling slowly towards the sea-shore, reached Waiaka- 
heula about eight, where I was obliged to stop, and lie down under 
the shade of a canoe-house near the shore. Messrs. Thurston and 
Bishop walked up to the settlement about half a mile inland, where 
the former preached to the people. 

BISHOP TRAVELS THROUGH KEAAU TO WAIAKEA 

We had seen the eastern division of Hiro yesterday afternoon; and 
Mr. Bishop hoping to reach Waiakea in a few hours, left Mr. Thurs 
ton and the natives with me, and proceeded thither. He was much 
deceived as to the distance; for it was three o'clock in the afternoon 
when he arrived at Kaau (Keaau), where the natives tried to per 
suade him to stay till morning, as they did not think he could reach 
Waiakea before night. However, he kept on with increased speed, 
in hopes of getting at least a sight of Waiakea before dark. But in 
this he was disappointed, for the sun sunk behind Mouna-Kea, and 
darkness overshadowed the landscape before he had passed the 
wilderness of Pandanus, that stretched along the eastern shore, be 
tween Kaau and Hiro. He began to think of resting for the night 
beneath the shelter of the surrounding bushes; but the path becoming 
more beaten, indicated his approach to a village. Encouraged by this, 
he pursued his way, about nine in the evening reached Waiakea, and 
entered the house of Maaro, where he found Messrs. Goodrich and 
Harwood, by whom he was gladly welcomed. 

Being somewhat recovered by noon, I was able to proceed with 
Mr. Thurston. The country was populous, but the houses stood singly, 
or in small clusters, generally on the plantations, which were scat 
tered over the whole country. Grass and herbage were abundant 
vegetation in many places luxuriant, and the soil, though shallow, was 
light and fertile. 

KEAAU DESCRIBED. 

^ Soon after five p. m. we reached Kaau, the last village in the divi 
sion of Puna. It was extensive and populous, abounding with well- 



225 

cultivated plantations of taro, sweet potatoes, and sugar-cane; and 
probably owes its fertility to a fine rapid stream of water, which, 
descending from the mountains, runs through, it into the sea. It was 
the second stream we had seen on the island. 

Having quenched our thirst, we passed over it by stepping on some 
large stones, and directed our way to the house of the head man, 
where we put up for the night. He was absent in the mountains, 
with most of his people, and Makoa could procure us no provisions. 
We, however, succeeded in purchasing a fowl and some potatoes, and 
made a comfortable supper. While our boys were preparing it, Mr. 
Thurston preached to a considerable number of people, who had col 
lected outside of the house. We were afterwards joined in evening 
worship by the family, who at night furnished us with a comfortable 
and clean mat for our bed, an accommodation we did not always 
enjoy. 

Early on the 9th the house was crowded with natives, and a little 
before sun-rise morning worship was performed as usual. 

Some of the natives observed, in conversation, "We shall never 
obtain the things of which you have told us, for we are a wicked 
and unbelieving people." 

IEIE BOOT BASKETS MAKING FIRE BY FRICTION. 

Before we left the place, the people oifered for sale some curious 
deep oval baskets, with covers, made of the fibrous roots of ie. We 
purchased two, intending to preserve them as specimens of native in 
genuity. 

Leaving the village of Kaau, we resumed our journey, and after 
walking between two and three hours, stopped in the midst of a 
thicket to rest, and prepare some breakfast. 

The natives produced fire by rubbing two dry sticks, of the hibiscus 
tiliaceus, together; and having suspended over it a small iron pot, in 
gipsy style, upon three sticks, soon prepared our food. At half -past 
ten we resumed our walk, and passing about two miles through a 
wood of pretty large timber, came to the open country in the vicinity 
of Waiakea. At one p. m. we reached the house of the chief, where 
we were welcomed by our companions, and Maaro, the chief, who, 
though very ill, was glad to see us 

LOCATED AT WAIAKEA 

As our party was now all together, and intended to spend several 
days in his district, we applied to him for lodgings, and he directed 
on of his men to conduct us to a comfortable house by the sea-side, 
where he said we could be accommodated so long as we should find it 
necessary or agreeable to stay. We removed into it, and employed 

15 



226 

the afternoon in narrating the incidents of our respective journeys, 
and preparing for the coming Sabbath. 

It was exactly a week since Messrs. Goodrich and Harwood had 
parted from us at Kirauea, the great volcano. They had travelled 
over a pleasant and not uneven country, well wooded, and abounding 
with ohelos and strawberries, till they reached the inland district of 
Ora (Olaa). They purchased a hog and vegetables of the people, 
and had the hog dressed that evening. The next day was the Sab 
bath; Mr. Goodrich was unable to preach in the native language. The 
people of the place, however, were induced to abstain from working 
on that holy day. They arrived at Waiakea on Wednesday evening, 
and ever since had been hospitably entertained by Maaro. 

OLAA DESCRIBED 

In company with Messrs. Chamberlain, Ely, and Blatchely, I have 
since travelled from this place to the volcano, and during that jour 
ney had an opportunity of preaching at most of the villages of Ora. 

The distance is probably between thirty and forty miles, and the 
ascent gradual from the shore to the volcano. The soil is generally 
rich and fertile, and the face of the country, though more uniform 
than some parts which we passed over, on leaving the southern 
shore, is varied by occasional undulations. 

We travelled through two or three extensive woods, in which were 
many large trees, and saw also several pools and small currents of 
excellent fresh water. 

The construction of the swineherds' houses at the village of Ka-pu- 
o-ka-ahi, (the hill of the fire,) was singular. There were no walls, nor 
upright posts along the sides, but the rafters were fixed in the ground, 
united at the top, and thatched about half way down. 

RASPBERRY, OHELO AND STRAWBERRIES. 

In the neighbourhood of this village we also saw hedges of rasp 
berry bushes, which the natives informed us bore white berries, and 
were abundant in the mountains, though they would not grow nearer 
the shore. 

Nine or ten miles from the sea, we met with ohelo bushes, and after 
we had travelled about twenty miles, we found strawberry plants in 
abundance, and saw several in blossom, although it was in the month 
of January. The latter plant, as well as the raspberry, is found in 
all the higher parts of Hawaii, which induces us to think them both 
indigenous. 

RELIGIOUS INTEREST BY NATIVES. 

It was six months after our tour along the coast, that we passed 
through the villages of Ora, and we were gratified to find that 



227 

several of the people, at different places, tad received some general 
ideas of the true God, from the reports of those natives who had 
heard us preach when travelling along the shore, and had subse 
quently visited these Inland districts. 

At one place where we halted for the night, on our return from 
the volcano, I preached to the people In the evening, and natives 
afterwards maintained an interesting conversation on religious sub 
jects till midnight. 

Among other things., respecting the salvation of the soul through 
Jesus Christ^ they said., "Our foiefathers, from time immemorial, and 
we, ever since we can remember any thing, have been seeking the ora 
roa (enduring life,) or a state in which we should not die, but we 
have never found it yet; peihaps this is it, of which you are telling 
us." 

NATIVES COLLECTING SANDAL WOOD. 

During the same journey we overtook Maaro, the chief of "Waiakea, 
and three or four hundred people, returning with sandal wood, which 
they had been cutting in the mountains. Each man carried two or 
three pieces, from four to six feet long, and about three inches in 
diameter. The bark and sap had been chipped off with small adzes, 
and the wood appeared lighter in colour than what is usually sold at 
Oahu, probably from its having been but recently cut down. 

The sandal wood is the same as in the East Indies, and is probably 
the santalum album. It is a tolerably heavy and solid wood, and 
after the sap, or part next the bark, is taken off, is of a light yellow 
or brown colour, containing a quantity of aromatic oil. Although a 
plant of slow growth, it is found in abundance in all the mountainous 
parts of the Sandwich Islands, and is cut in great quantities by the 
natives, as it constitutes their principal article of exportation. 

It is brought down to the beach in pieces from a foot to eighteen 
inches in diameter, and six or eight feet long, to small sticks not 
more than an inch thick and a foot and a half long. 

It is sold by weight, and the merchants, who exchange for it 
articles of European or Chinese manufacture, take it to the Canton, 
market, where it is bought by the Chinese for the purpose of pre 
paring incense to burn in their idol temples, 

HILO A RAINY DISTRICT. 

In the evening, many natives, attracted by curiosity, came to our 
house. We conversed some time with them, and when they went 
away, invited them to attend public worship on the morrow. 

Dense fogs and heavy rains are more frequent at Waiakea, and 
over the whole division of Hiro, than in any other part of the island. 



228 



We were, therefore, not surprised at beholding, on the morning of the 
10th, the district and coast enveloped in mist, and experiencing fre 
quent showers of rain through the earlier part of the day. Between 
nine and ten in the forenoon, however, the fog cleared off, and the 
sun shone brightly on the glowing landscape. 

Shortly after ten o'clock, the chiefs, and people in considerable 
numbers, assembled in a large house adjacent to that in which we 
resided, agreeably to the invitation given them last evening. The 
worship commenced as usual, and I preached from the test, "Happy 
is that people whose God is the Lord." The attention was not so 
good as that generally given by the congregations we had addressed 
Many, however, quietly listened till the service was over. 

A CONTROVERSY WITH A PEIESTESS OF PELE. 

As we arose to depart, an old woman, who during the discourse 
sat near the speaker, and had listened very attentively, all at once 
exclaimed, "Powerful are the gods of Hawaii, and great is Pele 
the goddess of Hawaii, she shall save Maaro," (the siek chief who 
was present). 

Another began to chant a song in praise of Pele, to which the 
people generally listened, though some began to laugh 

We supposed they were intoxicated, and therefore took no notice 
of them; but on our leaving the house, some of our people told us 
they were not ona i ka ruma (intoxicated or poisoned with rum,) but 
inspired by the akua (goddess) of the volcano,- or that one of them 
was Pele herself, in the form of one of her priestesses 

On hearing this, I turned back into the house, and when the song 
was ended unmediately entered into conversation with the principal 

a She had attended to the 



She answered that she had listened, and understood it 



She answered "He is your good God, (or best God,) and it is 
right that you should worship hm; but Pele is my de y, and the 
great goddess of Hawaii. Eirauea is the place of her abode. Olnat 

JSTth^ 8 T? em f at of the voleaao) is one comer o ter *<* 

Prom the land beyond the sky, in former times, she came " 

She then went on with the song which she had thus begun, giving 

" a 



u n V er US *> accompanied by such violent 

gestures, that only here and there a word could be understood. In- 



m. mail rse 

When she had done, I told her she was mistaken in supposing any 



229 

supernatural being resided in the volcano; that Pele was a creature 
of their own invention, and existed only in the imagination of her 
kahu, or devotees: adding, that volcanoes, and all their accom 
panying phenomena, were under the powerful control of Jehovah, 
who, though uncreated himself, was the Creator and Supporter of 
heaven and earth, and every thing she beheld. 

JEHOVAH NOT THE ONLY GOD 

She replied, that it was not so. She did not dispute that Jehovah 
was a God, but that he was not the only God. 

Pele was a goddess, and dwelt in her, and through her would heal 
the sick chief then present. She wished Mm restored, and therefore 
came to visit him. 

I said I also wished Maaro to recover, but if he did recover, it 
would be by the favour of Jehovah, and that I hoped he would ack 
nowledge him, and seek to him alone, as he was the only true Phy 
sician, who could save both body and soul, making the latter happy 
in another world, when this world, with all its volcanoes, mountains, 
and oceans, should cease to exist. 

I then advised her, and all present, to forsake their imaginary 
deity, whose character was distinguished by all that was revengeful 
and destructive, and accept the offers Jehovah had made them by his 
servants, that they might be happy now, and escape the everlasting 
death that would overtake all the idolatrous and wicked. 

AN IMPERSONATOR OP PELE 

Assuming a haughty air, she said, "I am Pele; I shall never die; 
and those who follow me, when they die, if part of their bones be 
taken to Kirauea, (the name of the volcano,) will live with, me in the 
bright fires there. " 

I said, Are you Pele! 

She replied, Yes: and was proceeding to state her powers, &e. when 
Makoa, who had till now stood silent, interrupted her, and said, "It 
is true you are Pele, or some of Pele ; s party; and it is you that have 
destroyed the king's land, devoured his people, and spoiled all the 
fishing grounds. 

Ever since you came to the islands, you have been busied in mis 
chief; you spoiled the greater part of the island, shook it to pieces, 
or cursed it with barrenness, by inundating it with lava. 

Tou never did any good; and if I were the king, I would throw 
you all into the sea, or banish you from the islands. Hawaii would 
be quiet if you were away.' ; 

This was rather unexpected, and seemed to surprise several of the 
company. 



230 

However, the pretended Pele said, "Formerly we did overflow some 
of the land, but it was only the land of those that were rebels, or 
were very wicked people. (Broke the restrictions of the tabu, or 
brought no offerings.) Now we abide quietly in Kirauea." 

BUM WOESE THAN PELE. 

She then added, "It cannot be said that in these days we destroy 
the king's people." She mentioned the names of several chiefs, and 
then asked who destroyed these? 

Kot Pele, but the rum of the foreigners, whose G-od you are so fond 
of. Their diseases and their rum have destroyed more of the king's 
men, than all the volcanoes on the island. 

I told her I regretted that their intercourse with foreigners should 
have introduced among them diseases to which they were strangers 
before, and that I hoped they would also receive the advantages of 
Christian instruction and civilization, which the benevolent in those 
countries by which they had been injured, were now anxious to 
impart: that intoxication was wholly forbidden by Jehovah, the God 
of Christians, who had declared that no drunkard should enter the 
kingdom of heaven. 

I then said, I was sorry to see her so deceived, and attempting to 
deceive others; told her she knew her pretensions were false, and 
recommended her to consider seriously the consequences of idolatry, 
and cease to practise her fatal deceptions; to recollect that she 
would one day die; that God had given her an opportunity of hearing 
of his love to sinners in the gift of his Son; and that if she applied 
to him for mercy, although now an idolatrous priestess, she might be 
saved; but if she did not, a fearful doom awaited her. 

"I shall not die/' she exclaimed, "but ora no, 77 (live spon 
taneously.) 

After replying to this, I retired; but the spectators, who had mani 
fested by their countenances that they were not uninterested in the 
discussion, continued in earnest conversation for some time. 

The name of the priestess we afterwards learned was Oani. She 
resided in a neighbouring village, and had that morning arrived at 
Waial'ea on a visit to Maaro. 

THREATS BY PRIESTS OF PELE. 

When the national idolatry was publicly abolished in the year 1819, 
several priests of Pele denounced the most awful threatenings, of 
earthquakes, eruptions, &e. from the gods of the volcanoes, in revenge 
for the insult and neglect then shewn by the king and chiefs. But no 
fires afterwards appearing in any of the extinguished volcanoes, no 
fresh ones having broken out, and those then in action having since 



231 

tliat period remained in a state of comparative quiescence, some of 
tlie people have been led to conclude, that the gods formerly sup 
posed to preside over volcanoes had existed only in their imagination. 
The fearful apprehensions which they had been accustomed to asso 
ciate with every idea of Pele and her companions, have in a great 
measure subsided, and the oppressive power of her priests and 
priestesses is consequently diminished. 

PELE STILL DREADED. 

There are, however, many who remain in constant dread of her 
displeasure, and who pay the most submissive and unhesitating obedi 
ence to the requisitions of her priests. 

This is no more than was to be expected, particularly in this part 
of the island, where the people are far removed from the means of 
instruction, the example and influence of the principal chiefs, and 
more enlightened part of the population; and it appears matter of sur 
prise, that in the course of three years only, so many should have re 
linquished their superstitious notions respecting the deities of the 
volcanoes, when we consider their ignoiance, and their early impres 
sions, and recollect that while resting at night, perhaps on a bed of 
lava, they are occasionally startled from their midnight slumbers by 
the undulating earthquake, and are daily reminded of the dreadful 
power of this imaginary goddess "by almost every object that meets 
their view, from the cliffs which are washed by the waves of the sea, 
even to the lofty craters, her ancient seat above the clouds, and amid 
perpetual snows. 7 ' 

Until this morning, however, none of the servants of Pele had ever 
publicly opposed her pretended right to that homage and obedience 
which it was our object to persuade and invite them to render to 
Jehovah alone; and though it was encouraging to notice, that, by 
many of the people present, the pretensions of Oani were disregarded, 
it was exceedingly painful to hear an idolatrous priestess declaring 
that the conduct of those, by whom they had been sometimes visited 
from countries called Christian, had been productive of consequences 
more injurious and fatal to the unsuspecting and unenlightened 
Hawaiian s, than these dreadful phenomena in nature, which they had 
been accustomed to attribute to the most destructive of their imagi 
nary deities, and to know also that such a declaration was too true to 
be contradicted. 

NATIVES INCLINED TOWAED CHRISTIANITY. 

A number of people, after they left the place of public worship, 
came to our house, and conversed on the blessedness of those who 
worship and obey Jehovah. They all said it was good, and that if the 



232 

king were to eome or send them, word, they would build a house for 
a missionary, a school-house, and chapel, and also observe the Sab 
bath-day. 

In the afternoon Mr. Thurston preached at the same place to an 
attentive congregation. In company with Mr. Bishop, I walked over 
to Ponahawai, where Makoa collected upwards of one hundred people 
at the head man's house, to whom I preached from Bom. x. 13. 
"Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved. " 
The whole assembly gave good attention, frequently interrupting me 
while speaking, by their exclamations. 

A gray-headed old man, who sat near the door, listened with ap 
parent interest during the whole service, and when, towards the close, 
it was stated that those who in faith called on the Loid, would in 
another world obtain everlasting life, he exclaimed, "My days are 
almost ended, that cannot be for me, can an old man live for ever?" 
He was told that Jesus was willing to save the souls of all who with 
humility and sincerity come to him, both old and young; that he 
would reanimate their bodies in the resurrection; and that he 
would give eternal life to as many as believed on Ms name. 

EFFECT OF RELIGIOUS DOCTRINE ON NATIVES. 

We have more than once had occasion to notice with peculiar in 
terest the impression made on an adult heathen, when some of the 
sublime and important doctrines of religion are for the first time 
presented to his mind. 

Accustomed to contemplate the gods of his ancestors as the patrons 
of every vice, and supernatural monsters of cruelty, deriving satis 
faction from the struggles and expiring agonies of the victim offered 
in sacrifice, he is surprised to hear of the holy nature of G-od, and 
the condescending love of Christ; but the idea of the resurrection 
of the body, the general judgment, and the eternal happiness or 
misery of all mankind, affects him with a degree of astonishment 
never witnessed in countries where the Christian religion prevails, 
and in which, notwithstanding the lamentable ignorance existing in 
different portions of the community, there are few who have not some 
moral perceptions, which have enlarged with the growth of intellect, 
and the more extended observations of riper years. 

But the heathen, whose mental powers have reached maturity be 
fore the truth has been presented, experiences very different sensa 
tions; and we have seen the effects produced at these times exhibited 
in various ways: sometimes by most significant gestures, at other times 
by involuntary exclamations, or penetrating looks fixed on the speaker; 
and occasionally, as was the case this afternoon, by their actually 
interrupting us to inquire, "How can these things be?" or declaring 



233 

in their own beautiful and figurative language, that the tidings they 
had heard " broke in upon their minds like the light of the morning." 
When the exercises were ended, they congratulated each other on 
the news they had heard; said it was good, and added, "Let us all 
attend to it; who is there that does not desire eternal life in the other 
world? 77 They afterwards made many inquiries about the Sabbath- 
day, prayer, &c. and asked if they should not be visited again. We 
told them it was probable that, before long, teachers would come and 
reside permanently among them, 

DESCRIPTION OF A CHIEF'S HOUSEHOLD. 

On our way home, we called on Maaro, whom we found very ill. 
One of his children was also sick, and seemed near dying. We re- 
greted that we had no medicine proper to administer either to the 
suffeiing chief or his child. 

The wretched picture of uncivilized society, which this family ex 
hibited, powerfully affected our minds. Maaro 7 s house, like that of 
the chiefs in general, was large, and accommodated many of Ms 
friends and dependants. 

On one side near the door, he lay on a mat which was spread on 
the ground. Two or three domestics sat around, one of them holding 
a small calabash of water, and another with a kahiri was fanning 
away the flies. 

ISTear the centre of the house, on another mat, spread also on the 
ground, lay the pale emaciated child, its features distorted with pain, 
and its feeble voice occasionally uttering the most piteous cries. A 
native girl sat beside it, driving away the flies, and holding a cocoa- 
nut shell in her hand, containing a little poe, with which she had 
been endeavouring to feed it. 

INDIFFERENCE OF FAMILY TO SICKNESS. 

In the same place, and nearly between the father and the child, 
two of Maaro 7 s wives, and some other chief women, were seated on 
the ground, playing at cards, laughing and jesting over their game. 

We tried to enter into conversation with them, but they were too 
intent on the play to pay any attention to what we said. 

The visitors or attendants of the chief sat in groups in different 
parts of the house, some carelessly singing, others engaged in earnest 
conversation. 

We could not forbear contrasting the scene here presented, with a 
domestic circle in civilized and Christian society, under similar cir 
cumstances, where all the alleviations which the tenderest sympathy 
could impart, would be promptly tendered to the suffering indivi 
duals. 



234 

But here, alas! ignorance, cruel Idolatry, and familiarity with vice, 
appeared to have destroyed natural affection, and all the tender sym- 
pathies of humanity, in their "bosoms. 

The wife beheld unmoved the sufferings of her husband, and the 
amusement of the mother was undisturbed by the painful crying- of 
her languishing child. 

TREATMENT OF THE SICK IX TAHITI. 

The state of domestic society in Tahiti and the neighbouring 
islands, only a few years ago, was even more affecting There the 
sick were often removed from the house in which they had been 
accustomed to reside, and placed in a miserable hut a few yards dis 
tant, and were sometimes starved to death, or murdered, or buried 
alive, from motives of eovetousness or idleness; children frequently 
declaring it was too much trouble to attend to the wants of their 
parents. 

But what a pleasing change has the introduction of Christianity 
effected among them! 

So far from being unwilling to take care of their sick relatives and 
friends, a number of individuals, at several of the missionary sta 
tions, annually devote a part of the produce of their labour, to erect 
houses, purchase medicine, and provide for the comfort of those who 
are sick and indigent. 

It Is impossible for any people to be more attentive and kind than 
they now are. Many a time the friend of some one who had been 
taken ill has called me up at midnight to ask for medicine; and often 
have I seen a wife or a sister supporting in her lap the head of a sick 
and perhaps dying husband or brother, night after night, yet refus 
ing to leave them, though almost exhausted with fatigue. 

DISCUSSIONS WITH MAAKO, CHIEF OF WAIAKEA. 

Leaving Maaro, we returned through a highly cultivated part of 
the district. Every thing in nature was lovely, and the landscape 
around awakened emotions very different from those excited during 
our visit to the abode of sickness which we had just left. 

The wretchedness of the people, we trust, will ere long be amelior 
ated; for the gospel, which produced the favourable change above 
alluded to, among the natives of the Society Islands, has at length 
reached these shores; and there is every reason to expect that its 
humane spirit and principles, when once imbibed by the people, will 
result in corresponding effects. 

The morning of the llth was cloudy, with rain, which did not clear 
off till about 10 a. m. The greater part of the day we employed in 



235 

examining the district and harbour. We were highly gratified with 
the fertility of the soil, and the luxuriance of the verdure. 

PROPOSAL TO SEND MISSIONARIES TO HHiO. 

In the afternoon we waited on Maaro the chief, to ask his opinion 
respecting missionaries settling permanently in his neighbourhood. 
He said, perhaps it would be well; that if the king and chiefs ap 
proved of it, he should desire it. 

We asked if he would patronize and protect missionaries and their 
families, provided the king and chiefs approved of their settling at 
Waiakea. He answered, "Yes, certainly/ 7 and, at the same time, 
pointed out several places where they might build their houses. 7 ' 

We told him that the king, Karaimoku, Kaahumanu, and the gov 
ernor, approved of instructors coming to teach, the people of Waia 
kea; but that we were also desirous to obtain his opinion, before any 
arrangements were made for their removal from Oahu. He again 
repeated that he thought it would be a good thing; and that if the 
missionaries came with the approbation of the king and chiefs, he 
should be glad to witness their arrival. 

We then took leave of Maaro. and the chiefs that were with him. 
Messrs. Thurston and Bishop walked to the opposite side of the 
bay, where we had held a religious exercise yesterday, and here Mr. 
Thurston preached to an attentive congregation of about sixty people. 
The head man afterwards expressed a strong desire to be instructed, 
and said all the people would like to learn the palapala, and keep 
the Sabbath-day. 

DISCUSSIONS WITH NATIVES ABOUT MISSIONARIES 

While they were on the western shore, I visited several houses on 
the eastern side of the settlement, and entered into conversation with 
the people on the subject of missionaries coming to reside at Waiakea. 

In general they approved, saying they had dark minds, and needed 
instruction. Some, however, seemed to doubt the propriety of for 
eigners coming to reside permanently among them. They said they 
had heard that in several countries where foreigners had intermin 
gled with the original natives, the latter had soon disappeared; and 
should missionaries come to live at Waiakea, perhaps the land would 
ultimately become theirs, and the kanaka maore (aborigines) cease 
to be its occupiers. 

I told them, that had been the case in some countries; but that the 
residence of missionaries among them, so far from producing it, was 
designed and eminently calculated to prevent a consequence so melan 
choly. . 

At the same time I remarked, that their sanguinary wars, their 



236 

extensive and. cruel practice of infanticide, their frequent Intoxica 
tion, and their numerous diseases, partly gendered by vicious habits, 
had ? according to their own account, diminished the population of 
the island three-fourths within the last forty years; and, from the 
destructive operation of these causes, there was every reason to fear 
the Hawaiian people would soon be annihilated, unless some antidote 
was found, some barrier opposed, to their depopulating effects. 

Xone, I added, were so strong as moral restraints; none so effica 
cious as instruction and civilization; and, above all, the principles and 
doctrines of the Bible, which they could not become acquainted with 
but by the residence of missionaries among them. 

Such, I informed them, was the opinion of the friends of missions, 
who, anxious to ameliorate their wretched condition, preserve from 
oblivion the remnant of the people, place them among the nations 
of the earth, and direct them to the enjoyment of civilized life, and 
the participation of immortality and happiness in another world, had 
sent them the word of God, and missionaries to unfold to them, 
in their own language, its divine and invaluable truths. 

At the close of this interview, some again repeated, that it would 
be a good thing for missionaries to come; others expressed doubt and 
hesitation. 

Many of the people, during their intercourse with foreigners, have 
been made acquainted with the leading facts in the history of South 
America and the West Indies; and hence the natives of this place, in 
all probability, derived the ground of their objection. 

STATUS OF NATIVES COMPARED WITH SOCIETY ISLANDERS 
The houses of the natives whom we had visited today, like most 
in this part of the island, where the pandanus is abundant, were 
covered with the leaves of this plant, which, though it requires more 
labour in thatching, makes the most durable dwellings. 

The inhabitants of Waiakea are peculiarly favoured in having 
woods producing timber, such as they use for building, within three or 
four miles of their settlement, while the natives in most parts of the 
islands have to fetch it from a much greater distance. 

In neatness and elegance of appearance their houses are not equal 
to those of the Society Islanders, even before they were instructed 
by Europeans, but in point of strength and durability they sometimes 
exceed them. 

STYLES AND METHODS OF BUILDING HAWAIIAN HOUSES 
There is also less variety in the form of the Sandwich Island 
dwellings, which are chiefly of two kinds, viz. the hale noho, (dwell 
ing house,) or halau, (a long building,) nearly open at one end, and, 



237 

though thatched with different materials, they are all framed in 
nearly the same way. 

They begin to build a house by planting in the ground a number of 
posts, six or eight inches in diameter, in a row, about three or four 
feet apart, which are to support one side of the house. When these 
are fixed in a straight line, they erect a parallel row, to form the 
opposite side. 

In the small houses, these posts are not more than three or four 
feet high, while in the larger ones they are twelve or fourteen feet 
in height, and proportionably stout. Those used in the chiefs ' houses 
are round, straight, and smooth, being prepared with great care, but 
in general they are fixed in the ground without even having the 
bark stripped off. 

G-rooves are cut in the top of the posts, along which small poles are 
laid horizontally, instead of wall-plates, and tied to the posts with 
the fibrous roots of the ie, a tough mountain plant. 

A high post, notched at the top, is next fixed in the middle at 
each end, and supports the ridge-pole, on which the tops of the rafters 
rest, while, at the lower end, they are fixed on the wall-plate, each 
rafter being placed exactly above the post which supports the hori 
zontal pole, or wall-plate. 

When the rafters are fixed, small poles are laid along, where they 
cross each other above the ridge-pole; sometimes poles are fastened 
across like tie-beams, about half-way up the roof, and the separate 
parts of the whole frame are tied together with strong cinet, made 
of the roots of the ie plant, or fibres of cocoa-nut husk. 

The space between the posts at the sides and ends is now closed 
up with sticks, larger than a common-sized walking-stick, which are 
tied with cinet in horizontal lines, two or three inches apart, on the 
outside of the posts, and extending from the ground to the top of the 
roof. A large house, in this stage of its erection, has a singular ap 
pearance. 

If the sides and roof are of plantain leafstalks, and the leaves of 
the pandanus, or of ti leaves, each leaf is woven around the hori 
zontal sticks, which gives it a neat appearance, resembling a kind 
of coarse matting on the inside, while the ends of the leaves hang 
down without. But if they are covered with grass, which is most 
commonly the case, it is bound up in small bundles, and these are tied 
to the small sticks along the side of the wall of the house, with einet 
or cord. 

They always begin at the bottom, and tie on the grass with the 
roots upward, and inclined towards the inside, and continue one row 
above another from the ground to the top of the roof. 

The roof and sides are always of the same material, except where 



23S 

the latter are of plantain or tl leaves. The corners and ridge are 
sometimes covered with fern-leaves, with which they can secure these 
parts better than with grass, &c. 

ABSENCE OF WINDOWS IN HOUSES 

The shell is now finished, and generally, except in the lowness of 
the sides and steepness of the roof, looks much like a hay-rick, 
particularly as until recently they never thought of making win 
dows, and had only one aperture, which was the entrance. 

A large portion of the lower part of that end of the halau which 
faces the sea, is usually open. 

The houses of this kind were probably originally erected for the 
construction and preservation of canoes, for which purpose they are 
still sometimes used, though frequently occupied as dwellings. 

In the common dwelling-house, the door is frequently on one side. 
In the old houses the doors are always low. 

Since foreigners have resided among them, and built houses with 
doors and windows, the natives have enlarged their doors, though 
there are yet but few that can be entered without stooping. 

Some of them also begin to think windows a convenience, but 
they by no means fall in with our ideas of uniformity in the disposi 
tion of them. 

Sometimes we have seen a house forty or fifty feet long, with the 
door at one end, and a small window at the other, half way up to the 
top of the roof. 

Again, we have entered a house of equal dimensions, and in some 
parts of it we have seen an aperture within a foot or a foot and a 
half of the floor, generally near their sleeping-places. This, as well 
as the other, they call a buka makani, (wind hole,) and assign as a 
reason for placing it in such a situation, that they sometimes find 
it close in their houses, and like to have the wind blow on them as 
they lie on their mats. 

INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT OF DWELLINGS 

The shell of the house being finished, they proceed to fit up the 
inside, which is soon accomplished, as they have neither partitions 
nor chambers, and, however large the house may be, but one room 
and one floor. In preparing the latter, they sometimes level the 
ground, and spread grass over it, which they cover with large mats 
made of the leaves of the pandanus. But the best floors are those 
formed with pebbles, or small fragments of lava, which are always 
dry, and less likely to be infested with vermin than those covered 
*?ith grass. 

The size and quality of a dwelling varies according to the rank 



239 

and means of its possessor, those of tlie poor people "being mere 
huts, eight or ten feet square, others twenty feet long, and ten or 
twelve feet wide, wMle the houses of the chiefs are from forty to 
seventy feet long. 

Their houses are generally separate from each other; even in their 
most populous villages, however near the houses may be, they are 
always distinct buildings. 

METHODS OF ERECTION OF HOUSES 

Although there are professed house-carpenters who excel in fram 
ing, and others who are taught to finish the corners of the house and 
ridge of the roof, which but few understand, yet, in general, every 
man erects his own house. If it be of a middling or large size, this, 
to an individual or a family, is a formidable undertaking, as they, 
have to cut down the trees in the mountains, and bring the wood 
from six to ten miles on their shoulders, gather the leaves or grass, 
braid the cinet, &c. before they can begin to build. 

But when a chief wants a house, he requires the labour of all who 
hold lands under him; and we have often been surprised at the des 
patch with which a house is sometimes built. 

We have known the natives come with their materials in the 
morning, put up the frame of a middling- sized house in one day, 
cover it in the next, and on the third day return to their lands. 

Each division of people has a part of the house allotted by the 
chief, in proportion to its number; and it is no unusual thing to 
see upwards of a hundred men at a time working on one house. 

DURABILITY OF GRASS HOUSES. 

A good house, such as they build for the chiefs, will keep out the 
wind and rain, and last from seven to ten years. But, in general, 
they do not last more than five years; and those which they are hired 
to build for foreigners, not much more than half that time. 

In less than twelve months after my own grass house was built, the 
rain came through the roof from one end to the other, every time 
there was a heavy shower. 

In some of the islands the natives have recently covered their 
houses with mud; this, however, does not appear to render them more 
durable. 

TOOLS USED BY NATIVES. 

Before they were visited by foreigners, the only tool employed in 
building was a stone adze, formed of a kind of basalt, or compact 
lava; and though they now use an axe in felling the trees, the adze 
is still their favourite tool, and many of them use no other. 



24:0 

The stone adze is, however, exchanged for one made with a plane 
iron, "bent, and tied securely to a handle of light wood. This they 
prefer to the European adze, which they say is too heavy. 

Sometimes they use a saw, chisel, and gimblet, in framing their 
honses, "but they are not yet adepts in the use of these tools; we have 
often seen them throw down the saw, and take up their adze to finish 
that which they had commenced cutting with a saw. 

IMPROVEMENTS IN DWELLINGS. 

Their habitations, though rude, discover, concerning their circum 
stances and means, a greater degree of industry, and attention to 
comfort, than is usually manifested "by uncivilized nations; and 
within the last few years great improvements have been made in 
their houses. 

Karaimoku has erected in the island of Oahu, a stone house, sixty 
feet by thirty, three stories high, with a spacious cellar underneath. 
The inside of the house he has formed into apartments, which, by 
foreign workmen whom he employed, have been finished in a highly 
respectable manner. The front, which faces the south, is skreened by 
a wide veranda enclosed with light railing, and ascended by a hand 
some flight of stairs. 

SUPEESTITIONS CONNECTED WITH HOUSE BUILDING HOW 
FURNISHED 

While idolatry existed, a number of superstitious ceremonies were 
performed, before they could occupy their houses. Offerings were 
made to the gods, and presents to the priest, who entered the house, 
littered prayers, went through other ceremonies, and slept in it be 
fore the owner took possession, in order to prevent evil spirits from 
resorting to it, and to secure its inmates from the effects of incan 
tation. 

When the house was finished, it was soon furnished. A sleeping- 
mat spread on the ground, and a wooden pillow, a wicker basket 
or two to keep their tapa or native cloth in, a few calabashes for 
water and poe, and some wooden dishes, of various size and shape, 
together with a haka, were all they required. 

This latter article was sometimes like a stand used by us for hang 
ing hats and coats on. It was often made with care, and carved, but 
more frequently it was a small arm of a tree, with a number of 
branches attached to it. These were cut off within a foot of the 
main stem, which was planted in some convenient part of the house, 
and upon these natural pegs they used to hang their calabashes, and 
other vessels containing food. 



24:1 

METHODS OF EATING. 

They generally sat on the ground, and took their food near the 
door of their house: sometimes, however, they took their meals in the 
more luxurious manner of some of the eastern nations, lying nearly 
in a horizontal posture, and resting on one aim, or reclining on a 
large cushion or pillow placed under the breast for that purpose; in 
this manner the late king, with the members of Ms family, and many 
of the principal chiefs, were accustomed frequently to take their 
evening meal. 

Their intercourse with foreigners of late years has taught many 
of the chiefs to prefer a bedstead to the ground, and a mattress to a 
mat, to sit on a chair, eat at a table, use a knife and fork, &e. This 
we think advantageous, not only to those who visit them for purposes 
of commerce, but to the natives themselves, as it increases their 
wants, and consequently stimulates to habits of industry. 

CANOE HIRED FOR PASSAGE TO LAUPAHOEHOE. 

Having been informed by our guide that travelling along the coast 
to the northward would be tedious and difficult, on account of the 
numerous deep ravines that intersected the whole extent of Hiro and 
Hamakua, it seemed desirable to take a canoe as far as Laupahoehoe, 
by which we should avoid some of the most difficult parts of the 
coast. 

As soon as the rain had ceased, and the fog cleared off, on the 
morning of the 12th I waited on Maaro, to inquire if he could furnish 
us with one. The chief said, he had not a double canoe at his com 
mand, or he would cheerfully provide one. I therefore walked on to 
Pueo, on the western shore, where, for six dollars, I hired one of 
Kapapa, chief of the place, to take us between twenty and twenty-five 
miles. 

TOLL CHARGED FOR CROSSING WAILTTKTJ RIVER 

Beturning from Pueo, I visited Wairuku, a beautiful stream of 
water flowing rapidly over a rocky bed, with frequent falls, and many 
places eligible for the erection of water-mills of almost any descrip 
tion. Makoa and the natives pointed out a square rock in the middle 
of the stream, on which, during the reign of Tamehanaeha, and 
former kings, a toll used to be paid by every traveller who passed 
over the river. 

Whenever any on approached the stream, he stood on the brink, 
and called to the collector of the toll, who resided on the opposite 
side. He came down with a broad piece of board, which he placed 
on the rock above mentioned. Those who wished to cross met him 
there, and deposited on the board whatever articles had been brought; 

16 



242 

and if satisfactory, the person was allowed to pass the river. It did 
not appear that any uniform toll was required; the amount, or value, 
being generally left to the collector. 

The natives said it was principally regulated "by the rank or num 
ber of those who passed over. 

In order the better to accommodate passengers, all kinds of per 
manently valuable articles were received. Some paid in native tapa 
and mats, or baskets, others paid a hog, a dog, some fowls, a roll of 
tobacco, or a quantity of dried salt fish. 

MARKET FAIRS HELD AT HILO 

The river of "Wairuku was also distinguished by the markets or fairs 
held at stated periods on its banks. At those times the people of 
Puna, and the desolate shores of Kau, even from the south point of 
the island, brought mats, and mamake tapa, which is a remarkably 
strong black or brown native cloth, for the manufacture of which 
the inhabitants of Ora, and some of the inland parts of Puna, are 
celebrated throughout the whole group of the Sandwich Islands. It 
is made of a variety of the morus papyrifera, which grows sponta 
neously in those parts. These, together with vast quantities of dried 
salt fish, were ranged along on the south side of the ravine. 

The people of Hiro and Hamakua, as far as the north point, 
brought hogs, tobacco, tapa of various kinds, large mats made of 
the pandanus leaves, and bundles of ai pa, which were collected on 
the north bank. Ai pai, (hard food) . A kind of food made of baked 
taro, pounded together without water. When properly prepared, it is 
wrapped in green ti leaves, and tied up in bundles containing from 
twenty to forty pounds each; in this state it will remain several 
months without injury. From bank to bank the traders shouted to 
each other, and arranged the preliminaries of their bargains. !From 
thence the articles were taken down to the before-mentioned rock 
in the middle of the stream, which in this place is almost covered 
with large stones. Here they were examined by the parties imme 
diately concerned, in the presence of the collectors, who stood on 
each side of the rock, and were the general arbiters, in the event 
of any disputes arising. To them also was committed the preserva 
tion of good order during the fair, and they, of course, received a 
suitable remuneration from the different parties. 

On the above occasions, the banks of the Wairuku must often 
have presented an interesting scene, in the bustle of which these 
clerks of the market must have had no inconsiderable share. 

According to the account of the natives, this institution was in 
force till the accession of Bihoriho, the late king, since which time 
it has been abolished. 



24:3 

In the afternoon I called on Maaro, and found Mm very ill, and 
averse to conversation. His wives sat in the same room playing at 
cards, and apparently too intent on their game to be easily diverted. 

A CASE OF INFANTICIDE JUSTIFIED BY EAMEHAMEHA. 

About twelve years ago, a shocking instance of infanticide occurred 
in this district, exhibiting, in a most affecting manner, the unre 
strained violence of malignant passion, and tne want of parental 
affection, which so often characterize savage life. 

A man and his wife, tenants of Mr. Young, who has for many 
years held, under the Mng, the small district of Kukuwau, situated 
on the centre of Waiakea bay, resided not far from Maaro's house. 
They had one child, a fine little boy. A quarrel arose between them 
on one occasion respecting this child. The wife refusing to accede 
to the wishes of the husband, he, in revenge, caught up the child 
by the head and the feet, broke its back across his knee, and then 
threw it down in expiring agonies before her. 

Struck with the atrocity of the act, Mr. Young seized the man, led 
him before the king, Tamehameha, who was then at Waiakea, and 
requested that he might be punished. 

The king inquired, "To whom did the child he has murdered be 
long?" 

Mr. Young answered, that it was his own son. 

"Then," said the king, "neither you nor I have any right to in 
terfere; I cannot say any thing to him." 

PREVALENCE OF INFANTICIDE IN HAWAII. 

We have long known that the Sandwich Islanders practised in 
fanticide, but had no idea of the extent to which it prevailed, until 
we had made various inquiries during our present tour, and had con 
versed with Karaimoku, Kapiolani, the governor, and several other 
chiefs, who, though formerly unwilling to converse on the subject, 
have, since their reception of Christianity, become more commu 
nicative. 

It prevails throughout all the islands, and, with the exception of 
the higher class of chiefs, is, as far as we could learn, practised by 
all ranks of the people. 

However numerous the children among the lower orders, parents 
seldom rear more than two or three, and many spare only one; all 
the others are destroyed sometimes shortly after birth, generally dur 
ing the first year of their age. 

The means by which it is accomplished, though numerous, it would 
be improper to describe. Kuakim, the governor of the Island, in a 
conversation I had with him at Kairua, enumerated many different 



24A 

methods, several of which frequently proved fatal to tlie mother also. 
Sometimes they strangle their children, but more frequently bury 
them alive. 

INFANTICIDE IN SOCIETY ISLANDS. 

Among the Society Islanders, who, while they were idolaters, prob 
ably practised infanticide more than any other natives in the Pacific, 
if the intended victim survived only one day, and frequently not 
more than a few hours, it was generally saved. 

Depraved as they were, they could not afterwards sacrifice to a 
barbarous custom an innocent babe, who seemed to look with con 
fidence to its mother or its nurse, and unconsciously smiled upon those 
who stood by: hence the parties interested in the child's destruction, 
which were the parents themselves, or their relations, generally stran 
gled it soon after its birth. 

ESTIMATE TWOTHIEDS OF CHILDREN WEES KILLED. 

But among the Sandwich Islanders, the infant, after living a week, 
a month, or even a year, was still insecure, as some were destroyed 
when nearly able to walk. 

It is painful to think of the numbers thus murdered. All the 
information we have been able to obtain, and the facts that have 
come to our knowledge in the neighbourhood where we resided, afford 
every reason to believe, that from the prevalence of infanticide 
two-thirds of the children perished. 

We have been told by some of the chiefs, on whose word we can 
depend, that they have known parents to murder three or four infants 
where they have spared one. But even supposing that not more 
than half the children were thus cut off, what an awful spectacle of 
depravity is presented! how many infants must have been annually 
sacrificed to a custom so repugnant to all the tenderest feelings of 
humanity, that, without the clearest evidence, we should not believe 
it would be d ound in the catalogue of human crimes. 

REASONS FOB INFANTICIDE. 

The reasons they give for this practice manifest a degree of de 
pravity no less affecting. 

Among the Marquesians, who inhabit a group of islands to the 
southeast of Hawaii, we are told that children are sometimes, during 
seasons of extreme scarcity, killed and eaten by their parents, to 
satisfy hunger. 

"With the Society Islanders, the rules of the Areoi institutions, and 
family pride, were the principal motives to its practice. 

If the rank or family of the mother was inferior to that of the 
father, his relations or friends usually destroyed the child. 



24:5 

More frequently, however, tlie mother's rank was superior to that 
of the father. In this ease, her reiations ? in order to avoid the 
degradation which they supposed it would, entail on their family or 
class in society, almost invariably murdered the child. 

The regulations of the Areoi society were not only abominable and 
vicious, but exceedingly cruel, and, excepting the chiefs, the members 
usually destroyed their offspring; and the rearing of any was con 
sidered a degradation. 

The reason generally assigned for this was, that nursing children 
quickly diminished the personal charms of the mother. 

Excepting the latter, which operates in a small degree, none of 
these motives actuate the Sandwich Islanders; those, however, by 
which they are influenced are equally criminal. 

Some of the natives have told us that children were formerly 
sacrificed to the sharks infesting their shores, and which through fear 
they had deified; but as we have never met with persons who have 
ever offered any, or seen others do it, this possibly may be only 
report. 

LAZINESS PRINCIPAL REASON FOR INFANTICIDE. 
The principal motive with the greater part of those who practise 
it, is idleness; and the reason most frequently assigned, even by the 
parents themselves, for the murder of their children, is, the trouble 
of bringing them up. 

In general they are of a changeable disposition, fond of a wan 
dering manner of life, and find their children a restraint, pre 
venting them, in some degree, from following their roving incli 
nations. 

Like other savage nations, they are averse to any more labour than 
is absolutely necessary. Hence they consider their children a burden, 
and are unwilling to cultivate a little more ground, or undertake the 
small additional labour necessary to the support of their offspring 
during the helpless periods of infancy and childhood. 

In some cases, when the child has been sickly, and the parents 
have grown tired of nursing and attending it, they have been known, 
in order to avoid further attendance and care, to bury it at once; 
and we have been credibly informed that children have been buried 
alive, merely because of the irritation they have discovered. 

BURIED ALIVE IN FLOOR OF HOUSE 

On these occasions, when the child has cried more than the parents, 
particularly the mother, could patiently bear, instead of clasping the 
little sufferer to her bosom, and soothing by caresses the pains which, 
though unable to tell them, it has probably felt, she has, to free her 
self from this annoyance, stopped its cries by thrusting a piece of 



246 

tapa into its mouth, dug a hole in the floor of the house, and, per 
haps within a few yards of her bed, and the spot where she took 
her daily meals, has relentlessly "buried, in the untimely grave, her 
helpless babe. 

The Society Islanders buried the infants they destroyed among the 
bushes, at some distance from their houses; but many of the infants 
in the Sandwich Islands are buried in the houses in which both 
parents and child had resided together. 

In the floors, which are frequently of earth or pebbles, a hole is 
dug, two or three feet deep, into which they put the little infant, 
placed in a broken calabash, and having a piece of native cloth laid 
upon its mouth to stop its cries. The hole is then filled up with earth, 
and the inhuman parents themselves have sometimes joined in tread 
ing down the earth upon their own innocent but murdered child, 

INDIFFERENCE OF NATIVES CONCERNING- INFANTICIDE. 
The bare recital of these acts of cruelty has often filled our 
minds with horror, while those who have been engaged in the per 
petration of them, have related all their tragical circumstances in 
detail with apparent unconcern. 

What an affecting view does this practice exhibit of human nature, 
unaided by the light of revelation, uninfluenced by the mild spirit of 
true religion, and under the debasing influence of cruel superstition. 

To what an abject state of moral degradation must a people, in 
many respects extremely interesting, be reduced, to perpetrate, with 
out compunction, such atrocities; and what a painful and humiliating 
demonstration do they afford of the truth of the scripture declara 
tion, that "the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations 
of cruelty." 

Instinct teaches animals to take care of their offspring; even the 
savage tiger roams the forest to provide for her young, or fearlessly 
meets death in their defence. But here, where so many advantages 
combine to increase the comforts of the inhabitants, infants are 
destroyed by a parent's hand. 

How great are the obligations of those whose lot is cast in coun 
tries favoured with the Bible, to whose domestic society Christianity 
imparts so much happiness. And how consoling to know, that its 
principles, wherever imbibed, will produce, even in the most bar 
barous communities, such a delightful transformation of character, 
that the lion and leopard shall become harmless as the lamb and the 
kid, "and they shall neither hurt nor destroy. " 

CHRISTIANITY TERMINATED INFANTICIDE IN SOCIETY ISLANDS. 
When the natives of the Society Islands embraced the Christian 
religion, they immediately refrained from this practice. The infants 



247 

spared, as they grew up, kindled and cherished In their parents 7 
bosoms emotions they had never "before experienced. They became, 
in general, exceedingly fond of their children. 

I have seen a mother or a father, "who have been known to have 
murdered several children, fondling and nursing a little babe with a 
degree of tenderness, that, without witnessing it, I could not be 
lieve would have been felt by individuals so hardened and insensible 
as they had formerly been. 

As parental affection increased, they began to view with abhorrence 
a crime, their former familiarity with which, was now surprising even 
to themselves; and, in order to mark their sense of its enormity, the 
very first article in the code of laws proposed by the chiefs, and 
adopted by the people in most of the Society Islands, shortly after 
their reception of Christianity, is a prohibition of infanticide, an 
nexing the punishment of death to its perpetration under any cir 
cumstances whatever. 

ATTEMPTS TO ABOLISH INFANTICIDE IN HAWAII. 

In the Sandwich Islands, although not abolished, we have reason 
to believe it prevails less extensively now than it did four or five 
years ago. 

The king, and some of the chiefs, especially Karaimoku, since 
they have attended to the precepts of Christianity, and have been 
made acquainted with the direct prohibitions of it in the Bible, have 
readily expressed in public their conviction of its criminality, and 
that committing it is in fact pepehi kanaka, (to kill man,) under cir 
cumstances which aggravate its guilt. They have also been led to 
see its impolicy with respect to their resources, in its tendency to 
depopulate the islands, and render them barren or unprofitable, and, 
from these views, have lately exerted themselves to suppress it. 

Karaimoku, regent of the islands, has more than once forbidden 
any parents to destroy their children, and has threatened to punish 
with banishment, if not with death, any who shall be found guilty 
of it. 

ONLY RECENTLY THAT CHIEFS HAVE OPPOSED INFANTICIDE 

After we left Kairua, on our present tour, Kuakini, the governor, 
published among all the people under his jurisdiction, a strict pro 
hibition of this barbarous custom. It is, however, only recently that 
the chiefs have endeavoured to prevent it, and the people do not very 
well brook their interference; so that, notwithstanding their efforts, 
it is still practised, particularly in remote districts, but in general 
privately, for fear of detection and punishment. 

The check, however, which infanticide has received from the 
humane and enlightened policy of the chiefs, is encouraging. It war- 



248 

rants the most sanguine expectations, that as Christianity advances 
among the Hawaiians, this, and other customs equally degrading to 
their character, and destructive of their race, will be entirely laid 
aside, as has been the ease among the Tahitians; and there is every 
reason to presume, that the pleasing change, which has resulted from 
the general reception of the gospel among the latter, will, under the 
divine blessing, be ultimately realized by the Sandwich Islanders. 

May that happy period soon arrive! for if the total abolition of 
this cruel practice (though amongst the least of its benevolent ob 
jects) be the only advantage which the establishment of a Christian 
Mission in these distant islands shall confer on their inhabitants, yet, 
in rescuing every year, through all the succeeding generations of 
this reviving nation, multitudes from a premature death, the liberal 
assistance of its friends and the labours of its several members will 
be most amply rewarded. 

KAHUNAS ATTEMPT TO CURE CHIEF. 

On the morning of the 13th we examined some of the eastern parts 
of the bay. I also visited Maaro. On arriving at the house in which 
I had left the sick chief yesterday, the natives told me that he had 
been removed, that the house where he then was, was tabu, and the 
tabu would be broken if I should go there. They refused to tell where 
he was, but did not attempt to prevent my going in search for him. 

After travelling a mile and a half inland, I reached the house in 
which he lay, and was immediately invited to enter. The number 
of small sticks, with the leaves of the ti plant fastened round them, 
which I saw fixed in different parts of the house, particularly around 
the mat on which the chief was reclining, induced me to think they 
had been performing some incantation for his recovery, or were pre 
paring for one. 

I asked one who sat by, and who, I supposed, was a kahuna, (doc 
tor,) what remedies they were using for his recovery; but they gave 
me no answer. The chief seemed to have less pain than yesterday, 
and was much more communicative. He said the native doctors had 
brought him there in order to try the effect of medicines, which he 
trusted would give relief. 

A WARNING AG-AINST INCANTATION. 

I told him it was right to use every lawful means for the recovery 
of health; but cautioned him particularly against having recourse to 
the incantations of the priests, or making any offerings to their former 
gods, as that was not only foolish and useless, but offensive to God 
the author of all our mercies, with whom alone were the issues of life 
and death. 



249 

He made no reply, "but turned the conversation, by saying he re 
gretted that he was not able to furnish us with a canoe, and that Ms 
sickness had not allowed him to be more with us. 

I told him we wished to have had more frequent opportunities of 
telling Mm of Jesus Christ; and endeavouring to impress Ms mind 
with the necessity of an early application for the pardon of Ms sins, 
and the salvation of Ms spirit. When I left him, he said he would 
think of these things, and, should he get better, would attend to in 
struction, and use Ms influence to induce Ms people to attend. 

THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE AND SORCERY. 

Maaro was attended by two or three natives, who were called 
kahuna rapaau mai, the name given to those who undertake to cure 
diseases, from kahuna, a priest, or one expert in Ms profession, 
rapaau, to heal, or to apply medicine, and mai, disease. 

Although among the Sandwich Islanders there are none who ex 
clusively devote themselves to tMs employment, there are many 
who pretend to great skill in the discovery and cure of diseases. 
They are usually, as their name imports, priests or sorcerers, and 
seldom administer medicine unaccompanied by some superstitious 
ceremony. 

The knowledge of the art is frequently communicated from father 
to son, and thus continued in one family. In their practice they have 
different departments, and those who are successful in removing in 
ternal complaints are most esteemed. 

Febrile disorders are not so prevalent as in many tropical climates, 
but asthmatic and pulmonary affections are frequent, and the latter 
generally baffle all their sMIL 

HAWAIIAN MEDICINES AND MEDICAL TREATMENT. 

We are not aware that they admit into their materia medica any 
but vegetable substances, wMeh are variously prepared; sometimes 
baked, or heated in a cocoa-nut shell, but often applied after being 
simply bruised with a stone. In the selection and employment of 
these, they certainly manifest an acquaintance with the medicinal 
properties of a number of indigenous herbs and roots, which is com 
mendable, and may hereafter be turned to a good account. 

Several of their applications, simply as they are prepared, are, how 
ever, very powerful, and sometimes fatal in their effects. They had 
till lately no means of employing a warm bath, but frequently steamed 
their patients on an oven of heated stones, or placed them over the 
smoke of a fire covered with green succulent herbs. 

They have also a singular method of employing friction by rolling 
a stone or cannon shot over the part in pain. 



250 

I went one day Into a house belonging to Karaimoku, where a chief 
was lying on his face, and the kahuna, or his attendant, was rolling 
a cannon shot of twelve or fourteen pounds weight backwards and 
forwards along Ms back, in order to alleviate the pain. 

OCULISTS AND SURGERY. 

There weie also among them oculists, who were celebrated for cur 
ing diseases of the eye, and who were sometimes sent for by persons 
residing many miles distant. But in surgery they seem to be far 
behind the Society Islanders. 

Their operations were usually performed with no small degree of 
roughness and insensibility; and from what I have seen, I am strongly 
inclined to think that the sense the natives have of pain is less than 
ours, or their powers of endurance greater. 

In setting a broken leg or an arm, they were frequently successful. 
Not so, however, when they attempted, as was sometimes the case, 
more difficult operations 

They relate, that when some of their warriors have had the bones 
of their head fractured by a blow or a stone in battle, they have 
removed the pieces of bone, fitted in a piece of cocoa-nut shell, cov 
ered the skin over, and that the patient has recovered; but although 
they say there are persons living on whom it has been performed, I 
never aw one, and can hardly credit their having recovered, though 
I believe they performed the operation. 

DISPOSITION OP NATIVES TOWARD FOREIGN MEDICINE AND 
TREATMENT. 

The chiefs, and many of the natives, who are accustomed to asso 
ciate with foreigners, have entirely discarded the native doctors; and 
in times of sickness apply to the physician connected with the Ameri 
can mission, to the surgeon on shore, or one belonging to any ship in 
harbour, and shew a decided preference to foreign medicine. 

The great body of the people, however, are generally averse to our 
remedies, and prefer the attendance of the native doctors. The em 
ployment is somewhat profitable, and the fee, which is either a piece 
of cloth, a mat, a pig, or dog, &c. is usually paid before the kahuna 
undertakes the ease. 

NATIVE TRADITION OF ORIGIN OP ART OF MEDICINE. 

In conversation on this subject with the governor at Kairua, I once 
asked him what first induced them to employ herbs, &e. for the 
cure of diseases. 

He said that, many generations back, a man called Koreamoku 
obtained all their medicinal herbs from the gods, who also taught him 



251 

tlie use of them: that after Ms death he was deified, and a wooden 
image of Mm placed in the large temple at Kairua, to which, offerings 
of hogs, fish, and cocoa-nuts were frequently presented. 

Oronopuha and Makanuiairono, two friends and disciples of Korea- 
moku, continued to practise the art after the death of their master, 
and were also deified after death, particularly because they were fre 
quently successful in driving away the evil spirits by which the peo 
ple were afflicted and threatened with death. This is the account 
they have of the first use of herbs medicinally; and to these deified 
men the prayers of the kahuna are addressed, when medicine is ad 
ministered to the sick. 

DESCRIPTION OF WAIAKEA OR BYRON'S BAY. 

During the day we examined various parts of the district on the 
western side, and sounded in several places along the channel leading 
into the bay. The district of "Waiakea, and the bay of the same 
name, the Whye-a-te-a Bay of Vancouver, form the southern boundary 
of the division of Hiro, are situated on the north-east coast of 
Hawaii, and distant about twenty or twenty-five miles from the east 
ern point of the island. Eeeently in some of the public journals this 
bay has been called Byron's Bay, having been visited and explored 
by Captain Lord Byron, on his late voyage to the Sandwich Islands 
in his majesty's ship Blonde. 

The highest peak of Mouna-Kea bears due west from the sandy 
beach, at the bottom or south end of the bay. 

In the centre, or rather towards the south-east side, is a small 
island connected with the shore by a number of rocks, and covered 
with cocoa-nut trees South-west of this small island the native ves 
sels usually anchor, and are thereby sheltered from all winds to the 
eastward of north-east. The bottom is good across the whole extent 
of the bay, but the western, side is more exposed to the prevailing 
trade-winds. 

There is a shoal extending perhaps two miles from the above men 
tioned island It is therefore necessary in going into the harbour 
to keep near the western shore, which is very bold; the water is deep, 
and the passage free from rocks. 

RIVERS EMPTYING- INTO BAY. 

There are three streams of fresh water, which empty themselves 
into the bay. One on the western angle is called Wairuku It rises 
near the summit of Mouna-Kea, and, after taking a circuitous course 
for several miles, runs rapidly into the sea. 

Two others, called Wairama and Waiakea, rise in springs, boiling 
up through the hollows of the lava, at a short distance from the shore, 



252 

fill several large fish-ponds, and afterwards empty themselves into the 
sea. Waiakea, on the eastern side of the bay, is tolerably deep, and is 
navigated by canoes and boats some distance inland. 

PRODUCTS OF WAIAKEA. 

The face of the country in the vicinity of "Waiakea is the most 
beautiful we have yet seen, -which is probably occasioned by the 
humidity of the atmosphere, the frequent rains that fall here, and 
the long repose which the district has experienced from volcanic erup 
tions. 

The light and fertile soil is formed by decomposed lava, with a 
considerable portion of vegetable mould. The whole is covered with 
luxuriant vegetation, and the greater part of it formed into planta 
tions, where plantains, bananas, sugar-cane, taro, potatoes, and melons, 
grow to the greatest perfection. 

Groves of cocoa-nut and breadfruit trees are seen in every direction 
loaded with fruit, or clothed with umbrageous foliage. The houses 
are mostly larger and better built than those of many districts 
through which we had passed. We thought the people generally 
industrious; for in several of the less fertile parts of the distiiet 
we saw small pieces of lava thrown up in heaps, and potato vines 
growing very well in the midst of them, though we could scarcely 
perceive a particle of soil. 

DUCKS AND PISH IN THE PONDS. 

There are plenty of ducks in the ponds and streams, at a short dis 
tance from the sea, and several large ponds or lakes literally swarm 
with fish, principally of the mullet kind. The fish in these ponds be 
long to the king and chiefs, and are tabued from the common people. 

Along the stone walls which partly encircle these ponds, we saw a 
number of small huts, where the persons reside who have the care of 
the fish, and are obliged frequently to feed them with a small kind 
of muscle, which they procure in the sands round the bay. 

The district of Waiakea, though it does not include more than half 
the bay, is yet extensive. Kukuwau in the middle of the bay is its 
western boundary, from which, passing along the eastern side, it ex 
tends ten or twelve miles towards Kaau, the last district in the divi 
sion of Puna. 

RECOMMENDED AS A MISSION STATION. 

Taking every circumstance into consideration, this appears a most 
eligible spot for a missionary station. The fertility of the soil, the 
abundance of fresh water, the convenience of the harbour, the dense 



253 

population, and the favourable reception we have met with, all com 
bine to give it a stronger claim to immediate attention than any other 
place we have yet seen, except Kairua. 

There are 400 houses in the bay, and probably not less than 2000 
inhabitants, who would be immediately embraced in the operations 
of a missionary station here, besides the populous places to the north 
and south, that might be occasionally visited by itinerant preachers 
from Waiakea. 

INTERVIEW "WITH THREE MAEQUESAXS 

In the afternoon I preached in front of the house where we held 
our worship on the last Sabbath. There were three Marquesians 
present, who arrived here but a few weeks ago. After the service 
was ended, they said it was maitai, or good. 

I asked them from what island they came. They said "Fatu- 
hiva," (La Magdalena,) and that there were seven white men and 
two negroes living on their island, but they did not tell them any 
thing concerning Jehovah or Jesus Christ. 

I then asked them if they thought their countrymen would receive 
and protect Christian teachers, "Yes/* they all answered, "we are 
sure they would." "But you kill and eat white people; missionaries 
would not be safe among you." They seemed affected by this obser 
vation, and, after a moment's pause, exclaimed, "0, no! 0, no! you 
would not injure us, and should never be injured by us." 

These strangers, possessing all the vivacity natural to their coun 
trymen, could not fail to excite in our minds strong feelings of in 
terest; and we can but hope a Christian mission will soon be es 
tablished in those islands. Many advantages might be expected to 
result from it; and, among others, the security of vessels touching 
there for refreshments. 

MISSIONARY EFFORT IN TAHITI AND MARQUESAS. 

The natives of these islands have frequently sent to Tahiti for 
teachers, and, since the above was written, they have been visited by 
Mr Crook, a missionary, who was in 1797 stationed among them, but 
who is now labouring in Tahiti. The natives of Tahuata were 
favourably disposed towards instruction, and three native teachers 
from the Society Islands were left among them, preparatory to the 
establishment of a permanent mission in the Marquesas. 

It is truly distressing to hear so frequently of the murderous quar 
rels which take place between the natives of the Marquesas, and other 
islands in the Pacific, and the crews of ships visiting them; which, 
we think, would be in a great degree prevented, were missionaries 
permanently residing among them. 



254 

The natives are sometimes exceedingly deceitful and treacherous 
in their dealings with foreigners, and the conduct of the latter is not 
always such as to inspire confidence. 

The missionaries in the Society Islands have often been the means 
of preventing the consequences to which the misunderstanding of the 
natives and foreigners would in all probability have led. 

A DISHONEST CAPTAIN. 

Once in particular, about four years ago, a captain, who had never 
visited them before, and has not been there since, touched at a small 
island to the south-west of Tahiti, bargained with the natives for 
a number of hogs, agreeing to give in exchange for them tools or 
clothing. 

The natives carried to the ship, which was lying off and on, five or 
six large hogs in a canoe; they were hoisted in, when, instead of re 
turning the stipulated articles, the captain threw down into their 
canoe a bundle of old iron, principally iron hoops, cast loose the rope 
by which they held on to the ship, and sailed away. 

The natives returned to the shore; a council was held, in which it 
was agreed to take levenge on the first ship that should arrive. In 
the interim, however, a missionary from one of the Society Islands, 
whom they hac^ long known, visited them, and being made acquainted 
with the circumstances, dissuaded them from their purpose, promised 
to make up their loss, and thus, in all probability, the death of several 
innocent persons was prevented. 

THE LAST NIGHT AT WAIAKEA. 

While we were engaged in worship at "Waiakea, Messrs. Bishop 
and Thurston went over to Pueho, on the western shore, and Mr. 
Thurston preached to about 100 of the people at the house of Kapapa, 
the head man. When the service was ended, Kapapa accompanied 
them to the east side of the bay, in the double canoe which had been 
hired to convey us to Laupahoehoe 

As we intended to leave Waiakea early in the morning, I paid a 
farewell visit to Maaro this evening. The chief seemed more in 
disposed than when I last saw him, was restless, and apparently in 
much pain. 

After spending some time in religious conversation with Maaro 
and his household, I took leave of them, and enjoyed a pleasant 
walk back through the lonely village. 

The noise of the rolling surf on the distant beach was occasionally 
heard; the passing breeze caused a frequent rustling among the slen 
der leaves of the cocoa-nut groves; while the rapid stream rippled 
over its pebbly bed in several places close by the path. The glim- 



255 

merlBg lights in tlie native huts shed their enlivening rays through, 
the thick foliage of the surrounding gardens, and the beating of the 
drum, and the sound of the hura, with transient intervals between, 
broke upon the ear from several directions. 

These last, though far more agreeable than the drunken halloo, 
the savage war-cry, or the horrid yell fiom the mysterious and dark 
heiau, I yet could not but hope would soon be exchanged for the 
words of inspired truth, read aloud from the holy scriptures, the 
cheerful hymn of praise, or the solemn language of family devotion, 
BO frequently heard from the lowly Tahitian cottage, during an 
evening walk through the happy villages of the Society Islands. 

TRAVEL BY CANOE TO LAUPAHOEHOE. 

At daybreak on the 14th, after morning worship with the people 
who crowded our house, we made arrangements for our departure. 
Mr. Harwood remained, to return to Oahu in the brig Inore, lying at 
anchor in the bay, as he would thereby be enabled to transact some 
business for the mission, and also avoid travelling over the ravines 
of Hiro and Hamakua 

Soon after six a m. we embarked on board our canoe, and passed 
over the reef to the deep water on the western side of the bay. The 
weather was calm, and the men laboured with their paddles till about 
eight, when the maranai (east wind) sprung up, and wafted us pleas 
antly along the shore. We found our double canoe very convenient, 
for it had a pora (or stage) raised in the middle, which provided a 
comfortable seat, and also kept our packages above the spray of the 
sea. 

HAWAIIAN CANOES DESCRIBED. 

The pora is formed by tying slight poles to the iako, or cross pieces 
that connect the two canoes together, from the foremost iako to 
the one nearest the stern. The cross pieces are not straight, but bent 
like a bow, and form an arch between the two canoes, which raises 
the pora or stage at least two feet higher than the sides of the canoe. 

When the breeze sprang up, four of the men laid down their pad 
dles, and attended to the sail, while one man sat in the stern of each 
canoe with a large paddle to steer. 

Our canoe, though made of heavy wood, was thin, and consequently 
light, and, as the wind increased, seemed at a rapid rate to skim along 
the tops of the waves,* dashing through the crested foam with a de 
gree of velocity, which, but for the confidence we reposed in the 
skill and address of our pilots, would have excited no small degree 
of apprehension for our safety. 

The canoes of the Sandwich Islands appear eminently calculated 



250 

for swiftness, being long, narrow, generally light, and drawing but 
little water. 

SIZE AND FINISH OF CANOES. 

A canoe is always made out of a single tree; some of them are 
upwards of seventy feet long, one or two feet wide, and sometimes 
more than three feet deep, though in length they seldom exceed 
fifty feet. 

The body of the canoe is generally covered with a black paint, made 
by the natives with various earthy and vegetable materials, in which 
the bark, oil, and burnt nuts of the kukui tree are the principal 
ingredients. 

On the upper edge of the canoe is sewed, in a remarkably neat 
manner, a small strip of hard white wood, from six to eight inches 
in width, according to the size and length of the canoe. These strips 
meet and close over the top at both stem and stern, and shoot off 
much water that would otherwise enter the canoe. 

SPEED OP HAWAIIAN CANOES SAILING- AND PADDLING-. 

All the canoes of these islands are remarkably strong and neatly 
made; and though not so large as those of New Zealand, the Society 
Islands, or some of the other islands to the southward, are certainly 
better made; and would probably paddle or sail faster than any of 
them. 

One man will sometimes paddle a single canoe faster than a good 
boat's crew could row a whale-boat. Their tackling is simple and 
convenient; the mast generally has a notch cut at the lower end, and 
is placed on one of the cross pieces to which it is tied; the sails they 
now use, are made of mats, and cut in imitation of the sprit-sails of 
foreign boats, which, they say, they find much better than the kind 
of sail they had when first visited by foreigners. 

"When sailing with a fresh breeze, the ropes from the lower corners 
of the sails are always loosened, and held in the hands of persons 
whose only business it is to keep them properly trimmed. 

Their paddles, which are large and strong, are generally four or 
five feet long, have an oval-shaped blade and round handle, and are 
made of the same hard and heavy wood employed in building their 
canoes. They are not handsome, and their weight must make pad 
dling very laborious. 

Neither the canoes nor paddles of the Sandwich Islanders are carved 
like those of many islands in the Pacific. Their canoes are, never 
theless, remarkably neat, and sometimes handsome. 



257 
DESCRIPTION OF HILO DISTRICT 

The country, "by which we sailed, was fertile, beautiful, and appar 
ently populous. The numerous plantations on the eminences and sides 
of the deep ravines or valleys, by which, it was intersected, with the 
streams meandering through them into the sea, presented altogether 
a most agreeable prospect. The coast was bold, and the rocks evi 
dently volcanic. "We frequently saw the water gushing out of hol 
lows in the face of the rocks, or flowing in cascades from the top 
to the bottom. 

After sailing pleasantly for several hours, we approached Laupa- 
hoehoe: we had proceeded upwards of twenty miles, and had passed 
not less than fifty ravines or valleys, but we had not seen a spot where 
we thought it would be possible to land without being swamped; and 
although we knew we had arrived at the end of our voyage, we could 
discover no place by which it seemed safe to approach the shore, as 
the surf was beating violently, and the wind blowing directly towards 
the land. 

LANDING AT LAUPAHOEHOE. 

However, when we came within a few yards of the surf, we per 
ceived an opening in the rocks, just wide enough to admit our canoe. 
Into this our pilots steered with uncommon address and precision; 
and before we could look round, we found our canoe on a sandy 
beach, a few yards long, entirely defended by rocks of lava from the 
rolling surf on the outside. 

It was one p. m. when we landed, and walked up to the house of 
the head man, where we had a few fish and some potatoes, that we 
had brought with us, prepared for dinner. After the people of the 
place had been spoken to on the subject of religion, they saioT they 
had heard there were missionaries living at Oahu, teaching the king 
to read, and write, and pray. They had also heard of Jehovah, but 
not of Jesus Christ. It was compassionate in the great God, they 
added, to think of them, and send his word among them. 

After remaining an hour or two, we proposed to proceed, but could 
not prevail on Makoa to go any further that night. He said we had 
come far enough for one day, and had better stay till the morning. 
He also complained of being tired with bailing out the canoe. We 
knew this was only an excuse, and that the principal reason why he 
wished to stop was because the head man of the place had invited 
us to remain, and had told us that if we would spend the night there, 
he would have a pig and some taro cooked. Makoa could not agree 
to lose the benefit of this offer; but as we were refreshed, and thought 
it best to proceed, we thanked the chief for his kindness, and, finding 

17 



258 

our guide determined to stay, we took each, a blanket for a covering 
at night, and resumed our journey. 

FROM LAUPAHOEHOE TO HUMTIULA. 

Leaving Laupahoehoe, we ascended the north, side of the deep 
ravine, at the bottom of which, the village is situated. We reached 
the top after climbing between 400 and 500 feet, and behelcT a 
beautiful country before us. Over this we travelled about five miles 
in a W. 1ST. W. direction towards the foot of Mouna-Kea, and after 
passing three deep ravines, reached Humuula shortly before sun-set. 

This retired little village is situated on the edge of a wood, ex 
tending along the base of Mouna-Kea. We directed our steps to 
the principal house in the village, and invited the people of the neigh 
bourhood to meet us there. They soon collected, and listened with, 
apparent interest to a short discourse. Many continued with us till 
a late hour in conversation, which to them is usually a source of no 
small gratification. 

HAWAIIAN CUSTOM TO TALK AND SING- ALL NIGHT 

We liave several times during our tour been kept awake by the 
natives in the nouses where we lodged, who have continued talking 
and singing till near daybreak. Circumstances the most trivial some 
times furnish conversation for hours. Their songs also afford much 
amusement, and it is no unusual thing for the family to entertain 
their guests with these, or for strangers to gratify their host by re 
citing those of their own island or neighbourhood. 

More than once, when we have entered a house, some of the inmates 
have shortly afterwards commenced a song, accompanied occasionally 
by a little drum, or the beating of the raau hura, musical stick; and 
the natives, who formerly visited Hawaii from the Society Islands, ex 
cited no small degree of interest by reciting the songs of their 
country. 

It is probable that many of the fabulous tales and songs so popular 
among them, have originated in the gratification they find in thus 
spending their time. This kind of amusement is common to most of 
the South Sea Islands. 

HABITS OF SONG-, CONVERSATION AND G-OSSIP IN THE PACIFIC. 

The Sandwich Islanders equal the Marquesians, the most lively 
natives of the Pacific, in the number of their songs, and exceed the 
Society Islanders; but their conversational powers are inferior to 
those of the latter, who are perhaps the most loquacious of them all. 

An acquaintance with every body's business used almost to be 



259 

cultivated as an accomplishment; and inquiries, which to us would 
appear most officious, were only common civilities. To meet a party, 
and not ask where they came from, or where they were going, what 
was their "business, and when they intended to return, would be con 
sidered indicative of displeasure towards the party thus neglected, or 
at least of want of interest in their welfare. 

HOSPITALITY OF HAWAIIANS AND SOUTH SEA ISLANDERS. 

Our hostess, who was a widow, treated us Mndly, and "between 
seven and eight brought in for supper a small baked pig, and a large 
dish of taro. This was the more grateful, as it had not been required 
by Makoa in the governor's name, but was furnished by the genuine 
hospitality which characterizes the South Sea Islanders, though not 
practised so much by the Hawaiians as by some other tribes in the 
Pacific, and we believe much less now than when the Sandwich 
Islands were first discovered, or during the earlier visits they re 
ceived. 

They are still, however, a hospitable people, and even the poorest 
would generally share their scanty dish of potatoes with a stranger. 

ISTot to entertain a guest with what they have, is, among themselves, 
considered reproachful; and there are many, who, if they had but one 
pig or fowl in the yard, or one root of potatoes in the garden, would 
cheerfully take them to furnish a repast for a friend. This generous 
disposition is frequently abused, and encourages the rambling manner 
of life of which many are so fond. 

HAWAIIAN SOCIAL CUSTOMS. * " 

It is not unusual for a family, when they have planted their field 
with sweet potatoes, &e. to pay a visit for four or five months to* 
some friend in a distant part of the island. When the crop is ripe 
they travel home again, and in return are most likely visited by a, 
friend, who will not think of leaving them so long as any of their 
provisions remain uneonsumed. This, however, is only the case where 
friendship has previously existed between the parties. 

A transient visitor on arriving among them will generally have an 
entertainment provided, of which the persons who furnish it seldom 
partake. The family with which we lodged were, however, induced 
to join us this evening at supper, though contrary to their ideas of 
propriety. 

Whenever we have remarked to the natives that their conduct in 
this respect is unsocial, they have usually answered, "Would it be 
right for us to present food to our friends, and then sit down and eat 
of it ourselves I" 



260 

Connected with this, another custom, equally at variance with our 
views of hospitality, is practised by the guests, who invariably carry 
away all that remains of the entertainment, however abundant it may 
have been. Hence, whenever a pig, &e. has been dressed for us, 
and our party have finished their meal, our boys always put the re 
mainder into their baskets, and carried it away. To this we often 
objected: but they usually replied, "It is our custom; and if we don't 
take it, the people will think you are dissatisfied with what they 
have provided." 

The entertainment given to strangers or visitors is regulated by 
the means of the host, or the rank of the guests. 

SOCIAL CUSTOMS OF SOCIETY ISLANDERS. 

In the Society Islands their feasts were formerly characterized by 
a degree of prodigality extremely oppressive to the people who had 
to furnish the provisions. 

I once saw in the island of Eaiatea upwards of fifty large baked 
hogs, and a proportionate quantity of poe, yams, &c. served up at 
one time for a party of chiefs on a visit from the G-eorgian or Wind 
ward Islands. 

BOGS THE PRINCIPAL MEAT. 

In this respect the Sandwich Islanders are not behind their southern, 
neighbours, but in their feasts the fiesh of the dog constitutes the 
principal meat. 

I have seen nearly two hundred dogs cooked at one time; and dur 
ing the last visit which Taumuarii, late king of Tauai, and Kaahu- 
manu his queen, paid Kuakini, the governor of this island, a feast 
was prepared for them by the latter, at which Auna was present, and 
counted four hundred baked dogs, with fish and hogs, and vegetables 
in proportion. 

Sometimes the food is spread out on the ground, which is previously 
covered with grass or green leaves; the party sit down around it, and 
the chiefs distribute it among them, after the servants have carved 
it with a knife, or with a piece of bamboo cane, which, before 
visited by foreigners, was the only kind of knife they possessed. 

DIVISION OF FOOD AT A FEAST. 

The serrated edge of the hard bamboo cane, when but recently 
split, is very sharp; and we have often been surprised at the facility 
with which they cut up a large hog with no other instrument. 

The head of a hog, or at least the brains, were always offered to 
the principal chief of the party; particular parts were given to the 



261 

priests, If any were present; wMle tlie "backbone and the tail were 
the usual perquisites of the person who carved. 

In general, however, when such large presents of food are made, 
each hog or dog when baked is put into a distinct basket, and piled 
up in heaps in the court-yard, in front of the house where the chief 
is residing; the fish, dogs, and vegetables, in separate heaps. 

When collected, the chief comes out to look at it, and those who 
have brought it retire. He then calls his stewards directs them to 
select a portion for Ms own table distributes some among the chiefs 
in the neighbourhood, in which the chief who has provided the feast 
is frequently included and divides the rest among his own followers, 
who sometimes amount to two or three hundred. 

DO& FABMS. 

Numbers of dogs, of rather a small size, and something like a ter 
rier, are raised every year as an article of food. They are mostly 
fed on vegetables,- and we have sometimes seen them kept in yards, 
with small houses to sleep in. 

A part of the rent of every tenant who occupies land, is paid in 
dogs for his landlord's table. 

Though often invited by the natives to join them in partaking of 
the baked dog, we were never induced to taste of one. The natives, 
however, say it is sweeter than the flesh of the pig, and much more 
palatable than that of goats or kids, which some refuse to touch, 
and few care to eat. 

These feasts are much less frequent than formerly, particularly 
among those chiefs who have opportunities for frequent inter 
course with foreigners, several of whom now spread their table in 
the European manner, and invite their friends to dine, or entertain 
their guests at home, and treat them as members of their family 
while they remain under their roof. 

Several members of the family we had lodged with, united with 
us in our morning worship on the 15th, after which we breakfasted 
together. 

While thus engaged, Makoa arrived with our baggage, and about 
eight a. m. we were ready to proceed. Unwilling that our hostess 
should suffer by her kindness, we presented her with as much blue 
cotton cloth as would amply pay for the supper she had generously 
furnished last evening, and then set out on our journey. 

TBAMPING FROM HILO TO HAMAKUA 

The wide-extended prospect which our morning walk afforded, of 
the ocean, and the shores of Hamakua on our right, was agreeably 
diversified by the occasional appearance of the snow-eapt peaks of 



262 

Mouna-Kea, seen through tlie openings in the trees on our left. Tlie 
"body of tlie mountain was hid by the wood, and the different peaks 
only appeared like so many distinct hills at a great distance. The 
Mghest peak bore S. W. "by S. from Humuula. 

The high land over which we passed was generally woody, though 
the trees were not large. The places that were free from wood, 
were covered with long- grass and luxuriant ferns. The houses mostly 
stood singly, and were scattered over the face of the country. 

A rich field of potatoes or taro, five or six acres sometimes in ex 
tent, or large plantations of sugar-cane and bananas, occasionally 
bordered our path. But though the soil was excellent, it was only 
partially cultivated. The population also appeared less than what 
we had seen inhabiting some of the most desolate parts of the island. 

About 10 a. m. we reached the pleasant and verdant valley of 
Kaura, which separates the divisions of Hilo and Hamakua. 

HOW BOUND ABIES ARE MABKED 

The geographical divisions of Hawaii, and the other islands of the 
group, are sometimes artificial, and a stone image, a line of stones 
somewhat distant from each other, a path, or a stone wall, serves 
to separate the different districts, or larger divisions, from each 
other. They are, however, more frequently natural, as in the present 
instance, where a watercourse, winding through the centre of the 
valley, marked the boundary of these two divisions. The boundary 
of the smaller districts, and even the different farms, as well as the 
large divisions, are definitely marked, well understood, and permanent. 

Each division, district, village, and farm, and many of the sites of 
houses, have a distinct name, which is often significant of some 
object or quality distinguishing the place. 

WORSHIP OF PELE STILL PRACTISED. 

On descending to the bottom of the valley, we reached a heiau 
dedicated to Pele, with several rude stone idols, wrapped up in white 
and yellow cloth, standing in the midst of it. A number of wreaths 
of flowers, pieces of sugar-cane, and other presents, some of which 
were not yet faded, lay strewed around, and we were told that every 
passing traveller left a trifling offering before them. 

Once in a year, we were also informed, the inhabitants of Hama- 
kua brought large gifts of hogs, dogs, and fruit, when the priests 
and kahu of Pele assembled to perform certain rites, and partake of 
the feast. 

This annual festival, we were told, was designed to propitiate the 
volcanic goddess, and secure their country from earthquakes, or inun 
dations of lava. Locks of human hair were among the offerings 



263 

made to Pele. They were frequently presented to this goddess by 
those who passed by the crater of Kirauea, on which occasions they 
were thrown into the crater, a short address being made at the same 
time to the deity supposed to reside there. 

THEOLOGICAL DISCUSSION WITH NATIVES. 

We ventured to deviate from the custom of travellers in general; 
yet, though we presented no offerings, we did not proceed to pull 
down the heiau, and irritate the people by destroying their idols, but 
entered into conversation with them on the folly of worshipping such 
senseless things, and pointed out the more excellent way of propi 
tiating the favour of Jehovah, the true God, with sacrifices of thanks 
giving and praise, placing all their hopes in Ms mercy, and depending 
for security on his providence. 

They took what we said in good part, and answered, that though 
the stones could not save them, the being whom they represented, or 
in honour of whom they were erected, was very powerful, and capable 
of devouring their land, and destroying the people. This we denied; 
and told them that volcanoes, and all their powers, were under the 
control of that G-od, whom we wished them to choose for their God and 
Saviour. 

"When a drawing had been taken of this beautiful valley, where 
kukui trees, plantains, bananas, and ti plants were growing spon 
taneously with unusual richness of foliage and flower, we took leave 
of the people, and, continuing our journey, entered Hamakua. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE HILO DISTRICT. 

Hiro, which we had now left, though not so extensive and populous 
as Kona, is the most fertile and interesting division on the island. 

The coast from Waiakea to this place is bold and steep, and inter 
sected by numerous valleys or ravines; many of these are apparently 
formed by the streams from the mountains, which flow through them 
into the sea. The rocks along the coast are volcanic, generally a 
brown vesicular lava. In the sides and bottoms of some of the ravines, 
they were occasionally of very hard compact lava, or a kind of basalt. 

This part of the island, from the district of "Waiakea to the north 
ern point, appears to have remained many years undisturbed by vol 
canic eruptions. The habitations of the natives generally appear in 
clusters at the opening of the valleys, or scattered over the face of the 
high land. The soil is fertile, and herbage abundant. 

The lofty Mouna-Kea, rising about the centre of this division, forms 
a conspicuous object in every view that can be taken of it. The base 
of the mountain on this side is covered with woods, which occa 
sionally extend within five or six miles of the shore. 



264 

CLIMATE OF HILO AND HAMAKUA. 

While the division of Kona, on the leeward side of the island, is 
often several months without a shower, rain is frequent in this and 
the adjoining division of Hamakua, which form the centre of the 
windward coast, and is doubtless the source of their abundant fer 
tility. The climate is warm. Our thermometer was usually 71 at 
sun-rise; 74 at noon; and 72 or 73 at sun-set. [Notwithstanding 
these natural advantages, the inhabitants, excepting at Waiakea, did 
not appear better supplied with the necessaries of life than those of 
Kona, or the more barren parts of Hawaii. They had better houses, 
plenty of vegetables, some dogs, and a few hogs, but hardly any 
fish, a principal article of food with the natives in general. 

THRU KEARAKAHA, MANIENIE AND TOUMOARII. 

About mid-day we came to a village called Kearakaha, where we 
collected the people, and preached to them. They listened attentively, 
and conversed very freely afterwards on what had been said. 

Leaving Kearakaha, we continued our walk to Manienie, where we 
dined, and rested two or three hours. During our stay we addressed 
the people as usual. 

Shortly after four in the afternoon we left Manienie, and travelled 
over a well- cultivated tract of country, till we reached Toumoarii, 
where we put up for the night, as we were considerably fatigued 
with our day's journey, having crossed nearly twenty ravines, some 
of which were from 300 to 400 feet deep. The people collected in 
front of the head man's house, for religious worship; and the service 
was concluded with singing and prayer just as the sun was setting. 

We spent the evening in conversation with the people of the house. 
Many of them exclaimed, "Makemake au ia Jesu Kraist. Aroha nui 
o Jesuf" I desire Jesus Christ; great is Jesus' love. 

MAKOA AS A RELIGIOUS TEACHER. 

Makoa, as usual, excited much interest among the natives by the 
accounts he gave of our journey, &e. This evening he turned theo 
logian, and while we were at supper, we heard him telling a party 
around him in another part of the house, that heaven was a place 
where there was neither salt fish, nor calabashes of poe. Indeed, 
added he, we shall never want any there, for we shall never be hun 
gry. But in order to get there, much is to be done. A man that 
wishes to go there, must live peaceably with his neighbours; must 
never be idle; and, moreover, must be a kanaka opu nui ore, i. e. must 
not be a glutton. 

We arose at day-light on the 16th, and shortly after left Taumoarii. 



265 

We had not travelled more tlian four or five miles when we reached 
Kaahua. After breakfast, we proceeded on our journey over a coun 
try equal in fertility to any we had passed since leaving Waiakea. 
The houses were in general large, containing usually three or four 
families each. Mr. G-oodrich was indisposed through the day, which 
obliged us to travel but slowly. 

PREACHING- AT KOLOAHA AND KAPULENA. 

jSTear noon we stopped at Koloaha, and, while he reclined beneath 
the shade of an adjoining grove of trees, I addressed the assembled 
natives on the subject of religion. 

After remaining about two hours, we walked to another village, 
where Mr. Thurston spoke to the people, who gave good attention. 

We then kept on our way till we reached Malanahae, where a con 
gregation of the people assembled, with whom we conversed some 
short time, then bade them farewell, and about three p. m. reached 
Kapulena, where we preached to upwards of 100 of the people. 

At this place we thought it best to form ourselves into two parties, 
in order that we might preach to the natives along the northern parts 
of the island, and examine the interior between this place and Towai- 
hae. It was therefore arranged that Messrs. Bishop and G-oodrieh 
should spend the Sabbath here, and on Monday morning pass over 
to Waimea, and thence to Towaihae, while Mr. Thurston and myself 
travelled through the villages on the northern shores. 

THE PARTY SEPARATES. 

On Monday morning Messrs. Bishop and Goodrich commenced their 
journey to Waimea. Having procured a man to carry their baggage, 
they left Kapulena, and, taking an inland direction, passed over a 
pleasant country, gently undulated with hill and dale. The soil was 
fertile, the vegetation flourishing, and there was considerable culti 
vation, though but few inhabitants. 

THRU WAIMEA AND KAWAIHAE MEETING WITH JOHN YOUNG. 

About noon they reached the valley of Waimea, lying at the foot 
of Mouna-ECea, on the northwest side. Here a number of villages 
appeared on each side of the path, surrounded with plantations, in 
which plantains, sugar-cane, and taro, were seen growing unusually 
large. At 4 p. m. they obtained a view of the ocean, and kept on 
their way towards Towaihae. 

When they had travelled several miles the sun went down, and, no 
houses being near, they spread their blankets on the ground, and slept 
comfortably in. the open air. 



266 

At break of day on the 19th they "began to descend, and, after 
walking about two hours, reached Towaihae, where they were hos 
pitably received by Mr. Young, with whom they spent the day. 

Having heard that a schooner from Oahu was at Keauhou, they left 
Towaihae in the evening in a canoe belonging to Mr. Young, and 
proceeded to Kairaa, where the schooner was lying at anchor. 

ALONG- THE CROOKED TRAIL TO WAIPIO. 

It was about 5 o'clock in the afternoon of the 16th ; when Mr. 
Thurston and myself left Kapulena. Wishing to spend the Sabbath in 
the populous village of Waipio., we travelled fast along the narrow 
paths bordered with long grass, or through the well-cultivated plan* 
tations of the natives. 

The Sandwich Islanders have no idea of constructing their roads or 
foot-path in a straight line. In many parts, where the country was 
level and open, the paths from one village to another were not more 
than a foot wide, and very crooked. We often had occasion to notice 
this, but never passed over any so completely serpentine as those we 
travelled this evening. 

The sun had set when we reached the high cliff that formed the 
southern boundary of Waipio. Steep rocks, not less than five hundred 
feet high, rose immediately opposite. Viewed from the great eleva 
tion at which we stood, the charming valley, spread out beneath us 
like a map, with its numerous inhabitants, cottages, plantations, fish 
ponds, and meandering streams, (on the surface of which the light 
canoe was moving to and fro.") appeared in beautiful miniature. 

WAIPIO DESCRIBED. 

Makoa led the way down the steep cliffs. The descent was dif 
ficult, and it was quite dark before we reached the bottom. A party 
of natives, returning from a fishing excursion, ferried us across the 
stream that ran along near the place where we descended, and we 
directed our steps towards the house of Haa, head man of the village. 

He received us courteously, ordered a clean mat to be spread for us 
to recline on, and water for us to drink; some of his attendants also 
handed us a large wooden tobacco-pipe, which is usually passed round 
when strangers arrive; this last compliment, however, we begged 
leave to decline. 

Makoa seated himself by the side of the chief, and gave him a brief 
outline of our tour our object and the instructions given to the peo 
ple. In the mean time, fish was prepared for supper by a fire of sandal 
wood, which, instead of filling the house with disagreeable smoke, 
perfumed it with a fragrant odour. After family worship in the 
native language, we retired to rest. 



268 

The nest morning unveiled to view tlie extent and beauty of the 
romantic valley. Its entrance from the sea, which was blocked up 
with sand-hills, fifty or sixty feet high, appeared to be a mile or a 
mile and a half wide. 

The summits of the hills, which bordered the valley, seemed 600 feet 
above the level of the sea. They were nearly perpendicular, yet they 
were mostly clothed with grass, and low straggling shrubs were here 
and there seen amidst the jutting rocks. 

A number of winding paths led up their steep sides, and, in several 
parts, limpid streams flowed, in beautiful cascades, from the top to 
the bottom, forming a considerable stream, which, meandering along 
the valley, found a passage through the sand-hills, and emptied itself 
into the sea. 

A CONTINUOUS AND POPULOUS GARDEN. 

The bottom of the valley was one continued garden, cultivated 
with taro, bananas, sugar-cane, and other productions of the islands, 
all growing luxuriantly. Several large ponds were also seen in dif 
ferent directions, well stocked with excellent fish. 

A number of small villages, containing from twenty to fifty houses 
each, stood along the foot of the mountains, at unequal distances on 
each side, and extended up the valley till projecting cliffs obstructed 
the view. 

Morning worship was attended by our host and his family, and 
about half-past ten the people of the neighbourhood assembled in front 
of the house. Mr. Thurston preached to them, and was encouraged 
by the attention given. 

In the afternoon he walked up the north side of the valley, and 
preached to congregations of about 100 persons, in three different 
villages. I proceeded about a mile and a half along the south side 
of the valley, to the village of ISTapopo, containing forty-three houses, 
and preached to the natives. After the service, the people com 
plained of their great ignorance, and wished they might be visited 
again. 

At five p. m. I returned, and addressed the people in the place 
where Mr. Thurston had preached in the morning. About 300 were 
present, and listened attentively. 

DISCUSSIONS WITH A CHIEF. 

The chief with whom we lodged made many inquiries respecting the 
way of salvation through Jesus Christ. He also asked about the 
change which had taken place in the Society Islands; and afterwards 
observed, that Hawaii was a dark land, and would not soon attend to 
its true interests. He and his family cheerfully united in the devo 
tional exercises of the day, and by his conversation manifested, for 
an untutored native, an unusual degree of intelligence. 



269 

In the evening, as we sat around the door, the voice of wailing: and 
lamentation broke upon the ear. On inquiry, it was found to proceed 
from a neighbouring cottage, where a woman, who had been some 
time ill, had just expired. This circumstance led to a conversation on 
death and a future state, and the necessity of habitual preparedness 
for the eventful change which awaits all mankind. 

While we were talking, the moon arose, and shed her mild light 
upon the valley; her beams were reflected by the rippling stream, and 
the small lake beautified the scene. All was serene and still, save 
the chirping insects in the grass. The echo of the cloth-mallet, which 
had been heard through the day in different parts of the valley, had 
now ceased. Though generally a pleasant sound, especially when 
heard in a solitary valley, indicating the industry of the natives, it 
had on this day, which was the Sabbath, called forth the most affec 
tionate solicitude for the interesting people of the place; and we 
could not but desire the speedy arrival of that time, when the sacred 
hours of the Sabbath should be employed in spiritual and devotional 
exercises. That, however, is not to be expected in the present cir 
cumstances of the people, for 

"The sound of the church-going bell 
These valleys and rocks never heard: 
Never sigh'd at the sound of a knell, 
Nor smiled when a Sabbath appear 7 d. ' ' 

And probably until this day their inhabitants had not been informed, 
that "in six days they should labour and do all their work, and that 
the seventh is the Sabbath of the Lord their God," which he requires 
them to sanctify by sacred worship and holy rest. 

MAKOA GIVES POINTERS ON HAOLE MEDICINE. 

On the morning of the 18th, while some medicine was preparing, 
Haa inquired of what kind it was, when Makoa, who was sitting by, 
observed that it was very strong medicine; that if a native only 
smelt it, his breath would be taken away: (he referred probably to 
a bottle of hartshorn, of which he had once smelt.) "If we were 
to be taken sick on a journey, we should rest a few days before we 
thought of continuing it: but they are strange people, very unlike us; 
for frequently, after being ill all night, they get up in the morning, 
take medicine, and then walk all day as if nothing were the matter 
with them." 

HAWAIIAN METHODS OF INTERMENT. 

We were desirous of witnessing the interment of the person who 
died last night, but were disappointed; it was, as most of their fune 
rals are, performed in secret. 



270 

A few particulars, relative to their mode of burying, we liave been 
able to gather from the people of this place and other parts of the 
island. 

The bones of the legs and arms, and sometimes the skull, of their 
kings and pnneipal chiefs, those who were supposed to have descended 
from the gods, or were to be deified, were usually preserved, as already 
noticed. The other parts of the body were burnt or buried, while these 
bones were either bound up with cinet, wrapped in cloth, and de 
posited in temples for adoration, or distributed among the immediate 
relatives, who, during their lives, always carried them wherever they 
went. This was the case with the bones of Tamehameha; and it is 
probable that some of Ms bones were brought by his son Eihorih.0 on 
his recent visit to England, as they supposed that so long as the bones 
of the deceased were revered, Ms spirit would accompany them, and 
exercise a supernatural guardianship over them. 

They did not wash the bodies of the dead, as was the practice with 
some of the South Sea Islanders. 

The bodies of priests, and chiefs of inferior rank, were laid out 
straight, wrapped in many folds of native tapa, and buried in that 
posture; the priests generally within the precincts of the temple in 
which they had officiated. 

DIFFERENT BURIAL METHODS. 

A pile of stones, or a circle of high poles, surrounded their grave, 
and marked the place of their interment. It was only the bodies of 
priests, or persons of some importance, that were thus buried. 

The common people committed their dead to the earth in a most 
singular manner. After death, they raised the upper part of the body, 
bent the face forwards to the knees, the hands were next put under 
the hams, and passed up between the knees, when the head, hands, 
and knees were bound together with cinet or cord. The body was 
afterwards wrapped in a coarse mat, and buried the first or second 
day after its decease. 

They preferred natural graves whenever available, and selected for 
this purpose caves in the sides of their steep rocks, or large subter 
ranean caverns. 

SEPULCHRAL CAVES. 

Sometimes the inhabitants of a village deposited their dead in one 
large cavern, but in general each, family had a distinct sepulchral cave. 

Their artificial graves were either simple pits dug in the earth, 
or large enclosures. One of the latter, which we saw at Keahou, 
was a space surrounded with high stone walls, appearing much like 
an ancient heiau or temple. We proposed to several natives of the 
village to accompany us on a visit to it, and give us an outline of its 



271 

history; but they appeared startled at tiie thought, said It was a 
wahi ino, (place evil,) filled with, dead "bodies, and objected so strongly 
to our approaching it, that we deemed it inexpedient to make our in 
tended visit. 

Occasionally they buried their dead in sequestered places, at a short 
distance from their habitations, but frequently in their gardens, and 
sometimes in their houses. Their graves were not deep, and the bodies 
were usually placed in them in a sitting posture. 

BURIALS ABE SECRET AND WITHOUT CEREMONY. 

No prayer was offered at the grave, except occasionally by the 
inhabitants of Oahu. 

All their interments are conducted without any ceremony, and are 
usually managed with great secrecy. We have often been surprised at 
this, and believe it arises from the superstitious dread the people en 
tertain respecting the places where dead bodies are deposited, which 
they believe resorted to by the spirits of those buried there. 

Like most ignorant and barbarous nations, they imagine that appari 
tions are frequently seen, and often injure those who come in their 
way. 

Their funerals take place in the night, to avoid observation; for 
we have been told, that if the people were to see a party carrying a 
dead body past their houses, they would abuse them, or even throw 
stones at them, for not taking it some other way, supposing the spirit 
would return to and fro to the former abode of the deceased by the 
path along which the body had been borne to the place of interment. 

BONES THROWN TO PELE AND THE SHARKS. 

The worshippers of Pele threw a part of the bones of their dead 
into the volcano, under the impression that the spirits of the deceased 
would then be admitted to the society of the volcanic deities, and 
that their influence would preserve the survivors from the ravages 
of volcanic fire. 

The fishermen sometimes wrapped their dead in red native cloth, 
and threw them into the sea, to be devoured by the sharks. Under 
the influence of a belief in the transmigration of souls, they sup 
posed the spirit of the departed would animate the shark by which 
the body was devoured, and that the survivors would be spared by 
those voracious monsters, in the event of their being overtaken by 
any accident at sea. 

The bodies of criminals who had broken tabu, after having been 
slain to appease the anger of the god whose tabu, or prohibition, they 
had broken, were buried within the precincts of the heiau. 



272 

The bones of human sacrifices, after tlie flesh liad rotted, were 
piled up in different parts of the heiau in which they had been offered. 

CHANGES IN BURIAL METHODS INTRODUCED BY MISSIONARIES. 

Idolatry, since 1819, has been abolished, and all ceremonies con 
nected therewith have ceased; the other heathenish modes of burying 
their dead are only observed by those who are uninstrueted, and are 
not professed worshippers of the true God: those who are, inter their 
dead in a manner more resembling the practice of Christians. 

The corpse is usually laid in a coffin, which, previous to interment, 
is borne to the place of worship, attended by the relatives in mourn- 
ing habiliments, where a short service is performed; it is then carried 
to the grave; after being deposited there, sometimes the spectators 
are addressed by the misssionary, on other occasions a short prayer 
only is offered, and, as the friends retire, the grave is filled up. 

After breakfast, Mr. Thurston walked about five miles up the val 
ley, in order to estimate its population, and preach to the people. 
The whole extent was well cultivated, and presented in every direc 
tion the most beautiful prospects. At one of the villages where he 
stopped, about 100 people collected, to whom he preached the word 
of salvation. 

TALES OP HUMAN SACRIFICES. 

I spent the morning in taking a drawing of the valley from the 
sand-hills on the beach; and in examining some large heiaus in the 
neighbourhood, in reference to which the natives taxed our credulity 
by the legendary tales they related respecting the numbers of victims 
which had on some occasions been offered. 

In the days of TJmi, they said, that king, after having been vic 
torious in battle over the kings of six of the divisions of Hawaii, was 
sacrificing captives at Waipio, when the voice of Kuahiro, his god, 
was heard from the clouds, requiring more men; the king kept sacri 
ficing, and the voice continued calling for more, till he had slain all his 
men except one, whom, as he was a great favourite, he refused at first 
to give up; but the god being urgent, he sacrificed him also, and the 
priest and himself were all that remained. Upwards of eighty vic 
tims, they added, were offered at that time, in obedience to the audible 
demands of the insatiate demon. 

We have heard the same account at other places, of eighty victims 
being slain at one time; and though perhaps the account may ex 
ceed the number actually immolated, the tradition serves to shew the 
savage character of the gods, who, in the opinion of the natives, 
could require such prodigal waste of human life. 



273 

CITY OF REFUGE OF PAKARAXA AT WAIPIO. 

In the afternoon we visited Pakarana, the Puhonua, or place of 
refuge, for all this part of the island. It was a large enclosure, less 
extensive, however, than that at Honaunau. The walls, though of 
great antiquity, were of inferior height and dimensions. In the 
midst of the enclosure, under a wide-spreading pandanus, was a small 
house, called Ke Hale o Eiroa, (The House of Eiroa,) from the cir 
cumstance of its containing the hones of a king of that name, who was 
the grandson of Umi, and, according to their traditions, reigned in 
Hawaii about fifteen generations back. 

We tried, but could not gain admittance to the pahu tabu, or sacred 
enclosure. We also endeavoured to obtain a sight of the bones of 
Eiroa, but the man who had charge of the house told us we must 
offer a hog before we could be admitted; that Tamehameha, when 
ever he entered, had always sent offerings; that Eihonho, since he 
had become king, had done the same, and that no one could be ad 
mitted on other conditions. 

Finding us unwilling to comply, yet anxious to see the bones, they 
directed us to a rudely carved stone image, about six feet high, 
standing at one corner of the wall, which they said was a tii, or image 
of Eiroa. 

We talked some time with the people around, who were principally 
priests, on the folly of deifying and worshipping departed mortals. 
The only answer, however, which they made was, Pela no i Hawaii 
nei: So it is in Hawaii here. 

SANDAL WOOD COLIJEOTINGK. 

During the afternoon great numbers of men belonging to the valley 
returned with loads of sandal wood, which they had been cutting in 
the neighbouring mountains. The wood was much superior to that 
which we had seen at Waiakea, being high coloured, strongly scented, 
and sometimes in large pieces nearly a foot in diameter. 

At five o'clock in the afternoon, about 300 of the natives of the 
place assembled for public worship in front of the head man's house, 
where they were addressed from Luke xiv. 23. The people were atten 
tive, and frequently interrupted the speaker by their exclamations. 

& Some said, "Jehovah is a good God: the living God is a good God; 
great is his love." 

After the service, they sat talking on what they had heard, and 
occasionally making inquiries, till the sun had set, and the moon had 
nearly reached the mid-heaven. The chief, in particular, seemed much 
interested, and, during the evening, he and several others expressed 
themselves very desirous that a missionary should come and reside 
with them, that they might be instructed fully in all these things. 

18 



274 
LARGE POPULATION AT WAIPIO. 

According to the number of houses which we have seen, in all 265, 
there are at least 1325 inhabitants in this sequestered valley, besides 
populous villages on each side along the coast, which might be easily 
visited. This circumstance, together with the fertility of the soil, 
the abundance of water, the facility with which, at most seasons of 
the year, supplies can be forwarded by water from Kairua or Towai- 
hae, combine to render this an eligible spot for a missionary station; 
but notwithstanding all these favourable circumstances, together with 
the great desire of the people to be instructed in the important prin 
ciples of Christianity, it is much to be feared that, unless the funds 
of the Parent Societies are increased, this inviting field, as well as 
several others, must long remain destitute of moral culture. 

WAIPIO CELEBRATED IN HAWAIIAN HISTORY. 

The valley of Waipio is a place frequently celebrated in the songs 
and traditions of Hawaii, as having been, the abode of Akea and Miru, 
the first kings of the island; of Umi and Biroa, kings who make a 
prominent figure in their history. 

It is also noted as the residence of Hoakau, king of this part of the 
island, who appears to have been one of the Neros of the Sandwich 
Islands, and whose memory is execrable among the people, on account 
of his cruelties; and of whom it is reported, that if a man was said 
to have a fine-looking head, he would send his servants to behead 
the individual, and bring his head before him, when he would wantonly 
cut, and otherwise disfigure it. He is said also to have ordered a 
man's arm to be cut off, and brought to him, only because it was 
tataued in a manner more handsome than his own. 

DISCUSSION ON THE SOUL, RESURRECTION AND GENERAL JUDGMENT. 

An interesting conversation was carried on this evening with respect 
to the separate existence of the soul, the resurrection of the body, 
and the general judgment at the last day. 

The account of the raising of the widow's son, and the calling of 
Lazarus from the grave after he had been dead four days, seemed 
greatly to interest the natives. 

We afterwards endeavoured to learn from them something re 
specting their opinions of a state of existence after death. But all 
they said upon the subject was so contradictory, and mixed with 
fiction, that it could not be discovered whether they had any definite 
idea of the nature, or even the existence, of such a state. 



275 

HAWAIIAN VIEWS CONCERNING- LIFE AFTER BEATH. 

Some said tliat all the souls of the departed went to the Po, (place 
of night,) and were annihilated, or eaten by the gods there. 

Others said, that some went to the regions of Akea and Mim. 

Akea, they said, was the first king of Hawaii. At the expiration 
of Ms reign, which terminated with his life at "Waipio, the place 
where we then were, he descended to a region far "below, called Ka- 
papahanaumoku, (the island-bearing rock, or stratum compounded 
of Ka papa, the rock, or stratum of rock; hanau, to bear or bring 
forth; and moku, an island,) and founded a kingdom there. 

Miru, who was his successor, and reigned in Hamakua, descended, 
when he died, to Akea, and shared the government of the place with 
Mm. Their land is a place of darkness; their food lizards and but 
terflies. There are several streams of water, of wMeh they drink, 
and some said there were large Kahiris, and wide-spreading kou- 
trees, beneath which they reclined. (Though the KaMris were usually 
small, resembling the one represented in the plate of the native dance 
at Kairua, they were sometimes upwards of twenty feet Mgh; the 
handle tweleve or fifteen feet long, beautifully covered with tortoise 
shell and the ivory of whales' teeth; and the upper part formed with 
red, yellow, or black feathers, fastened on a kind of wicker-work, 
and resembling a cylinder twelve or tMrteen inches in diameter. 
These, however, are only used on state occasions, when they are car 
ried in processions instead of banners, and are fixed in the ground 
near the tent or house in which 'the king or principal personages may 
remain on such occasions.) But to most of the questions that were 
asked, they said they could give no answer, as they knew notMng 
about it; none had ever returned in open daylight, to tell them any 
thing respecting it; and all they knew was from visions or dreams of 
the priests. 

MESSAGES PROM THE OTHER WORLD. 

Sometimes, they said, when a recently liberated spirit arrived in 
the dominions of Mini, the Pluto of Hawaii, he (viz. Mini) would 
ask it what the kings above were doing, and what were the principal 
pursuits of the people! and when he had answered, he was sent back 
to the ao marama (state of day or light) with a message from Miru 
to them, to iho nui mai ma nei, (to descend altogether to this place). 
The person so sent would appear to the priests in a dream, deliver 
his message, and then return to the lower regions. 

This account accorded with the report of the late Tamehameha's 
appearing to a man in the division of Kona, of which we had before 
heard. 



276 

A MESSAGE PROM KAMEHAMEHA AFTER DEATH. 

A short time ago, a man in the southern part of Kona retired to 
rest as usual. In the middle of the night, it is said, he was con 
ducted by a spirit to the lower regions, where he saw Tamehameha, 
who asked him by whom Hawaii was governed; and made several 
inquiries respecting his son, Rihoriho, and his other children. Tame- 
hameha then requested the man to return, deliver a certain message 
to Kuakini, and also to Rihoriho the king 1 , promising Ms favour if he 
obeyed, but threatening severely, should he fail to do as he had 
directed him. 

The man returned to Ms house, related where he had been, but in 
stead of setting off immediately to Kairua, he remained to dress a hog, 
and prepare food for the journey. The delay was severely punished, 
for he died before the food, he had stopped to prepare, was cooked. 

This story probably originated with those who were fearful lest 
some of the institutions and principles of the late king should be dis 
regarded by Ms successors. It serves, however, to exhibit the popular 
notions of the people, and the great influence Tamehameha had over 
them. 

HAWAIIAN A2H> SOCIETY ISLAND TRADITIONS OF HADES. 

The account given tMs evening of the Hawaiian hades, afforded 
another proof of the identity between the traditions of the Sandwich 
and Society Islanders. For among the latter, the spirits of the Areois, 
and priests of certain idols, were not eaten by the gods after the death 
of their bodies, but went to Miru, (pronounced by both, Meru,) where 
they lived much in the same way as the departed kings and heroes 
of Hawaii were supposed to do; or joining hands, they formed a circle 
with those that had gone before, and danced in one eternal round. 

At daylight, on the 19th, numbers of the people collected around the 
house where we had lodged, with whom we held morning worship. 

Haa, the chief of the place, beneath whoso friendly roof we had 
been most hospitably entertained, then accompanied us to the beach, 
where he had prepared a canoe to convey us to the next district. 
Shortly after six a. m. we gave him the parting hand, with sincere 
thanks for Ms kindness, after wMeh we seated ourselves in the canoe, 
and, in the midst of many expressions of good will, from those who 
had come down to the beach to bid us farewell, we were safely 
launched through the surf. 

We left Waipio, deeply impressed with a sense of the kind treat 
ment we had received, and with feelings of sympathy for the mental 
darkness and degradation of the interesting people by whom it was 
inhabited. We could mot but hope that they would soon enjoy the 
constant light of Christian instruction, and participate in every Chris- 



277 

tian privilege. A wide field of usefulness is here presented to a 
Christian missionary, and we sincerely hope the directors of mis 
sionary operations will have means sufficient at their disposal to send 
a missionary to this, and every other place where the people are so 
anxious to "be instructed. 

DOWN THE COAST FROM WAIPIO. 

The shore, along which the canoe was paddled, was extremely bold 
and romantic. In many places the mountains rose almost perpendicu 
larly 500 or 600 feet above the sea. Their steep sides were nearly 
destitute of verdure, as it was the dry season, yet, at unequal dis 
tances of a quarter or half a mile from each other, beautiful water 
falls and varied cascades flowed from the top into the ocean below. 
The rocks seemed composed of various strata of vesicular lava, and 
in several places the water was seen oozing out between the strata in 
the face of the rocks some hundred feet below their summits. 

Large stones and fragments of rocks in some places lay scattered 
along the base of the precipice, just above the water's edge; but fre 
quently the mountain sides seemed to descend perpendicularly to a 
great depth under water. 

We saw several groups of natives passing along on the large stones 
at the foot of the mountains, and whenever they came to a place 
where the deep waters extended to the base of the precipice, they 
all jumped into the sea, and swam perhaps fifty or sixty yards, till 
they came to another ledge of rocks, upon which they would climb, 
and pursue their journey. 

SHIPPING SANDAL WOOD AT WAIMANU. 

After proceeding pleasantly along for five or six miles, we arrived 
at Waimanu a little before eight o'clock. 

"We found Arapai, the chief, and a number of his men, busy on the 
beach shipping sandal-wood on board a sloop belonging to the gov 
ernor, then lying at anchor in a small bay off the mouth of the valley. 
He received us kindly, and directed two of his men to conduct us to 
his house, which was on the opposite side. 

The valley, though not so spacious or cultivated as Waipio, was 
equally verdant and picturesque; we could not but notice the unusual 
beauty of its natural scenery. The glittering cascades and water 
falls, that rolled down the deep sides of the surrounding mountains, 
seemed more numerous and beautiful than those at Waipio. 

SUBFING AT WAIMANU. 

As we crossed the head of the bay, we saw a number of young per 
sons swimming in the surf, which rolled with some violence on the 
rocky beach. 



278 

To a spectator nothing can appear more daring, and sometimes 
alarming, tlian to see a number of persons splasMng about among 
the waves of the sea as they dash on the shore; yet this is the most 
popular and delightful of the native sports. 

There are perhaps no people more accustomed to the water than the 
islanders of the Pacific; they seem almost a race of amphibious beings. 
Familiar with the sea from their birth, they lose all dread of it, 
and seem nearly as much at home in the water as on dry land. 

CHILDREN SWIM AS SOON AS THEY WALK. 

There are few children who are not taken into the sea by their 
mothers the second or third day after their birth, and many who can 
swim as soon as they can walk. 

The heat of the climate is, no doubt, one source of the gratification 
they find in this amusement, which is so universal, that it is scarcely 
possible to pass along the shore where there are many habitations 
near, and not see a number of children playing in the sea. 

Here they remain for hours together, and yet I never knew of but 
one child being drowned during the number of years I have resided 
in the islands. 

CHILDREN'S WATER GAMES. 

They have a variety of games, and gambol as fearlessly in the 
water as the children of a school do in their playground. 

Sometimes they erect a stage eight or ten feet high on the edge of 
some deep place, and lay a pole in an oblique direction over the edge 
of it, perhaps twenty feet above the water; along this they pursue 
each other to the outermost end, when they jump into the sea. 

Throwing themselves from the lower yards, or bowsprit, of a ship, 
is also a favourite sport, but the most general and frequent game is 
swimming in the surf. The higher the sea and the larger the waves, 
in their opinion the better the sport. 

SURF BOARDING-. 

On these occasions they use a board, which they call papa he naru, 
(wave sliding-board,) generally five or six feet long, and rather more 
than a foot wide, sometimes flat, but more frequently slightly convex 
on both sides. It is usually made of the wood of the erythrina, stained 
quite black, and preserved with great care. After using, it is placed 
in the sun till perfectly dry, when it is rubbed over with cocoa-nut 
oil, frequently wrapped in cloth, and suspended in some part of their 
dwelling house. 

Sometimes they choose a place where the deep water reaches to the 
beach, but generally prefer a part where the rocks are ten or twenty 



279 

feet under water, and extend to a distance from the snore, as the surf 
breaks more violently over these. 

When playing in these places, each individual takes his "board, and, 
pushing it before him, swims perhaps a quarter of a mile or more out 
to sea. 

They do not attempt to go over the billows which roll towards the 
shore, but watch their approach, and dive under water, allowing the 
billow to pass over their heads. 

GOING IN ON THE SUEP. 

When they reach the outside of the rocks, where the waves first 
break, they adjust themselves on one end of the board, lying flat on 
their faces, and watch the approach of the largest billow; they then 
poise themselves on its highest edge, and, paddling as it were with 
their hands and feet, ride on the crest of the wave, in the midst of 
the spray and foam, till within a yard or two of the rocks or the shore ; 
and when the observers would expect to see them dashed to pieces, 
they steer with great address between the rocks, or slide off their 
board in a moment, grasp it by the middle, and dive under water, 
while the wave rolls on, and breaks among the rocks with a roaring 
noise, the effect of which is greatly heightened by the shouts and 
laughter of the natives in the water. 

Those who are expert frequently change their position on the 
board, sometimes sitting and sometimes standing erect in the midst 
of the foam. 

The greatest address is necessary in order to keep on the edge of the 
wave: for if they get too forward, they are sure to be overturned; 
and if they fall back, they are buried beneath the succeeding billow. 

CANOE SURFING WHOLE VILLAGES, INCLUDING CHIEFS, SUBFING. 

Occasionally they take a very light canoe; but this, though directed 
in the same manner as the board, is much more difficult to manage. 

Sometimes the greater part of the inhabitants of a village go out 
to this sport, when the wind blows fresh towards the shore, and spend 
the greater part of the day in the water. All ranks and ages appear 
equally fond of it. 

We have seen Karaimoku and Kakioeva, some of the highest chiefs 
in the island, both between fifty and sixty years of age, and large 
corpulent men, balancing themselves on their narrow board, or splash 
ing about in the foam, with as much satisfaction as youths of sixteen. 

They frequently play at the mouth of a large river, where the strong 
current running into the sea, and the rolling of the waves towards the 
shore, produce a degree of agitation between the water of the river 
and the sea, that would be fatal to an European, however expert 



280 

lie might be; yet in this they delight: and when the Mng or queen, 
or any high chiefs, are playing, none of the common people are 
allowed to approach these places, lest they should spoil their sport. 

KAUMUALII AN EXPERT SURFER. 

The chiefs pride themselves nmeh on excelling in some of the games 
of their country; hence Taumuarii, the late Mng of Tauai, was 
celebrated as the most expert swimmer in the surf, known in the 
islands. 

FEAR OF SHARKS. 

The only circumstance that ever mars their pleasure in this diver 
sion is the approach of a shark. When this happens, though they 
sometimes fly in every direction, they frequently unite, set up a loud 
shout, and make so much splashing in the water, as to frighten him 
away. Their fear of them, however, is very great; and after a party 
return from this amusement, almost the first question they are asked 
is, "Were there any sharks? " 

The fondness of the natives for the water must strike any person 
visiting their islands; long before he goes on shore, he will see them 
swimming around his ship; and few ships leave without being accom 
panied part of the way out of the harbour by the natives, sporting in 
the water; but to see fifty or a hundred persons riding on an immense 
billow, half immersed in spray and foam, for a distance of several 
hundred yards together, is one of the most novel and interesting 
sports a foreigner can witness in the islands. 

INSPECTING- WAIMANU. 

When we arrived at the house of Arapai, we were welcomed by 
Ms wife and several members of his family. 

Mr. Thurston walked up to the head of the valley, to number the 
houses and speak to the people. At one of the villages through which 
he passed, about 150 of the inhabitants assembled, to whom he 
preached. The people were interested, and several of them followed 
"him down to the chief's house near the beach. Shortly after his re 
turn, the chief came home, and some breakfast of salt fish and taro 
was provided, of which we partook with the family. 

THE FURNISHINGS OF CHIEF ALAPAFS HOUSE. 

Arapai is evidently a chief of some importance. We saw several 
large double canoes in his out-houses. The number of his domestics 
was greater than usual; his house was large, well built, and stocked 
with a number of useful articles, among which we noticed some large 



281 

and handsomely stained calabashes, marked with a variety of devices. 

The calabash is a large kind of gourd, sometimes capable of holding 
four or five gallons. It is used to contain water and other fluids, 
by the natives of all the islands in the South Sea; but the art of 
staining it is peculiar to the Sandwich Islanders, and is another proof 
of their superior powers of invention and ingenuity. 

When the calabash has grown to its full size, they empty it in the 
usual manner, by placing it in the sun till the inside is decayed, 
and may be shaken out. The shell, which remains entire, except the 
small perforation made at the stalk for the purpose of discharging 
its contents, and serving as a mouth to the vessel, is, when the cala 
bash is large, sometimes half an inch thick. 

DECORATION OP CALABASHES. 

In order to stain it, they mis several bruised herbs, principally the 
stalks and leaves of the arum, and a quantity of dark ferruginous 
earth, with water, and fill the vessel with it. They then draw with a 
piece of hard wood or stone on the outside of the calabash, what 
ever figures they wish to ornament it with. These are various, being 
either rhomboids, stars, circles, or wave and straight lines, in separate 
sections, or crossing each other at right angles, generaUy marked 
with a great degree of accuracy and taste. 

After the colouring matter has remained three or four days in the 
calabashes, they are put into a native oven and baked. When 
they are taken out, all the parts previously marked appear beauti 
fully brown or blaek y while those places, where the outer skin had 
not been broken, retain their natural bright yellow colour. The 
dye is now emptied out, and the calabash dried in the sun; the 
whole of the outside appears perfectly smooth and shining, while the 
colours imparted by the above process remain indelible. 

USES OF THE CANDLE NUT. 

Large quantities of kukui, or candle nuts, hung in long strings in 
different parts of Arapai's dwelling. These are the fruit of the 
aleurites triloba; a tree which is abundant in the mountains, and 
highly serviceable to the natives. 

It furnishes a gum, which they use in preparing varnish for their 
tap a, or native cloth. 

The inner bark produces a permanent dark-red dye, but the 
nuts are the most valuable part; they are heart-shaped, about the 
size of a walnut, and are produced in abundance. 

Sometimes the natives burn them to charcoal, which they pulverize, 
and use in tatauing their skin, painting their canoes, surf -boards, idols, 
or drums; but they are generally used as a substitute for candles 



282 

or lamps, When designed for tMs purpose, they are slightly baked 
in a native oven, after whieli the shell, which is exceedingly hard, 
is taken off, and a hole perforated in the kernel, through which a 
rush is passed, and they are hung up for use, as we saw them at this 
place. 

When employed for fishing by torch-light, four or five strings are 
enclosed in the leaves of the pandanus, which not only keeps them 
together, but renders the light more brilliant. 

When they use them in their houses, ten or twelve are strung on. 
the thin stalk of the cocoa-nut leaf, and look like a number of peeled 
chestnuts on a long skewer. 

The person who has charge of them lights a nut at one end of the 
stick, and holds it up, till the oil it contains is consumed, when the 
flame kindles on the one beneath it, and he breaks off the extinct 
nut with a short piece of wood, which serves as a pair of snuffers. 

Each nut will burn two or three minutes, and, if attended, give 
a tolerable light. We have often had occasion to notice, with ad 
miration, the merciful and abundant provision which the God of 
nature has made for the comfort of those insulated people, which is 
strikingly manifested by the spontaneous growth of this valuable 
tree in all the islands; a great convenience is hereby secured, with 
no other trouble than picking up the nuts from under the trees. 

The tree is large, the leaves and wood remarkably white; and 
though the latter is not used by the Sandwich Islanders, except oc 
casionally in making fences, small canoes are frequently made of it 
by the Society Islanders. 

In addition to the above purposes, the nuts are often baked or 
roasted as an article of food, which the natives eat with salt. 

The nut contains a large portion of oil, which, possessing the prop 
erty of drying, is useful in painting; and for this purpose quantities 
are carried by the Eussian vessels to their settlements on the north 
west coast of America. 

A FAREWELL SERVICE AT WAIMANU. 

Before we prepared for our departure, we requested that the people 
of the place might assemble to hear the word which we had to speak 
to them. About 200 collected, and were addressed from John vi. 40. 
They gave good attention, particularly the wife of Arapai, who was 
afflicted with an affection of the spine, which prevented her walking 
without support. She called us to her after the service, and told 
us she had incurred the displeasure of the gods by eating a fish that 
was tabu, or sacred, and that the disease which rendered her a 
cripple was her punishment. She said she had felt great pleasure 
on hearing the invitation of Jesus Christ, desired to go to him and 
obey his word, inquiring at the same time very earnestly, if we 



283 

thought lie could and would save her. We told her that eating the 
tabn fish was not the cause of her suffering, and encouraged her to 
repair, by faith, to Him who was able and willing to heal her body ! 
if he saw fit, and who would assuredly save her soul, if she applied 
in a right manner; repeating several of the most precious promises 
of our blessed Lord to those that are weary and heavy laden with 
sin, and desire salvation through his mercy. 

Numbers of the people crowded round us when the service was 
ended, and with earnestness besought us to sit down and repeat 
several of the truths they had heard respecting the name and at 
tributes of Jehovah, his law, and the name and offices of Jesus Christ 
the only Saviour. They also requested to be more particularly in 
formed in what manner they should pray to him, and how they should 
know when the Sabbath-day came. 

We told them to go to Jehovah in prayer, as a child went to its 
parents, assuring them they would find Mm more ready to attend to 
them, than the fondest earthly parent was to listen to his most be 
loved child. This did not satisfy them; we, therefore, after observing 
that God did not regard so much the words, as the desires of the 
heart, mentioned several expressions of praise, confession, and peti 
tion which the natives repeated after us till they could recite them 
correctly. 

The chief then sent for a youth, about sixteen years of age, of 
whom he seemed very fond, and after he and Ms wife had requested 
him to attend very particularly to what he should hear, they requested 
us to repeat to him what we had told them. We did so; the youth 
evidently tried to treasure up the words in Ms memory ; and when 
he could repeat correctly what had been told Mm, the parents ap 
peared Mghly pleased. 

Indeed, the greater part of the people seemed to regard the tidings 
of ora roa ia Jesu, (endless life by Jesus,) as the most joyful news 
they had ever heard; tl breaking upon them," to use the expressions 
of the natives on another occasion, "like light in the morning. ;> 

The chief's wife in particular exclaimed aloud, "Will my spirit 
never die? and can this poor weak body live again f' ? 

TRIP FBOM WAIMANU TO HONOKANE. 

When we departed, she rose up, and, by the help of two sticks, 
walked down to the beach with us. Here we took an affectionate 
leave, and then stepped into a canoe, which Arapai had provided to 
convey us as far as Honokane, the first village in the division of 
Kohala. 

As the canoe pushed off from the shore, we again bade them fare 
well. When we saw the interesting group standing on the beach, we 
could not but feel the most lively concern for their welfare, and 



284 

involuntarily besought the great Kedeemer, that Ms holy Spirit might 
be poured out upon them, tliat the seed sown among them might take 
root in their hearts, and produce an abundant harvest to his praise. 

FOBMATION OF LAUPAHOEHOE NO. 2. 

After leaving Waimanu, we passed by Laupahoehoe, a second village 
of that name on this part of the coast, where, according to the ac 
counts of the natives, about eight or nine months before, an im 
mense mass of rocks had suddenly fallen down. The mountain that 
remained appeared nearly 600 feet high. The face next the sea was 
perpendicular, and as smooth as a compact piece of masonry. The 
rock appeared volcanic, and the different strata of highly vesicular 
lava were very distinct. In several places we saw the water oozing 
from the face of the rock 200 or 300 feet from the summit. 

The mass that had fallen lay in ruins at the base, where it had 
formed two considerable hills, filled up a large fish-pond and part of 
the sea, presenting altogether a scene of wide-spread desolation. 

The original surface of the ground appeared to have been broken 
by an earthquake, as some parts were rent by deep chasms, others 
sunk down six or twelve feet lower than the rest. The shrubs and 
grass were growing luxuriantly on the upper or original, and lower 
or fallen surface, while the perpendicular space between them in 
dicated that the latter had recently sunk down from the former. 

Wrecks of houses were seen in several places, some partly buried by 
the ruins, others standing just on the edge of the huge rocks that 
had fallen from above. Several houses were standing in the neigh 
bourhood, but all seemed deserted. 

The natives, say that in the evening when the accident took place, 
a mist or fog was seen to envelop the summits of the precipice, and 
that after the sun had set, a luminous appearance, like a lambent 
flame, was observed issuing from and playing about the top, which 
made them think it was a forerunner of Pele, or volcanic fire. A 
priest of Pele and his family, residing in one of the villages below, 
immediately offered his prayer to the goddess, and told the inhabitants 
that no harm would befall them. 

About ten o'clock at night, however, the whole side of the moun 
tain, for nearly half a mile in extent along the shore, fell down with 
a horrid crash. 

Part of two small villages were destroyed, and several of the in 
habitants killed, but the natives did not agree as to the numbers; 
some said twenty were killed, others only eighteen. 

The people with whom we talked on the spot, and at other places 
subsequently, could not recollect having heard the natives who es 
caped say any thing about an earthquake at the time. 



285 
TEAILS ALONG KOHALA MOUNTAIN BLUFFS. 

We did not land at this place, but passed close to the shore, and 
continued to sail along at the base of steep mountains, 500 or 600 
feet high; and although nearly perpendicular, they were intersected 
here and there by winding paths, which we at first thought could be 
travelled only by goats, but up which we afterwards saw one or two 
groups of travellers pursuing their steep and rugged way. 

About noon we passed Honokea, a narrow valley which separates 
the divisions of Hamakua and Kohala, and shortly after reached 
Honokane, the second village in the latter. 

DESCRIPTION OF HAMAKUA DISTRICT. 

The division of Hainakua, on the N. E. side of the island, is, during 
the greater part of the year, singularly romantic in its appearance, 
particularly as seen from a vessel four or five miles out at sea. 

The coast is bold and steep, and the cliffs, from three to five hun 
dred feet high, partially covered with shrubs and herbage, inter 
sected by numerous deep ravines and valleys, frequently in a high 
state of cultivation, while the whole coast is ornamented with water 
falls and cascades of every description. I once beheld three-and- 
twenty at one time from a ship's deck, some rolling in one continued 
stream from the summit of the cliffs to the sea, others foaming and 
winding among the ledges of rock that arrested their progress, spark 
ling among the verdant shrubs that fringed their borders, and alto 
gether presenting a most delightful spectacle. 

EXPERIENCES AT HONOKANE. 

We landed at Honokane, and went through the village to the house 
of Ihikaina, chief woman of the place, and sister to Arapai, the chief 
of WaimanUj from which this district is distant about twenty miles. 
Ihikaina received us kindly, and for our refreshment provided a duck, 
some vegetables, and a small quantity of excellent goat's milk, large 
flocks of which are reared by some of the natives for the supply of 
ships touching at the islands for refreshments. 

The valley contained fifty houses. A number of the people collected 
round the door of the house, and listened to a short address. 

GREAT LAND SLIDE NEAR POLOLU. 

About p. m. we left Honokane, and passed on to Pololu. On 
our way we walked over a long tract of fragments of rocks, occa 
sioned by the falling down of a side of the mountain, which took 
place at the same time that the mass of rocks fell at Laupahoehoe, 
which we had passed in the forenoon. 



286 

It was impossible, without considerable emotion, to walk over tliese 
rocks; some of them were broken in small pieces, others in blocks of 
several tons weight, each lying exactly as it had fallen, the fractures 
fresh, and the surface hardly discoloured, while the steep side of the 
mountain from which they had fallen looked as smooth and even as if 
the mass below had been separated from it only a few minutes before. 

In some places between Honokane and Pololu, we had to walk in 
the sea, where the water was up to the knees, but by watching the 
surf we passed by without much inconvenience. 

POLOLU DESCRIBED. 

Pololu is a pleasant village, situated in a small cultivated valley, 
having a fine stream of water flowing down its centre, while lofty 
mountains rise on either side. 

The houses stand principally on the beach, but as we did not see 
many of the inhabitants, we passed on, ascended the steep mountain 
on the north side, and kept on our way. The country was fertile, 
and seemed populous, though the houses were scattered, and more 
than three or four seldom appeared together. The streams of water 
were frequent, and a large quantity of ground was cultivated on 
their banks, and in the vicinity. 

About sun-set we passed the residence of Mr. Parker, an Amer 
ican, who has resided a number of years on the island, and cultivated 
a considerable tract of ground. As he was in the mountains shoot 
ing wild cattle for the king and Karaimoku, we did not stop at his 
farm. During our journey this day, we passed by 458 houses; but 
as we travelled part of the way six or eight miles from the shore, 
in order to avoid the frequent and deep ravines, it is probable there 
were several villages which we did not see. 

HOSPITABLE CUSTOMS OF THE HAWAIIANS. 

About seven in the evening we reached Halaua, the residence of 
Miomioi, a friend and favourite of the late king Tamehameha. He 
gave us a hearty welcome, with the accustomed courtesy of a Ha 
waiian chief, saying, "Our house is large, and there are plenty of 
sleeping mats for us." 

The hospitality of the chiefs, both of the Society and Sandwich 
Islands, is always accompanied with a courtesy of behaviour pecu 
liarly gratifying to those who are their guests, and indicating a 
degree of refinement seldom witnessed among uncivilized nations. 

The usual salutation is Aroha (attachment,) or Aroha nui (at 
tachment great;) and the customary invitation to partake of some 
refreshment is, "The food (a kakou) belonging to you and us is 
ready; let us eat together"; always using the pronoun kakou, or 



287 

kaua, which includes the person addressed, as well as the speaker. 

On entering a chief *s house, should we remark, Tour's is a strong 
or convenient house, he would answer, "It is a good house for (or 
belonging to) you and me." 

If, on entering a house, or examining a fine canoe or piece of 
cloth, we should ask who it belongs to., another person would tell 
us the possessor's name; but if we happened to inquire of the owner 
himself, he would invariably answer, "It is yours and mine." The 
same desire to please is manifested in a variety of ways. 

The manner in which they frequently ask a favour of each other is 
singular, usually prefacing it with, "I rea oe," If pleasing to you. 
Hence we often have a message or note to the following effect: "If 
pleasing to you, I should like a sheet of writing paper or a pen; 
but if it would not give you pleasure to send it, I do not wish it." 

ENTERTAINED AT HALAWA. 

Soon after we had entered his house, a salt flying-fish was broiled 
for supper. A large copper boiler was also brought out, and tea was 
made with some dried mint, which, he said, he had procured many 
months ago from ships at Towaihae. 

He supped at the same time, but, instead of drinking tea, took a 
large eocoanut shell full of ava. If an opinion of its taste might be 
formed by the distortion of his countenance after taking it, it must 
be a most nauseous dose. There seemed to be about half a pint of it 
in the cup; its colour was like thick dirty calcareous water. 

As he took it, a man stood by his side with a calabash of fresh 
water, and the moment he had swallowed the intoxicating dose, he 
seized the calabash, and drank a hearty draught of water, to remove 
the unpleasant taste and burning effect of the ava. 

USE OP AWA SUBSTITUTED BY LIQUOR. 

The ava has been used for the purpose of inebriation by most of 
the South Sea Islanders, and is prepared from the roots and stalks of 
a species of pepper plant, the piper methystieum of Forster, which is 
cultivated for this purpose in many of the islands, and being a plant 
of slow growth, was frequently tabued from the common people. 

The water in which the ava had been macerated, was the only in 
toxicating liquor with which the natives were acquainted before their 
intercourse with foreigners, and was, comparatively speaking, but 
little used, and sometimes only medicinally, to cure cutaneous erup 
tions and prevent corpulency. 

But since they have been so much visited by shipping, the ease is 
very different. They have been taught the art of distillation; and 
foreign spirits in some places are so easily obtained, that inebriety, 



288 

with, all its demoralization, and attendant misery, is ten times more 
prevalent than formerly. This is a circumstance deeply to be de 
plored, especially when we recollect the immediate cause of its 
prevalence. 

CHIEF'S HOUSE DESCRIBED. 

The chief's house was large, and one end of it was raised, by 
leaves and mats, about a foot higher than the rest of the floor, and 
partially screened from the other parts of the house. This was his 
own sleeping place, but he ordered a new mat to be spread, and 
obligingly requested us to occupy it. We did so, and enjoyed a com 
fortable night's rest. 

After an early breakfast with Miomioi and his family, I embraced 
the opportunity of addressing his people on the subject of religion, 
before they separated to pursue their various avocations. About 
fifty, were present and listened with silent attention. 

MIOMIOI ONE OF KAMEHAMEHA'S FIGHTING- MEN. 

Miomioi, though not so tall and stout in person as many of the 
chiefs, appeared a remarkably active man, and soon convinced us he 
had been accustomed to delight in war. His military skill had prob 
ably recommended him to the notice and friendship of Tamehameha, 
and had secured for him the occupancy of the district of Halaua, 
the original patrimony of that prince. 

Every thing in his house seemed to be preserved with care, but 
particularly his implements of war. Spears, nearly twenty feet long, 
and highly polished, were suspended in several places, which he was 
very careful to shew us; remarking, that Tamehameha always re 
quired every man to keep his weapons in order, so as to be ready for 
war at the shortest notice, and shewing, at the same time, an evident 
satisfaction at the degree of care with which his own were preserved. 

Considering his natural disposition, the circumstances and principles 
under which he had been brought up, his total ignorance of the 
gospel of peace, and the influence of a superstition which gave greater 
importance to war than any other human pursuit, we did not censure 
his complacency in exhibiting to us these instruments of death, but 
it was very affecting to think of numerous bodies of men meeting to 
gether with an intention to murder each other. And we may cherish 
the hope that the principles of Christianity, when embraced by the 
Hawaiians, will produce that cultivation of peace, and that aversion 
to war, which so happily prevail among the Society Islanders, and 
of which, since their reception of the gospel, they have given so many 
illustrations. 

KAMEHAMEHA'S HOME. 

Between seven and eight, Miomioi, dressed in a blue jacket and 
trowsers, shoes and stockings, and a sailor's red cap on his head, 



289 

conducted us down to tlie village on the sea-store, where lie pointed 
out to us several places remarkable "by their connexion with the 
early history of Tamehameha. 

Halaua is a large district on the north-east coast of the island, 
and, if not the birth-place of Tamehameha, was the land which he 
inherited from his parents, and, with the exception of a small district 
in the division of Kona, the only land he possessed in Hawaii prior 
to the death of Taraiopu, and the celebrated battle of Keei, which 
took place shortly afterwards. 

DESCRIPTION OP KAMEHAMEHA. 

Tamehameha seems to have been early distinguished by enterprise, 
energy, decision of character, and unwearied perseverance in the ac 
complishment of his objects. Added to these, he possessed a vigorous 
constitution, and an unrivalled acquaintance with all the warlike 
games and athletic exercises of Ms country. To these qualities of 
mind and body he was probably indebted for the extensive power and 
protracted dominion which he exercised over the Sandwich Islands. 

In early life he associated with himself a number of youthful 
chiefs of Ms own age and disposition, into whom he had the happy 
art of instilling, on all occasions, his own spirit, and inspiring them 
with his own resolution, by these means he most effectually secured 
their attachment and co-operation. 

ENGINEEKING- WORK BY KAMBHAMEHA. 

Great undertakings appear to have been his delight, and aeMeve- 
ments deemed by others impracticable were those which he regarded 
as most suitable exercises of his prowess. 

Miomioi led the way to a spot, where, in a small bay, the original 
coast had been a perpendicular pile of rocks at least 100 feet Mgh. 
Here Tamehameha and his companions, by digging through the rocks, 
had made a good road, with a regular and gradual descent from the 
Mgh ground to the sea, up and down which their fisMng canoes could 
be easily drawn. 

At another place, he had endeavoured to procure water by digging 
through the rocks, but after forcing his way through several strata, 
the lava was so hard that he was obliged to give up the undertaking. 
Probably he had no powder with which to blast the rocks, and not 
the best tools for working through them. 

REMINISCENCES OF KAMEHAMEHA. 

A wide tract of country in the neighbourhood was divided into 
fields of considerable size, containing several acres each, wMeh he 
used to keep in good order, and well stocked with potatoes and other 

19 



290 

vegetables. One of these was called by Ms name. He was accus 
tomed to cultivate it with Ms own hands. There were several others, 
called by the names of Ms principal friends or companions, which, 
following his example, they used to cultivate themselves; the others 
were cultivated by their dependants. 

As the chief walked through the village, he pointed out the houses 
in wMeh Tamehameha formerly resided, and several groves of noni 
trees, the morinda eitrifolia, that he had planted, as Miomioi re 
marked, before his beard was grown. 

Tamehameha was undoubtedly a prince possessing shrewdness and 
great strength of character. During his reign, the knowledge of the 
people was much enlarged, and their comforts in some respects in 
creased; their acquisition of iron tools facilitated many of their 
labours; the introduction of fire-arms changed their mode of war 
fare; and in many cases, cloth of European manufacture was sub 
stituted for that made of native bark. But these improvements 
appear to be rather the result of their intercourse with foreigners, 
than of any measures of their sovereign; though the encouragement 
he gave to all foreigners visiting the islands, was, no doubt, ad 
vantageous in these respects. 

He has been called the Alfred of the Hawaiians; but he appears 
rather to have been their Alexander, ambition and a desire of con 
quest having been his ruling passions during the greater part of his 
life, though towards its close avarice superseded them. 

It has been stated that he projected an invasion of the Society 
Islands, but the report, from many conversations on the subject with 
the natives, appears destitute of all foundation. 

KAMEHAMEHA' S HEIAU AT KOHALA. 

Miomioi also pointed out the family heiau of Tamehameha, of 
which Tan! was the god, and the heiau was called Hare o Tairi, 
House of Tairi. It was an insignificant pile of stones, on a jutting 
point of volcanic rocks. Miomioi, however, said that the tabu was 
very strictly observed, and the punishments incurred by breaking it 
invariably inflicted on the transgressor; adding, at the same time, 
that Tamehameha always supposed his success, in every enterprise, 
to be owing to the strict attention he paid to the service and re 
quirements of his god. Many persons, he said, had been burnt on 
the adjoining Mils, for having broken the tabu enjoined by the 
priests of Tairi. 

The Tabu formed an important and essential part of their cruel 
system of idolatry, and was one of the strongest means of its 
support. 



291 

PRACTICE OP THE TABU IN POLYNESIA. 

In most of tlie Polynesian dialects, tlie usual meaniiig of the word 
tabu is, saered. It does not, however, imply any moral quality, "but 
expresses a connexion witli the gods, or a separation from ordinary 
purposes, and exclusive appropriation to persons or things considered 
sacred. 

Those chiefs who trace their genealogy to the gods, are called 
aril tabu, chiefs sacred, from their supposed connexion with the 
gods; and a temple is called a wahi tabu, place saered, because 
devoted exclusively to the abode and worship of the gods. 

It is a distinct word from rahui, to prohibit, as the ohelo berries 
at Kirauea were said to be prohibited, being tabu na Pele, sacred 
for Pele, and is opposed to the word noa, which means general or 
common. Hence the system, which prohibited females from eating 
with the men, and from eating, except on special occasions, any 
fruits or animals ever offered in sacrifice to the gods, while it 
allowed the men to partake of them, was called the Ai tabu, 
eating saered, but the present state of things is called the Ai moa, 
eating generally, or having food in common. 

"KAUKAU" NOT A HAWAIIAN WORD. 

This appears to be the legitimate meaning of the word tabu, 
though the natives, when talking with foreigners, use it more ex 
tensively, applying it to every thing prohibited or improper. This, 
however, is only to accommodate the latter, as they use kaukau 
(a word of Chinese origin) instead of the native word for eat, and 
pikaninny, for small, supposing they are thereby better understood. 

The tabu separating whatever it was appEed to from common 
use, and devoting it to the above purposes, was one of the most 
remarkable institutions among the South Sea Islanders; and thougk 
it prevailed, with slight variations, in the different groups of thes 
Pacific, it has not been met with in any other part of the world. 

TABU WAS PRIMARILY A RELIGIOUS CEREMONY. 

Although employed for civil as well as saered purposes, the tabu 
was entirely a religious ceremony, and could be imposed only by the 
priests. 

A religious motive was always assigned for laying it on, though it 
was often done at the instance of the civil authorities; and persons 
called kiaimoku, (island keepers,) a kind of police officers, were 
always appointed by the king to see that the tabu was strictly 
observed. 

The antiquity of the tabu was equal to the other branches of 
that superstition of which it formed so component a part, and its 



292 

application was "botli general and particular, occasional and perma 
nent, 

WHAT TABU APPLIED TO. 

The idols, temples, persons, and names of the king, and members 
of the reigning family; the persons of the priests; canoes belonging 
to the gods; houses, clothes, and mats of the king and priests; and 
the heads of men who were the devotees of any particular idol, 
were always tabu, or sacred. 

The flesh of hogs, fowls, turtle, and several other kinds of fish, 
cocoa-nuts, and almost every thing offered in sacrifice, were tabu 
to the use of the gods and the men; hence the women were, except 
in eases of particular indulgence, restricted from using them. 

Particular places, as those frequented by the king for bathing, 
were also rendered permanently tabu. 

Sometimes an island or a district was tabued, when no canoe or 
person was allowed to approach it. Particular fruits, animals, and 
the fish of certain places, were occasionally tabu for several months 
from both men and women. 

SEASONS AND TEEMS OF TABU. 

The seasons generally kept tabu were, on the approach of some 
great religious ceremony; immediately before going to war; and 
during the sickness of chiefs. Their duration was various, and much 
longer in ancient than modern times. 

Tradition states, that in the days of Umi there was a tabu kept 
thirty years, during which the men were not allowed to trim their 
beards, &c. Subsequently there was one kept five years. 

Before the reign of Tamehameha, forty days was the usual period; 
during it, ten or five days, and some-only times one day. 
The tabu seasons were either common or direct. 

COMMON AND STBICT TABUS. 

3>uring a common tabu, the men were only required to abstain, 
from their usual avocations, and attend at the heiau when the prayers 
were offered every morning and evening. But during the season of 
strict tabu, every fire and light on the island or district must be 
extinguished; no canoe must be launched on the water, no person 
must bathe; and, except those whose attendance was required at 
the temple, no individual must be seen out of doors; no dog must 
bark, no pig must grunt, no cock must crow, or the tabu would be 
broken, and fail to accomplish the object designed. 



293 
DOGS, PIGS AND CHICKENS KEPT THE TABU. 

On these occasions they tied up the months of tlie dogs and pigs, 
and put the fowls under a calabash, or fastened a piece of cloth over 
their eyes. 

AH the common people prostrated themselves, with their faces 
touching the ground, before the sacred chiefs, when they walked out, 
particularly during tabu; and neither the king nor the priests were 
allowed to touch any thing, even their food was put into their 
mouths by another person. 

The tabu was imposed either by proclamation, when the crier or 
herald of the priests went round, generally in the evening, requiring 
every light to be extinguished, the path by the sea to be left for the 
king, the paths inland to be left for the gods, &c. The people, 
however, were generally prepared, having had previous warning; 
though this was not always the case. 

HOW THE TABU WAS MADE KNOWN. 

Sometimes it was laid on by fixing certain marks called umi unu, 
the purport of which was well understood, on the- places or things 
tabued. 

When the fish of a certain part are tabued, a small pole is fixed 
in the rocks on the coast, in the centre of the place, to which is tied 
a bunch of bamboo leaves, or a piece of white cloth. 

A cocoa-nut leaf is tied to the stem of a tree, when the fruit is 
tabued. 

The hogs which were tabu, having been devoted to the gods, had 
a piece of cinet woven through a perforation in one of their ears. 

DEATH PENALTY FOR, BREAKING- TABU. 

The prohibitions and requisitions of the tabu were strictly en 
forced, and every breach of them punished with death, unless the 
delinquents had some very powerful friends who were either priests 
or chiefs. They were generally offered in sacrifice, strangled, or 
despatched with a club or a stone within the precincts of the heiau, 
or they were burnt, as stated by Miomioi. 

An institution so universal in its influence, and so inflexible in its 
demands, contributed very materially to the bondage and oppression 
of the natives in general. 

The king, sacred chiefs, and priests, appear to have been the only 
persons to whom its application was easy; the great mass of the 
people were at no period of their existence exempt from its in 
fluence, and no circumstance in life could excuse their obedience to 
its demands. 



294 
SEVERITY OF TABU BELATING TO WOMEN. 

The females in particular felt all its humiliating and degrading 
force. Prom its birth, the child, if a female, was not allowed to 
be fed with a particle of food that had been kept in the father's 
dish, or cooked at his fire; and the little boy, after being weaned, 
was fed with his father's food, and, as soon as he was able, sat 
down to meals with his father, while his mother was not only 
obliged to take her's in an outhouse, but was interdicted from 
tasting the kind of which he ate. 

It is not surprising that the abolition of the tabu, effecting for 
them an emancipation so complete, and an amelioration so important, 
should be a subject of constant gratulation; and that every circum 
stance tending in the smallest degree to revive the former tabu should 
be viewed with the most distressing apprehensions. 

The only tabu they now have is the Sabbath, which they call 
the La tabu, (day sacred,) and to its extension and perpetuity those 
who understand it seem to have no objection. Philanthropy will 
rejoice that their fears respecting the former are not likely to be 
realized, for should Christianity not be embraced by some, and only 
nominally professed by others, so sensible are the great body of the 
people of the miseries of the tabu, that it is very improbable it will 
ever be re-established among them. 

On the other hand, there is every reason to hope that pure Chris 
tianity, which imposes none but moral restrictions, and requires no ap 
propriations but such as it will conduce to their own happiness to 
make, will eventually pervade every portion of the community; and 
that while it teaches them to render a reasonable homage and obe 
dience to the only living and true God, and prepares them for the 
enjoyment of his presence in a future state, it will elevate the de 
graded classes, especially the females, to the rank and influence for 
which they were designed, and render their domestic society as 
rational and happy, as under the tabu it was abject and wretched. 

CAPTAIN KING ON STATUS OF WOMEN IN HAWAII. 

Their degraded condition appears to have attracted the notice of 
the intelligent voyagers by whom the islands were discovered; for, 
speaking of the Sandwich Islanders, Captain King, in his Continua 
tion of Cook's Voyages, remarks, "It must, however, be observed, 
that they fall very short of the other islanders, in that best test of 
civilization, the respect paid to the women. 

Here they are not only deprived of the privilege of eating with the 
men, but the best sorts of food are tabooed, or forbidden them"; 
and adds, ' ' In their domestic life, they appear to live almost entirely 
by themselves; and though we did not observe any instance of per- 



295 

sonal ill-treatment, yet it is evident they tad little regard or atten* 
tion paid them." Cook's Voyages, vol. iii. page 130. 

SANDAL WOOD COLLECTING- IN KOHALA. 

Having seen the most remarkable places in the village, we took 
leave of Miomioi, and proceeded in a N. N. W. direction. The soil 
was fertile, and vegetation abundant. The coast towards the 1ST. W. 
point of the island is frequently broken by sung little bays or inlets, 
which are invaluable to the inhabitants, on account of the facilities 
they afford for fishing. The tract we passed over today seemed more 
populous than that through which we had travelled yesterday, but 
we found most of the villages destitute of inhabitants, except a few- 
women who had charge of some of the houses. On inquiry, we 
learned that a short time ago the people of Kohala had received 
orders from the king to provide a certain quantity of sandal-wood, 
and that they were absent in the mountains, cutting it. 

TRADITIONS OF PAAO, A WHITE PRIEST. 

At noon we stopped at Kapaau, an inland village, where, with 
some difficulty, we collected a congregation of about fifty, prin 
cipally women, to whom a short discourse was addressed. When we 
had remained some time for rest and conversation, we resumed our 
journey, and proceeded towards the north point of the island, near 
which we passed through the district of Pauepu, in which formerly 
stood a temple called Mokini, celebrated in the historical accounts of 
the Hawaiians, as built by Paao, a foreign priest, who resided in 
Pauepu, and officiated in this temple. 

A tradition preserved among them states, that in the reign of 
Kahoukapu, a kahuna (priest) arrived at Hawaii from a foreign 
country; that he was a white man, and brought with him two idols 
or gods, one large, and. the other small j that they were adopted by 
the people, and placed among the Hawaiian gods; that the above- 
mentioned temple of Mokini was erected for them, where they were 
worshipped according to the direction of Paao, who became a power 
ful man in the nation. The principal event preserved of his life, 
however, respects a child of Kahoukapu, whose mother was a woman 
of humble rank, but which was spared at the solicitations of Paao. 
After his death, Ms son, Opiri, officiated in his temple; and the 
only particular worthy of note in their account of his life, is his 
acting as interpreter between the king and a party of white men 
who arrived at the island. We forbear making any comment on 
the above, though it naturally originates a variety of interesting 
inquiries. 

We heard a similar account of this priest at two other places 
during our tour, viz. at Kalrua, and at the first place we visited 
after setting out. 



296 

TALES OF ADVENTURES OF KANA. 

During our journey today we also passed another place, celebrated 
as the residence of the brother of Kana, a warrior; in comparison, 
with the fabulous accounts of whom, the descriptions in the Arabian 
Nights' Entertainments are tame. He is described as having been 
so tall, that he could walk through the sea from one island to an 
other; stand with one foot on the island of Oahu, and the other on 
Tauai, which is seventy miles distant. 

The tale which recounts his adventures, states, that the Hawai- 
ians, on one occasion, offended a king of Tahiti; who, in revenge, 
deprived them of the sun; that after the land had remained some 
time in darkness, Kana walked through the sea to Tahiti, where 
Kahoaarii, who according to their traditions made the sun, then 
resided. He obtained the sun, returned, and fixed it in the heavens, 
where it has remained ever since. 

Various other adventures, equally surprising, are related. The 
numerous tales of fiction preserved by oral tradition among the 
people, and from the recital of which they derive so much pleasure, 
prove that they are not deficient in imagination; and lead us to 
hope, that their mental powers will be hereafter employed on sub 
jects more consistent with truth, and productive of more pure and 
permanent gratification. 

TRADITIONS OF VOYAGES TO MAEQUESAS AND TAHITI. 

In this part of the island there is another tradition very gen 
erally received by the natives, of a somewhat more interesting 
character; and as it may tend to illustrate the history of the in 
habitants, and the means by which the islands were peopled, I shall 
introduce it in this place. 

These traditions respect several visits, which in remote times 
some of the natives made to Nuuhiva and Tahuata, two islands in 
the 'Marquesian group, and to Tahiti, the principal of the Society 
Islands. 

One of these accounts the natives call, "The Voyage of Kama- 
piikai, j; in which they state that Kamapiikai (child running or 
climbing the sea, from kama, a child, pii, to run or climb, and 
kai, the sea) was priest of a temple in Kohala, dedicated to Kane- 
nuiakea. 

The exact period of their history when he lived, we have not been 
able to ascertain; but it is added, that the god appeared to him 
in a vision, and revealed to him the existence, situation, and dis 
tance of Tahiti, and directed him to- make a voyage thither. In 
obedience to the communication, he immediately prepared for the 
voyage, and, with about forty of Ms companions, set sail from 
Hawaii in four double canoes. 



297 

After an absence of fifteen years, they returned, and gave a 
most flattering account of Haupokane, the country which they had 
visited. We know of no island in the neighbourhood caUed by 
this name, which appears to be a compound of Haupo, sometimes 
a lap, and Kane, one of their gods. Among other things, they 
described the one rauena, a peculiar kind of sandy beach, well 
stocked with shell-fish, &e. The country, they said, was inhabited 
by handsome people, whose property was abundant, and the fruits 
of the earth delicious and plentiful. There was also a stream or 
fountain, which was called the wai ora roa, (water of enduring 
life.) 

OTHER VOYAGES TO TAHITI. 

Kamapiikai made three subsequent voyages to the country he had 
discovered, accompanied by many of the Sandwich Islanders. From 
the fourth, voyage they never returned, and were supposed to have 
perished at sea, or to have taken up their permanent residence at 
Tahiti. Many were induced to accompany this priest to the country 
lie visited, for the purpose of bathing in the life-giving waters, in 
consequence of the marvellous change they were reported to produce 
in those who used them; for it was said, that however infirm, emaci 
ated, or deformed they might be when they went into the water, they 
invariably came out young, strong, and handsome. 

Without making further remarks, these traditions furnish very 
strong evidence that the Sandwich Islanders were acquainted with, 
the existence of the Marquesian and Society Islands long before 
visited by Captain Cook; and they also warrant the inference, that 
in some remote period the Sandwich Islanders have visited or 
colonized other islands in the Pacific. 

About three P. M. we reached Owawarua, a considerable village on 
the north-west coast, inhabited mostly by fishermen. Here we tried 
to collect a congregation, but only three women and two small 
children remained in the place, the rest having gone to Waimea to 
fetch sandal wood for Karaiomoku. 

Prom Owawarua we passed on to Hihiu, where we had an op 
portunity of speaking to a small party of natives. 

HAWAIIAN" FISHERIES AND FISHING METHODS. 

In these villages we saw numbers of canoes and many large fish 
ing nets, which are generally made with a native kind of flax, very 
strong and durable, but produced by a plant very different from that 
called the phormium tenax, which furnishes the flax of Tew Zea 
land, and bearing a nearer resemblance to the plant used by the 
natives of the Society Islands, called roa, the urtiea argentea, or 
candicans of Parkinson. 



298 

In taking fish, out at sea, they commonly make use of a net, of 
which they have many kinds, some very large, others mere hand- 
nets; they occasionally employ the hook and line, but never use 
the spear or dart which is a favourite weapon with the southern 
islanders. 

Quantities of fish were spread out in the sun to dry, in several 
places, and the inhabitants of the northern shores seem better sup 
plied with this article than those of any other part of the island. 

The shores of Hawaii are by no means so well stocked with fish 
as those of the Society Islands, for though the natives of the former 
appear equally skilful and industrious, they have not from the sea 
either that variety or abundance of fish which their southern neigh 
bours enjoy. 

The numerous coral reefs and shoals, and lagoons of salt water, 
which surround the latter islands, while very rare among these, is 
the probable occasion of the difference in this respect. 

The industry of the Hawaiians in a great degree makes up the 
deficiency, for they have numerous small lakes and ponds, frequently 
artificial, wherein they breed fish of various kinds, and in tolerable 
abundance. 

FROM KOHALA TO KAWAIHAE BY CANOE. 

Being considerably fatigued, and unable to find any fresh water 
in the village, we procured a canoe to take us to Towaihae, from 
which we were distant about twenty miles. 

Though we had numbered, in our journey today, 600 houses, we 
had not seen any thing like four hundred people, almost the whole 
population being employed in the mountains cutting sandal wood. 

It was about seven o'clock in the evening when we sailed from 
ffihiu, in a single canoe. The land breeze was light, but the canoe 
went at a tolerably rapid rate, and about eleven at night we reached 
Towaihae, where we were kindly received by Mr. Young. By him 
we were informed that Messrs. Bishop and Goodrich had arrived at 
Towaihae on the preceding Tuesday, and had gone to Kairua, ex 
pecting to obtain a passage to Oahu, in a native vessel called the 
pilot-boat. 

THOUSANDS OF MEN PACKING- SANDAL WOOD. 

Before daylight on. the 22d we were roused by vast multitudes of 
people passing through the district from Waimea with sandal wood, 
which had been cut in the adjacent mountains for Karaimoku, by 
the people of Waimea, and which the people of Kohala, as far as the 
north point, had been ordered to bring down to his storehouse on 
the beach, for the purpose of its being shipped to Oahu. 

There were between two and three thousand men, carrying each 



299 

from one to six pieces of sandal wood, according to their size and 
weight. It was generally tied on their backs by bands made of tl 
leaves, passed over the shoulders and under the arms, and fastened 
across their breast. When they had deposited the wood at the store 
house, they departed to their respective homes. 

AT THE KAWAIHAE WARM SPRINGS. 

Between seven and eight in the morning, we walked to the warm 
springs, a short distance to the southward of the large helaus, and 
enjoyed a most refreshing bathe. 

These springs rise on the beach a little below high- water mark, of 
course they are overflowed by every tide; but at low tide, the warm 
water bubbles up through the sand, fills a small kind of cistern, 
made with stones piled close together on the side towards the sea, 
and affords a very agreeable bathing place. 

The water is comfortably warm, and is probably impregnated 
with sulphur; various medicinal qualities are ascribed to it by those 
who have used it. 

SALT PONDS AT KAWAIHAE. 

The natives of this district manufacture large quantities of salt, 
by evaporating the sea water. We saw a number of their pans, in 
the disposition of which they display great ingenuity. They have 
generally one large pond near the sea, into which the water flows 
by a channel cut through the rocks, or is carried thither by the 
natives in large calabashes. After remaining there some time, it is 
conducted into a number of smaller pans about six or eight inches 
in depth, which are made with great care, and frequently lined with 
large evergreen leaves, in order to prevent absorption. Along the 
narrow banks or partitions between the different pans, we saw a 
number of large evergreen leaves placed. They were tied up at each 
end, so as to resemble a shallow dish, and filled with sea water, in 
which the crystals of salt were abundant. 

USE OF SALT IN HAWAII AND SOCIETY ISLANDS. 

Although salt was never made by the Society Islanders, who used 
as a substitute the sea water, in a cocoa-nut shell-full of which 
they always dipped their food before eating it, it has ever been an 
essential article with the Sandwich Islanders, who eat it very freely 
with their food, and use large quantities in preserving their fish. 

They have, however, besides what they make, salt lakes, which 
yield them large supplies. The surplus thus furnished, they dispose 
of to vessels touching at the islands, or export to the Eussian settle 
ments on the north-west coast of America, where it is in great de 
mand for curing fish, &c. 



300 

The facility which many parts of the coast afford for this purpose, 
and the length of the dry season, are favourable to the process; and, 
together with the ready market which the natives find for it, will 
probably induce them, as they advance in civilization, to manufacture 
it in much greater abundance. 

In the afternoon, Mr. Goodrich returned from Kairua, and in 
formed us that the pilot-boat was at Keauhou, and would sail for 
Oahu in a fortnight. 

BUILDING- A CHUBCH AT KAILUA. 

He also brought the more pleasing intelligence, that the governor 
was engaged in building a chapel for the public worship of God at 
Kairua, having at the same time enjoined on his people the ob 
servance of the Sabbath as a day of rest from labour and amuse 
ment, to be employed, moreover, in religious exercises. This wel 
come news rendered it desirable that one of us should repair to 
Kairua, in order to preach there on the coming Sabbath, and en 
courage them to persevere in the work they had so happily begun. 

It was thought best that I should remove to Kairua, while Mr. 
Thurston remained at Towaihae, with the intention of visiting that 
part of Kohala which we had passed in the canoe on Wednesday 
evening, and also the most populous places in the vicinity. This 
arrangement, however, prevented our again uniting till we arrived at 
Oahu. 

THUBSTON VISITS KOHALA. 

,On the 23d Mr. Thurston left Towaihae, and walked along the 
shore towards the north point. About noon he reached a small 
village, called Kipi, where he preached to the people; and as there 
was only one village between Kipi and the place where I had preach 
ed on Wednesday evening, he retraced his steps to Towaihae. He 
preached at four other villages on his return, where the congrega 
tions, though not numerous, were attentive. The heat of the sun. 
was oppressive, and the labours of the day fatiguing, yet it may be 
hoped that some good was effected. The coast was barren; the 
rocks volcanic; the men were all employed in fishing; and Mr. 
Thurston was informed that the inhabitants of the plantations, about 
seven miles in the interior, were far more numerous than on the 
shore. In the evening he reached Towaihae, and found that Mr. 
Croodrich had departed from Waimea, intending, after the Sabbath, 
to ascend Mouna-Kea. 

The 24th was, probably, the first Christian Sabbath ever enjoyed 
by the people of Towaihae, which is a village containing 100 houses. 
Mr. Thurston preached twice to the people. 

In the afternoon of the 25th, the brig ISTio arrived from Oahu, 
intending to remain five or six days, and then return. 



301 

ME. TEUHSTOK" VISITS WAIMEA POPULATION. 

About five p. m. Mr. Thurston set out OIL a visit to the inland 
district of Waimea, having been furnished with, a guide by Mr. 
Young. It -was dark when he reached Ouli, a place belonging to the 
latter, where he put up for the night. 

After worship with the people, on the morning of the 26th, Mr. 
Thurston walked on to Kalaloa, the residence of the chief of Waimea, 
Kumuokapiki, (Stump of Cabbage), Leaving Kalaloa, he walked on 
to Waiakea, from thence to Waikaloa, PukalanI, and Puukapu, which 
is sixteen or eighteen miles from the sea-shore, and is the last village 
in the district of Waimea. At these places he addressed the people. 

The soil over which he had travelled was fertile, well watered, 
and capable of sustaining many thousand inhabitants. In his walks 
he had numbered 220 houses, and the present population is prob 
ably between eleven and twelve hundred. 

CHARACTEB OF LAND IN HAMAKUA, KOHALA AND WAIMEA. 

The surface of the country is gently undulated, tolerably free from 
rocks, and easy of cultivation. In this district, and throughout the 
divisions of Hamakua and Kohala, together with the greater part of 
Hiro, the plough might be introduced with advantage, and the pro 
ductions of intertropical climates raised in great abundance and 
excellent quality, as the sugar-cane^ and other indigenous plants, 
grown at Waimea, are unusually large. 

Prom Puukapu he directed his steps towards the sea-shore, and 
in the twilight of the evening reached Puako, a considerable village, 
four or five miles to the southward of Towaihae, where he took up 
his lodging for the night. After addressing the people on the morn 
ing of the 27th, Mr. Thurston returned to Towaihae, where he 
arrived at 10 a. m. 

MB GOODRICH MAKES TEIP TO MAUNA KEA. 

About noon the same day, Mr. Goodrich returned from his journey 
to Mouna-Kea. Leaving Towaihae on the 23d, he had walked to 
Waimea, on the skirts of which he encamped with Mr. Parker, who 
w'as employed in shooting wild cattle. With him he spent the Sab 
bath, which was rainy and unpleasant. 

Early on Monday the 25th, he commenced his journey up the moun 
tain. The path lay along the side of a deep ravine; the soil was 
formed of decomposed lava and ashes. 

At noon he dismissed his native companion, and, taking his great 
coat and blanket, began to ascend the more steep and rugged parts. 
The way was difficult, on account of the rugged volcanic rocks and 
stunted shrubs that covered the sides of the mountain. In Ms way, 



302 

lie found numbers of red and white raspberry bushes loaded with 
delicious fruit. 

CAMPING CONDITIONS AND EXPERIENCES. 

At 5 p. m. having reached the upper boundary O f the trees and 
bushes that surround the mountain, he erected a temporary hut 3 
kindled a small fire, and prepared for his night's repose. The 
thermometer shortly after sun-set stood at 43; and the magnet, 
though it pointed north when held in the hand, was drawn between 
two and three degrees to the eastward, when placed on the blocks 
of lava, owing probably to the quantity of iron in the mountain. 

After a few hours * rest, Mr. Goodrich arose at eleven o'clock at 
night, and the moon shining brightly, he resumed his journey to 
wards the summit. At midnight he saw the snow about three miles 
distant, proceeded towards the place, and reached it about one o 'clock 
on the morning of the 26th. The snow was frozen over, and the 
thermometer stood at 27, 

CONDITIONS AT SUMMIT. 

He now directed his steps towards a neighbouring peak, which 
appeared one of the highest; but when he had ascended it, he saw 
several others still higher. He proceeded towards one, which looked 
higher than the rest, and bore N. E. from the place where he was. 
On reaching the summit of this second peak, he discovered a heap 
of stones, probably erected by some former visitor. From this peak 
Mouna-Eoa bore south by west, Mouna-Huararai west by south, and 
the island of Maui N. W. 

The several hills or peaks on the summit of Mouna-Kea seemed 
composed entirely of volcanic matter, principally cinders, pumice, and 
sand. Mr. Goodrieh did not discover apertures or craters on either 
of the summits he visited; probably there is a large crater some 
where adjacent, from which the scoria, sand, and pumice, have been 
thrown out. The whole of the summit was not covered with snow, 
there were only frequent patches, apparently several miles in extent, 
over which the snow was about eight inches or a foot in thickness. 
The ocean to the east and west was visible; but the high land on 
the north and south prevented its being seen in those directions. 

Mr. Goodrich commenced his descent about three o'clock, and 
after travelling over large beds of sand and cinders, into which he 
sunk more than ankle deep at every step, he reached about sun-rise 
the place where he had slept the preceding evening. The descent 
in several places, especially over the snow, was steep and difficult, and 
rendered the utmost caution necessary. After taking some refresh 
ment at this place, Mr. Goodrich continued his descent, and between 
four and five in the afternoon reached the encampment of Mr. Parker. 



303 
"WILD CATTLE ON MAUNA EGA. 

In Ms -way down, lie saw at a distance several herds of wild 
cattle, which are very numerous in the mountains and inland parts 
of the island, and are the produce of those taken there, and presented 
to the king, by Captain Vancouver. They were, at his request, 
tabued for ten years, during which time they resorted to the moun 
tains, and became so wild and ferocious, that the natives are afraid 
to go near them. 

Although there are immense herds of them, they do not attempt 
to tame any; and the only advantage they derive is by employing 
persons, principally foreigners, to shoot them, salt the meat in the 
mountains, and bring it down to the shore for the purpose of pro 
visioning the native vessels. But this is attended with great labour 
and expense. They first carry all the salt to the mountains. When 
they have killed the animals, the flesh is cut off their bones, salted 
immediately, and afterwards put into small barrels, which are brought 
on men's shoulders ten or jifteen miles to the sea-shore. 

Early on the morning of the 27th, Mr. Goodrich left Mr. Parker, 
and returned through the fertile district of Waimea to Towaihae. 

OTHER TRIPS TO MATJNA KEA. 

Nearly six months afterwards, Dr. Blatchely and Mr. Buggies as 
cended Mouna-Kea, from Waiakea bay. After travelling six days, 
they reached the summit of the mountain, where, within the circum 
ference of sis miles, they found seven mountains or peaks, apparently 
800 or 1000 feet high; their sides were steep, and covered with snow 
about a foot thick. The summit of the mountain appeared to be 
formed of decomposed lava, of a reddish brown colour. The peak 
in the centre, and that on the western side, are the highest. 

The following observations respecting a subsequent visit to this 
mountain from Waiakea, contained in a letter from Mr. Goodrich to 
Professor Silliman, of New Haven, are copied from the Philosophical 
Magazine for September, 1826. 

DESCRIPTION OF HILO SLOPE OF MAUNA KEA. 

"There appear to be three or four different regions in passing 
from the sea-shore to the summit. The first occupies five or six 
miles, where cultivation is carried on in a degree, and might be 
to almost any extent; but, as yet, not one-twentieth part is cultivated. 

"The next is a sandy region, that is impassable, except in a few 
foot-paths. Brakes, a species of tall fern, here grow to the size of 
trees; the bodies of some of them are eighteen inches in diameter. 

( ' The woody region extends between ten and twenty miles in width. 

"The region higher up produces grass, principally of the bent kind. 



304 

Strawberries,, raspberries, and whortleberries flourish in tiiis region, 
and nerds of wild cattle are seen grazing. It is entirely broken np 
by Mils and valleys, composed of lava with, a very shallow soil. The 
upper region is composed of lava in almost every form, from 
huge roeks to volcanic sand of the coarser kind. Some of the peaks 
are composed of coarse sand, and others of loose stones and pebbles. 
I found a few specimens, that I should not hesitate to pronounce 
fragments of granite. I also found fragments of lava, bearing a near 
resemblance to a geode, filled with green crystals, which I suppose 
to be augite. 

WILD SHEEP, DOGS AND GOATS. 

"Very near to the summit, upon one of the peaks, I found eight or 
ten dead sheep; they probably fled up there to seek a refuge from 
the wild dogs; I have heard that there are many wild dogs, sheep, 
and goats. Dogs and goats I have never seen. I was upon the 
summit about 2 o'clock p. m., the wind S. W., much resembling the 
cold blustering winds of March, the air being so rare produced a 
severe pain in my head, that left me as I descended." 

LEGENDS OF MATJNA KBA. 

In the native language, the word kea ; though seldom used now, 
formerly meant, white. Some white men, who are said to have 
resided inland, and to have come down to the sea shore frequently 
in the evening, and to have frightened the people, were called na kea, 
(the whites.) 

The snow on the summit of the mountain, in all probability, in 
duced the natives to call it Mouna-Kea, (mountain white,) or, as 
we should say, white mountain. They have numerous fabulous tales 
relative to its being the abode of the gods, and none ever approach 
its summit, as, they say, some who have gone there have been 
turned to stone. "We do not know that any have ever been frozen to 
death; but neither Mr. Goodrich, nor Dr. Blatehely and his com 
panion, could persuade the natives, whom they engaged as guides up 
the side of the mountain, to go near its summit. 

"We could not but regret that we had no barometer, or other means 
of estimating the actual elevation of this mountain, either here or at 
Waiakea. 

GOVERNOR KUAKINI BUILDS A CHURCH 

Mr. Bishop, who, in company with Mr. Groodrieh, had left To- 
waihae in a canoe belonging to Mr. Young, on the evening of the 
19th, was obliged to put on shore about midnight, on account of the 
rough sea, which rendered it dangerous to proceed. Having slept 
in the open air till daylight, they resumed their voyage on the 



305 

20th, and reached Kairua about noon, after an absence of four weeks 
and five days. 

The governor welcomed their return, and they were agreeably 
surprised to find Mm engaged in erecting a building for the worship 
of the true God. They learned that he had during the preceding 
week collected Ms people at Kairua, and addressed them on the 
duty of observing the Sabbath according to the laws of Jehovah. He 
also told them it was Ms desire that they should cease from work 
or amusement on that day, and attend divine service at Ms house. 

The people assented to his proposal, and when the Sabbath arrived, 
such numbers assembled, that hundreds were obliged to stand outside. 
Numbers also repaired to the house of Thomas Hopu, to be instructed 
in what they denominate the new religion. 

The next day the governor directed the people of Kairua to com 
mence building a house, in which they might all meet to worsMp 
God; and in the morning on which Messrs. Bishop and Goodrich 
arrived, they had commenced their work. 

HEIAU FURNISHES MATERIAL FOR CHURCH BUILDING. 

In the afternoon they walked to the place where the men were 
at work. Upwards of fifty persons were employed in carrying stones 
from an old heiau, which they were pulling down, to raise the ground, 
and lay the foundation of the place of worship. It was a pleasing 
sight to view the ruins of an idol's temple devoted to such a purpose; 
and they could not but hope that the spirit of Christianity would 
soon triumph over the superstition, prejudice, and wickedness of 
idolatry. 

The place of worship is sixty feet long and thirty broad, erected 
in the native manner, and thatched with the leaves of the pan- 
danus. The walls are ten feet Mgh, with doors at each end, and 
four windows on each side. It was impossible to behold the work 
without contemplating it as an intimation of most benevolent de 
signs, on the part of the Lord of missions, towards the benighted 
tribes around, or without praying that the time might soon arrive 
when houses for the worsMp of the living God shall be erected in 
every district in the islands. 

Eecent intelligence conveys the pleasing information, that five 
or six places of worship and a number of schools have already been 
erected in Hawaii, and a proportionate number in other islands of the 
group. 

"VICISSITUDES OF INTER-ISLAND TRAVEL 

On the 22d, after the return of Mr. Goodrich to Towaihae, a small 
boat arrived, which had left Oahu some days before for Maui, but had 
been blown so far to the southward, that they had with difficulty 

20 



306 

made the south point of Hawaii. They stopped at Kairua a short 
time in order to procure water, for the want of which they had 
suffered severely. As they intended proceeding to Oahu, Mr. Bishop 
wrote to the mission family there, informing them that the tour 
of the island had been accomplished, and that the missionaries were 
waiting an opportunity to return. 

On the 23d he visited the well, and found that the men had not 
made much progress. The rocks of lava, though hard, are cellular, 
so that powder has very little effect, and therefore they proceeded 
but slowly by blasting it. 

NATIVES OBSERVE THE SABBATH. 

The morning of the 24th was the Sabbath, and was unusually 
still; not a canoe was seen in the bay, and the natives seemed to 
have left their customary labours and amusements, to spend the day 
as directed by the governor. Mr. Bishop spent half an hour with 
him this morning, explaining in English the 21st and 22nd chapters 
of Bevelation. 

I joined them at breakfast, having arrived at Kairua about an 
hour before daylight. I had left Towaihae on the preceding day 
at six in the morning, in a canoe kindly furnished by Mr. Young. 

VISITING- VILLAGES BETWEEN KAWAIHAE AND KAILUA. 

About nine a. m. I stopped at Kaparaoa, a small village on the 
beach, containing twenty-two houses, where I found the people pre 
paring their food for the ensuing day, on which they said the gov 
ernor had sent word for them to do no work, neither cook any food. 
When the people were collected, I addressed them, and after answering 
a number of inquiries respecting the manner in which they should 
keep the Sabbath-day, again embarked on board my canoe, and 
sailed to Wainanarii, where I landed, repaired to the house of "Waipo, 
the chief, who, as soon as the object of my visit was known, directed 
the people to assemble at his house. 

At Kaparaoa I saw a number of curiously carved wooden idols, 
which formerly belonged to an adjacent temple. I asked the natives 
if they would part with any? They said, Yes; and I should have 
purchased one, but had no means of conveying it away, for it was 
an unwieldy log of heavy wood, twelve or fourteen feet long,, curious 
ly carved, in rude and frightful imitation of the human figure. 

After remaining there till two p. m. I left them making prepara 
tion to keep the Sabbath-day, according to the orders they had 
received from the governor. 

EAMEHAMEHA'S FISH-POND AT KIHOLO. 

About four in the afternoon I landed at Kihoro, a straggling 
village, inhabited principally by fishermen. A number of people 



308 

collected, to whom I addressed a short discourse, from I John i. 7. 

This village exhibits another monument of the genius of Tame- 
hameha. A small bay, perhaps half a mile across, runs inland a 
considerable distance. From one side to the other of this bay, Tame- 
hameha built a strong stone wall, six feet high in some places, and 
twenty feet wide, by which he had an excellent fish-pond, not less 
than two miles in circumference. 

There were several arches in the wall, which were guarded by 
strong stakes driven into the ground so far apart as to admit the 
water of the sea; yet sufficiently close to prevent the fish from es 
caping. It was well stocked with fish, and water-fowl were seen 
swimming on its surface. 

DISCUSSIONS WITH THE PEOPLE OF KTHOLO. 

The people of this village, as well as the others through which. I 
had passed, were preparing to keep the Sabbath, and the conversa 
tion naturally turned on the orders recently issued by the governor. 

They said it was a bad thing to commit murder, infanticide, and 
theft, which had also been forbidden; that it would be well to 
abstain from these crimes; but, they said, they did not know of 
what advantage the palapala (instruction, &e.) would be. 

I remained some time with them, and told them I hoped mis 
sionaries would soon come to reside permanently at Kairua, whither 
I advised them to repair as frequently as possible, that they might 
participate the advantages of instruction be made better acquainted 
with the character of the true God, and the means of seeking Ms 
favour. 

PROM KIHOLO TO KAILUA. 

Just before sun-set, I left Kihora. The men paddled the canoe 
past Lae-mano, (Shark 7 s-point,) a point of land formed by the last 
eruption of the great crater on Mouna-Huararai, which took place 
twenty years ago. 

Between seven and eight in the evening, we reached Kaupulehu, 
where the men drew the canoe on the beach, and, as the inhabitants 
were all buried in sleep, laid down to repose on the sand till the 
moon should rise. About eleven p. m. I awoke my companions; and 
the moon having risen, they launched the canoe, and, after paddling 
liard several hours, reached Kairua at the time above mentioned. 

At breakfast the governor seemed interested in the narrative of the 
tour, particularly of the interview we had with the priestess of Pele 
at Waiakea. 

SUNDAY SERVICES TO 800 AT KAILUA. 

At half-past ten, the beU rung for public worship, and about 800 
people, decently dressed, some in foreign, others in native clothing, 



309 

assembled under a large ranai (a place sheltered from the sun) formed 
by two large canvas awnings, and a number of platted eocoanut 
leaves, spread over the place from posts fixed In the fence which 
enclosed the court yard around the house of the governor's wife. 

The governor and Ms attendants sat on ehaiis; the rest of the 
congregation reclined on their mats, or sat on the ground. 

After singing and prayer, I preached from Acts xvi. 30, 31. The 
history of the Philippian jailor appeared to interest them, and, after 
the conclusion of the service, the governor in particular made many 
inquiries. 

FONDNESS OF NATIYES FOR DOGS 

We have often had occasion to notice the fondness of the natives 
for their dogs. The pets are usually of a small size; and though the 
females generally evince the greatest regard for them, frequently 
bringing them in their arms or on their backs, when they come to 
our public meetings, yet the men are occasionally seen attended 
by their favourite dog. This has been particularly the case at 
Kairua. 

AFTERNOON AND EVENING SERVICES AT KAILUA. 

At half -past four in the afternoon the bell rung again, and the 
people collected in the place where the services had been held in 
the forenoon, and in equal numbers seated themselves very quietly. 
The exercises commenced in the usual manner, and I preached on the 
occasion from Acts v. 14. They were attentive, and appeared much 
affected with the account of the awful end of Ananias and Sapphira. 

After the public exercises were finished, Mr. Bishop visited Thomas 
Hopu's house, where a small congregation was assembled for con 
versation and prayer. Mr. Bishop gave them a short exhortation; 
and many of the people remained after the service, to hear more 
from Thomas about Jesus Christ. 

The Sabbath was spent in a manner tiuly gratifying. No athletic 
sports were seen on the beach; no noise of playful children, shouting 
as they gamboPd in the surf, nor distant sound of the cloth-beating 
mallet, was heard through the day; no persons were seen carrying 
burdens in or out of the village, nor any canoes passing across the 
calm surface of the bay. It could not but be viewed as the dawn 
of a bright sabbatic day for the dark shores of Hawaii. 

In the evening, family worship was conducted at the governor's 
house in the native language; his companions and domestics at 
tended, and expressed themselves pleased with the singing. 

On the 27th it was proposed to the governor to have a public 
meeting, and a sermon, as was the practice at Oahu; but he objected, 
saying that the people would not attend, and it was too soon yet to 
have preaching among them during the week. 



310 

Having heard of the arrival of the brig Hio at Towaihae, Mr. 
Bishop left Kainia in the evening, to return to Oahu; while I 
remained, in order to preach to the governor and Ms people on the 
next Sabbath, expecting then to reach Towaihae in season to proceed 
to Oahu by the Nio. 

ISLAND SHIPPING IN 1823 

The natives possess no inconsiderable share of maritime and com 
mercial enterprise. The king and chiefs own fifteen, or sixteen vessels, 
several of which, like the Nio, are brigs of ninety or a hundred tons 
burden. The greater part of them, however, are schooners of a 
smaller size. 

The larger ones on a long voyage are commanded by a foreigner; 
but among the islands, they are manned and navigated by the natives 
themselves. A native captain and supercargo is appointed to each; 
the former navigates the vessel, while the latter attends to the cargo. 

The natives in general make good sailors; and although their 
vessels have greatly multiplied within the last few years, they find 
constant employ for them, particularly the small craft, which, are 
continually plying from one island to another, while their larger 
ones are either chartered to foreign merchants, or make distant 
voyages on their own account. 

VOYAGES TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

They have once sent a vessel to Canton loaded with sandal wood, 
under the care of an English captain and mate, but manned by 
natives. They have also traded to Kamtsehatka and other parts of 
the Pacific, and have within the last few years made one or two 
successful voyages for the purpose of procuring seal skins, which 
they have disposed of to advantage. 

ORIGIN OF HAWAIIAN FLAG 

The national flag of the islands, which is an English, jack, with 
eight or nine horizontal stripes, of white, red, and blue, was given 
them by the British government many years ago, accompanied by 
an assurance that it would be respected wherever the British flag 
was acknowledged. 

SUPPLIES SOLD TO SHIPS. 

Although they are so expert in the manufacture of their canoes, 
they have made but little progress in building and repairing their 
ships, or in any of the mechanic arts. They seem much more fond 
of the pursuits of commerce, and are tolerable adepts in bartering. 
In exchange for foreign articles, they not only give sandal wood 
and salt, but furnish supplies to the numerous vessels which visit 
the islands for the purpose of refitting or procuring refreshments. 



311 

In tlie months of March and April, and of September and October, 
many vessels, principally whalers, resort to the Sandwich Islands for 
fresh provisions, &c. we have seen upwards of thirty lying at 
anchor off Oahu at one time. The farmers in many places dispose 
of the produce of their land to these ships; but in Oahu and some 
other harbours, this trade is almost entirely monopolized by the king 
and chiefs. 

OPPBESSIVE TAXATION BY CHIEFS COMMERCE WITH SHIPS. 

There is indeed a public market, in which the natives dispose of 
their stock; but the price is regulated by the chiefs, and two 




The Hawaiian Flag, 

Said by Ellis to have been Designed by the 
British Government 



thirds of the proceeds of whatever the natives sell is required by 
them. 

This is not only unpleasant to those who trade with them, but 
very oppressive, and retards in no small degree the industry, comfort, 
and civilization of the people. 

In return for most of the supplies which they furnish to the 
shipping, they receive Spanish dollars; but the sandal wood, &e./they 
usually exchange for articles of European or Chinese fabrication: 
the silks, crapes, umbrellas, furniture, and trunks of the latter, are 
most in demand; while those of the former are hardware, earthen 
ware, linens, broad-cloth, slops, hats, shoes, canvas, cordage, &c. 

The season was approaching when the whalers, fishing on the coast 
of Japan, usually put in to some of the harbours of these islands. 
Hence Karaimoku had sent the Nio for a cargo of hogs, to meet 
the demand for these animals, which he expected would follow their 
arrival. 



312 
BISHOP AND GOODEICH RETURN TO HONOLULU. 

About noon on tie 28th, Mr. Bishop reached Towaihae; and in 
tie evening of the 30th, they received the unexpected information 
that the brig would sail that evening: Messrs. Bishop and Goodrich 
therefore went on "board, leaving Mr. Thurston at Towaihae to preach 
to the people there on the next day, which was the Sabbath, and 
afterwards join the vessel at the north point of the island, where they 
were going to take in hogs for Karaimoku, to whom the division of 
Kohala belonged, though the island in general was under the jurisdic 
tion of Kuakini the governor. 

THE HAWAIIAN SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT. 

Their system of government is rather complex; and having occa 
sionally mentioned several of its leading members, some further 
account of it will perhaps be acceptable. 

The government of the Sandwich Islands is an absolute monarchy. 
The supreme authority is hereditary. 

The rank of the principal and inferior chiefs, the offices of the 
priests, and other situations of honour, influence, and emolument, 
descend from father to son, and often continue through many gen 
erations in the same family, though the power of nomination to 
every situation of dignity and trust is vested in the king; and persons 
by merit, or royal favour, frequently rise from comparatively humble 
rank to the highest station in the islands, as in the instance of 
Karaimoku, sometimes called by foreigners, William Pitt. This in 
dividual, from being a chief of the third or fourth rank, has long 
been prime minister, in rank second only to the king, and having, in 
fact, the actual government of the whole of the Sandwich Islands. 

BASIS OP RANK IN HAWAIIAN SOCIETY. 

Hereditary rank and authority are not confined to the male sex, 
but are inherited also by the females; and, according to tradition, 
several of the islands have been once or twice under the government 
of a queen. 

Four distinct classes or ranks in society appear to exist among 
them. The highest rank includes the king, queens, and all the branches 
of the reigning family. It also includes the chief counsellor or 
minister of the king, who, though inferior by birth, is by office and 
authority superior to the queens and other members of the royal 
family. 

SECOND RANK IN SOCIETY. 

The second rank includes the governors of the different islands, and 
also the chiefs of several large divisions or districts of land. Many 



313 

of these are the descendants of the ancient families of Taraiopu, 
Kehekii, Teporiorani, and Taeo, who were tlie kings of Hawaii, Maui, 
Oahu, and Tauai, when the islands were visited by Captain Cook; 
they retained their power until subdued by Tamehameha. Several 
of them were either the favourite and warlike companions of that 
prince, or are descended from those who were; among whom may be 
classed Kuakini the governor, Kaahumanu, Piia, Boki, Wahinepio, 
Kaikeova, and others. 

THIRD RANK IN SOCIETY. 

The third rank is composed of those who hold districts or villages, 
and pay a regular rent for the land, cultivating it either by their own 
dependants and domestics, or letting it out in small allotments to 
tenants. This class is by far the most numerous body of chiefs in 
the island. 

Among the principal may be ranked Kamakau at Kaavaroa, Maaro 
at Waiakea, Haa at Waipio, Auae at Wairuku, and Kahanaumaitai 
at Waititi. They are generally called Haku aina, proprietors of land. 
This rank would also include most of the priests under the former 
dispensation. 

In the fourth rank may be included the small farmers who rent 
from ten to twenty or thirty acres of land, the mechanics, viz. 
canoe and house builders, fishermen, musicians, and dancers; indeed, 
all the labouring classes, those who attach themselves to some chief 
or farmer, and labour on his land for their food and clothing, as 
well as those who cultivate small portions of land for their own 
advantage. 

ETIQUETTE TOWARD AND BETWEEN CHIEFS 

Though the chiefs did not receive that abject and humiliating 
homage which is frequently paid to superiors in barbarous nations, 
where the government is arbitrary, yet the common people always 
manifested a degree of respect to the chiefs, according to their rank 
or office. This, towards the sacred chiefs, amounted almost to adora 
tion, as they were on no occasion allowed to touch their persons, 
but prostrated themselves before them, and could not enter their 
houses without first receiving permission. 

The behaviour among the chiefs was courteous, and manifested a 
desire to render themselves agreeable to each other; while all ob 
served a degree of etiquette in their direct intercourse with the king. 
He is usually attended by a number of courtiers or favourites, called 
Punahele, who join in his amusements and occupations, escept in 
affairs of government, with which they seem to have no concern. 

When in a state of inebriation, all marks of distinction were lost, 



3M 

but at otlier times even tliese favourites conducted themselves to 
wards their sovereign with great respect. 

I have often seen Kapihe and Kekuanaoa, the two who accom 
panied Bihoriho to England, come into his presence, and wait without 
speaking, whatever their business might be, till he should address 
them,, and then continue standing until requested by him to sit down. 

GOVERNMENT RESEMBLES FEUDAL SYSTEM. 

In some respects the government resembles the ancient feudal 
system of the northern nations. During many periods of their history, 
not only the separate islands, but the larger divisions of some of 
them, have been under the government of independent kings or 
chiefs; and it does not appear that until the reign of Bihoriho, the 
late king, they were ever united under one sovereign. 

The king is acknowledged in every island as the lord and pro 
prietor of the soil by hereditary right, or the laws of conquest. 

When Tamehameha had subdued the greater part of the islands, 
he distributed them among his favourite chiefs and warriors, on con 
dition of their rendering him, not only military service, but a certain 
proportion of the produce of their lands. 

This also appears to have been their ancient practice on similar 
occasions, as the hoopahora or papahora, division of land among the 
ranakira or victors, invariably followed the conquest of a district 
or island. 

DIVISION OF AUTHOBITY BY ISLANDS AND DISTRICTS. 

Every island is given by the king to some high chief, who is 
supreme governor in it, but is subject to the king, whose orders he 
is obliged to see executed, and to whom he pays a regular rent or tax, 
according to the size of the island, or the advantages it may possess. 

Each island is separated into a number of permanent divisions, 
sometimes fifty or sixty miles in extent. In Hawaii there are six, 
Kohala, Kona, &c. 

Each of the large divisions is governed by one or two chiefs, 
appointed by the king or by the governor, and approved by the 
former. These large divisions are divided into districts and villages, 
which sometimes extend five or six miles along the coast; at others, 
not more than half a mile. 

A head man, nominated by the governor, usually presides over 
these villages, which are again subdivided into a number of small 
farms or plantations. 

The names of these are generally significant; as Towahai, the 
waters broken, from a stream which runs through the district, and 
is divided near the sea; Kairua, two seas, from the waters of the 
bay being separated by a point of land, &c. 



315 

Although this is the usual manner in which the land is distributed, 
yet the king holds personally a number of districts in most of the 
islands, and several of the principal chiefs receive districts directly 
from the king, and independent of the governor of the island in 
which they are situated. 

PAYMENT OF BENT AND TAXES, 

The governor of the island pays over to the king annually, or 
half yearly, the rents or taxes required by the latter. These he 
receives from the chiefs under Mm, who generally pay in the produce 
of the soil. Sometimes the king requires a certain sum in Spanish 
dollars, at other times in sandal wood. 

This, however, is only a modern regulation, introduced since they 
have become acquainted with the use of money, and the value of 
sandal wood. 

The rent was originally paid in canoes, native cloth, mats, fishing- 
nets, hogs, dogs, and the produce of the soil, for the use of the king, 
and the numerous train of favourite chiefs and dependants by which 
he was surrounded, and who were daily fed from the provisions of 
his house. 

For this tax the governor is responsible, and it is his business 
to see it conveyed to the king, or disposed of according to his order. 

A second tax is laid on the districts by the governor, for himself. 

The inhabitants of thos-e portions of the island, however, which 
belong to other chiefs, although they furnish their share towards 
the king's revenue, are not called upon to support the governor of 
the island, but are expected to send a part of the produce of the land 
to their own chiefs. 

After this has been paid, additional requisitions are made upon the 
poor people cultivating the land, by the petty chiefs of the districts 
and villages; these, however, are but trifling. 

NO FIXED TAX. 

There is no standing rule for the amount of rents or taxes, but 
they are regulated entirely by the caprice or necessities of their 
rulers. Sometimes the poor people take a piece of land, on condition, 
of cultivating a given portion for the chief, and the remainder for 
themselves, making a fresh agreement after every crop. 

In addition to the above demands, the common people are in general 
obliged to labour, if required, part of two days out of seven, in 
cultivating farms, building houses, &c., for their landlord. 

A time is usually appointed for receiving the rent, when the people 
repair to the governor's with what they have to pay. If the required 
amount is furnished they return, and, as they express it, (komo hou) 



316 

enter again on their land. But if unable to pay the required sum, 
and their landlords are dissatisfied with the presents they have 
received, or think the tenants have neglected their farm, they are 
forbidden to return, and the land is offered to another. When, how 
ever, the produce brought is nearly equal to the required rent, and 
the chiefs think the occupants have exerted themselves to procure 
it, they remit the deficiency, and allow them to return. 

Besides the stipulated rent, the people are expected to make a 
number of presents to their chiefs, usually the first fish in season, 
from their artificial ponds, or from the sea, if the land they occupy 
be near the coast, together with the first-fruits of the trees and 
plantations. 

CERTAIN LANDS FREE OF TAX. 

Though these are the usual conditions on which land is held, there 
are a number of districts, called aina ku pono, (land standing erect,) 
held free from all rent and taxes, except a few presents, the value 
and frequency of which are entirely optional with the occupier. 

These privileges of exemption from the established usage, were 
probably granted originally in reward for eminent services rendered 
the king, and they continue permanent, for should the king, on ad- 
count of any crime, banish an individual holding one of these dis 
tricts, the next occupant would enjoy all the privileges of his 
predecessor. 

PEOPLE PASS WITH THE LAND 

The common people are generally considered as attached to the 
soil, and are transferred with the land from one chief to another. 

In recently conquered districts, they were formerly obliged to 
abide on the land which they cultivated, as slaves to the victors; 
at present, though they frequently remain through life the dependants 
or tenants of the same chief, such continuance appears on. their part 
to be voluntary. 

No chief can demand any service or supplies from those who 
occupy the land of another without his direction. 

The king occasionally changes the tenants of a farm, without taking 
the proprietorship from the chief who may hold it more immediately 
from himself; and when the rents are insufficient to meet his wants, if 
any of the neighbouring farmers have potatoes and taro in their fields, 
he, or any high chief, will send their men, and hao (seize) the greater 
part of them, without making any remuneration to the injured parties. 

HARBOR DUES BELONG TO KING. 

Besides the sums which the king receives from the land, and the 
monopoly of the trade, in live stock and other supplies furnished to 



317 

the skipping at several ports in the- islands, the revenue is augmented 
by the harbour dues at Oahu. 

Every vessel anchoring in the outer harbour pays sixty dollars, and 
eighty for entering the basin, or inner harbour. 

Tin within two or three years, it was only forty for one, and sixty 
for the other. 

ORIGIX OF HARBOE DUES. 

The demand for these dues originated in their unprofitable voyage 
to Canton in 1816. The cargo of sandal wood was sold, but instead 
of a return in cloths, silks, &e. 5 the vessel eame back nearly empty, 
and in debt. The king inquired the reason; when the captain, a 
very incompetent person for such a business, told him, that some 
of the money had been stolen; that so much was demanded for 
pilotage, coming to anchor, &e , as to leave nothing for the purpose 
of fitting the vessel for sea, which had occasioned the debt. "If," 
replied the king, "that be the case, we will have a pilot here, and 
every vessel that enters the harbour shall pay me for anchorage. " 

The pilotage, which is a dollar per foot for every vessel, both on 
entering and leaving the harbour, is divided between the govern 
ment and the pilot. 

OTHEE FORMS OF TAXATION. 

Another singular method of taxing the people, is by building a 
new house for the king or some principal chief. 

On the first day the king or chief enters it, the chiefs and the 
people of the neighbourhood repair thither, to pay their respects, 
and present their gifts. 

Custom obliges every chief to appear on such occasions, or expose 
himself to the imputation of being disaifeeted; and no one is allowed 
to enter without a present of money. The amount is proportioned 
to their rank or the land they hold. Some chiefs, on such occasions, 
give sixty dollars, others ten or five, and some only one. 

A short time before his embarkation for England, a large native 
house was built for Rihoriho, at Honoruru, in the Island of Oahu. 
During three days after the king went into it, the people eame with, 
their gifts. No individual, not even the queens, entered the house 
without presenting the king a sum of money; several gave upwards 
of fifty dollars; and we saw more than two thousand dollars received 
in one day. A similar tax was also levied by Kuakini, the governor 
at Kairua, when he first entered a handsome framed house, recently 
erected there. 

TRADITIONAL CODE OF LAW. 

Until the establishment of a Christian mission among them, the 
Sandwich Islanders had no records, and consequently no written 
laws. 



318 

There is, however, a Mud of traditionary code, a number of regu 
lations which, have been either promulgated by former kings, or 
followed by general consent, respecting the ten-are of lands, right 
of property, personal security, and exchange or barter, which are 
well understood, and usually acted npon. 

The portion of personal labour due from a tenant to Ms chief is 
fixed by custom, and a chief would be justified in banishing the 
person who should refuse it when required; on the other hand, were 
a chief to banish a man who had rendered it, and paid the stipulated 
rent, Ms conduct would be contrary to their opinions of right, and 
if the man complained to the governor or the king, and no other 
charge was brought against Mm, he would most likely be reinstated. 

The irrigation of their plantations is of great importance in most 
parts, and there is a law that the water shall be conducted over 
every plantation twice a week in general, and once a week during 
the dry season. 

RBVEESION OF LAND UPON DEATH OF OWNER. 

On the death of a chief, Ms lands revert to the king or the 
governor of the island. He may nominate Ms son, his wife, or any 
other person, to succeed to Ms districts, &c., but the appointment 
must be confirmed by the king or governor, before the individual can 
take possession. 

TMs regulation, next to the tabu, is the most effectual mode of 
preserving the authority and influence of the king and chiefs. 

PENALTY FOR MURDER AND THEFT. 

In eases of assault or murder, except when committed by their 
own cMef, the family and friends of the injured party are, by com 
mon consent, justified in retaliating. When they are too weak to 
attack the offender, they seek the aid of their neighbours, appeal 
to the chief of the district, or the king, who seldom inflicts a heavier 
punishment than banishment even for murder, wMch, however, is a 
crime very rarely committed by the natives. 

Theft among themselves is severely punished. Formerly, when 
a garden or house had been robbed, and the robbers were discovered, 
those whose goods had been stolen repaired to the house or planta 
tion of the offenders, and hao (seized) whatever they could find. 
This regulation was so well established, that though the guilty party 
should be strongest, they would not dare to resist the retaliation; 
for in the event of their making any opposition, the people of a 
whole district would support those who were thus punishing the in 
dividuals by whom theft had been committed. 



319 

PENALTY FOR ROBBERY AND ADULTERY. 

When robbery had been committed on the property of a high chief, 
or to any great amount, the thief, in some of the islands, was fre 
quently bound hand and foot, placed in an old decayed canoe, towed 
out to sea, and turned adrift. The canoe speedily filled, and the 
culprit, being bound, soon sunk beneath the waves. 

Adultery among the highest ranks has been punished with death 
by decapitation. 

LAW RELATING- TO BARTER. 

In the transactions of barter among themselves, there are several 
regulations which they punctually observe. No bargain was con 
sidered binding till the articles were actually exchanged, and the 
respective owners expressed themselves satisfied. Afterwards there 
was no withdrawing, however injurious the bargain might be to 
either paity. 

There is, in the Sandwich Islands, no class of men, either peasants 
or mechanics, who are regularly employed as day-labourers, or who 
receive for their work a stipulated payment, excepting those em 
ployed by foreigners. 

In hiring workmen to dig stone, burn lime, build a house or canoe, 
&e. it is a common practice among the natives themselves to make 
the bargain with a petty chief, who requires the labour of all his 
dependants in its fulfilment. They usually pay beforehand,* and 
those who have received such remuneration are bound, when called 
upon, to perform their work, or have their property seized, and their 
plantations plundered. 

These, and several similar regulations, are generally received, and 
govern the conduct of the people. The king can dispense with any 
of them; but such conduct would be contrary to the established usage, 
and is seldom done. 

WILL OF KING AND CHIEFS IS SUPREME. 

The will of the king, however, being the supreme law, the gov 
ernment is more or less arbitrary as his disposition is humane or 
vindictive and cruel. 

His power extends, not only over the property, but over the 
liberty and lives of the people. 

This power is delegated by him to the governors of the different 
islands, and by them again to the chiefs of the districts. 

A chief takes the life of one of his own people for any offence 
he may commit, and no one thinks he has a right to interfere. But 
though the power of the chiefs is so absolute over their own people, it 
extends no further. A chief dare not for any offence punish a 



320 

man belonging to another, but must complain to the chief on whose 
land the offender resides. 

CONSTITUTION OP COURTS. 

The king is chief magistrate over the whole islands. The gov 
ernors sustain the same office in the islands under their jurisdiction, 
and the chiefs of the districts are the arbitrators in all quarrels 
among their own people. 

A man dissatisfied with the decisions of his chief, may appeal 
to the governor, and finally to the king. 

They have no regular police, but the king has generally a number 
of chiefs in attendance, who, with the assistance of their own de 
pendants, execute Ms orders. The governors and high chiefs have 
the same, and employ them in a similar manner when occasion 
requires. 

The house or front yard of the king or governor is the usual 
court of justice, and it is sometimes quite a court of equity. Judg 
ment is seldom given till both parties are heard face to face. 

ORDEALS FOR TRYING ACCUSED. 

They have several ordeals for trying those accused of different 
crimes. One of the most singular is the wai haruru, shaking water. 
A large calabash or wooden dish of water is placed in the midst 
of a circle, on one side of which the accused party is seated. A 
prayer is offered by the priest; and the suspected individuals are 
required, one by one, to hold both hands, with the fingers spread out, 
over the dish, while the priest or the chief looks steadfastly at the 
face of the water; and it is said, that when the person, who has 
committed the crime, spreads Ms hands over the vessel, the water 
trembles. Probably conscious guilt, and superstitious dread, may 
make the hands of the culprit shake, and occasion the tremulous 
appearance of the water in which they are reflected. 

No unnecessary delays take place in the redress of grievances, or 
the administration of justice. 

I was once sitting with Karaimoku, when a poor woman came 
to complain of the chief of her district, who, she said, had kept 
the water running through Ms own plantation for several days, while 
the potatoes and taro in her garden were parched up with drought. 

After making a few inquiries, he called Kaiakoiri, one of his 
favourite chiefs, and said, "Go with this woman; and, if the chief 
has kept back the water, open the channels, and let it flow over 
her field immediately." The chief girded up his maro, and, fol 
lowed by the woman, set off for the district in which she resided. 



321 

NO LAWYERS. 

2STo lawyers are employed to conduct tlieir public trials; every 
man advocates Ms own cause, usually sitting cross-legged before 
the judge; and I have often been pleased with the address the differ 
ent parties have displayed in exhibiting or enforcing their respective 
claims. 

CHIEFS AHE CONSULTED BY "KING. 

There is no national council, neither have the people any voice 
in the proceedings of government. But the king, though accountable 
to no one for the measures he adopts, seldom, acts, in any affair of im 
portance, without the advice of his confidential chiefs. These 
counsellors are in no degree responsible for the advice they give, nor 
liable to suffer from any conduct the king may pursue. He, however, 
always pays a deference to their opinion, and seldom acts in opposi 
tion to their wishes. 

In all matters of importance, it is customary to summon the 
governors and principal chiefs of the several islands to a national 
council, when the subject is freely discussed. Their deliberations 
are generally conducted with great privacy, and seldom known among 
the people till finally arranged, when they are promulgated through 
out the island by the king's heralds or messengers. 

The king sends his orders directly to the governor of the island, 
or principal chief of the district. Formerly a courier bore a verbal 
message; now he carries a written despatch. 

The office of messenger, as well as that of herald, is hereditary, and 
considered honourable, as those who sustain it must necessarily have 
possessed the confidence of the king and chiefs. 

PUBLIC ASSEMBLIES ON" NATIONAL AFFAIBS. 

Occasionally they hold public meetings for discussing national 
affairs. These are interesting assemblies, particularly when hostile 
chiefs, or the agents of opposite parties, meet; national orators, and 
counsellors, whose office is also hereditary, are then employed. In 
general, however, these meetings are convened only for the purpose 
of promulgating what has been previously arranged between the 
king and chiefs. 

STATUS OF HAWAIIAN SYSTEM OF GOYEBNMENT. 

The Hawaiian system of government whetner derived from the 
country whence the first settlers emigrated, or established by warlike 
chieftains in a subsequent period of their history, as an expedient 
to secure conquests, to command the services of their tenants on 
occasions of war, and to perpetuate the influence which military 

21 



322 

prowess or success in the first instance liad given them, exhibits, in its 
decided monarchical character, the hereditary descent of rank and 
office, and other distinguishing features, considerable advancement 
from a state of "barbarism, and warrants the conclusion that they 
have been an organized community for many generations. 

But whatever antiquity their system may possess, they have 
made but little progress in the art of good government. 

PEOPLE CONSIDERED AS PEOPEETY OF CHIEFS. 

The well-being of the subject seems to have been but rarely 
regarded by the rulers, who appear to have considered the lower 
orders in general as a kind of property, to be employed only in 
promoting the interests of their superiors; and the ardent love of 
wealth, which an acquaintance with the productions of foreign 
countries has excited in most of the chiefs, has not improved the 
condition of the people. 

PEOPLE ABJECTLY SUBJECT TO CHIEFS. 

Industry receives no encouragement; anfl even those whom natural 
energy of character would induce to cultivate a larger portion of 
land than was absolutely necessary for their bare subsistence, are 
deterred from the attempt by the apprehension of thereby exposing 
themselves to the rapacity of avaricious or necessitous chiefs. 

Hothing can be more detrimental to the true interest of the chiefs,, 
and the civilization and happiness of the people, than the abject 
dependence of the latter, the uncertain tenure of lands, the insecurity 
of personal property, the exactions of the chiefs, and the restrictions, 
on trade with the shipping, which they impose. 

As the nation in general becomes enlightened, it is to be pre 
sumed that the policy of the rulers will be more liberal, and the 
general prosperity of the islands proportionably advanced. 

EETUBN OF THUESTON AND OTHEES TO HONOLULU. 

On the 31st, Mr. Thurston preached twice at Towaihae to attentive 
congregations, and with the labours of the day, closed a month of 
toil and interest greater than any he had before spent in the Sand 
wich Islands. In the retrospect, he could not but hope some good 
would result to the people. 

Early on the 1st of September, Mr. Thurston left Towaihae in a 
canoe furnished by Mr. Young, and at eight in the forenoon reached 
the place where the Nio was lying at anchor, on board of which he 
joined Messrs. Goodrich and Bishop. Soon after four in the after 
noon they weighed anchor and made sail. When they left Hawaii, 
the master intended touching at Maui; but contrary winds obliged 



323 

them, to shape their course towards Oahu, where they safely arrived 
late in the evening of the 3d, and had the satisfaction of finding the 
mission family in the enjoyment of comfortable health. 

The time which I spent at Kairua was chiefly occupied in con 
versation with the governor on the history and traditions of the 
island; the advantages of instruction; and the blessings which the 
general adoption of Christianity would confer on the people. On 
this latter subject, the governor uniformly expressed Ms conviction 
of its utility; and said, he had therefore sent a messenger round 
among the people, requesting them to renounce their former evil 
practices, and keep the Sabbath according to the direction of the 
word of God. 

HEIAU OF AHUENA CONVERTED INTO A FORT. 

Adjacent to the governor's house stand the ruins of Ahuena, an 
ancient heiau, where the war-god was often kept, and human 
sacrifices offered. Since the abolition of idolatry, the governor has 
converted it into a fort, has widened the stone wall next the sea, 
and placed upon it a number of cannon. 

The idols are all destroyed, excepting three, which are planted on 
the wall, one at each end, and the other in the centre, where they 
stand like sentinels amidst the guns, as if designed by their frightful 
appearance to terrify an enemy. 

DESCRIPTION OF HAWAIIAN IDOLS. 

On the 29th, I visited the ruins, and took a sketch of one of the 
idols, which stood sixteen feet above the wall, was upwards of 
three feet in breadth, and had been carved out of a single tree. 

The above may be considered as a tolerable specimen of the 
greater part of Hawaiian idols. The head has generally a most 
horrid appearance, the month being large and usually extended 
wide, exhibiting a row of large teeth, resembling in no small degree 
the cogs in the wheel of an engine, and adapted to excite terror 
rather than inspire confidence in the beholder. Some of their idols 
were of stone, and many were constructed with a kind of wicker- 
work covered with red feathers. 

NATIVE TRADITIONS OF ORIGIN OF HAWAIIAN S. 

In the evening our conversation at the governor's turned on the 
origin of the people of Hawaii, and the other islands of the Pacific, 
a topic which often engaged our attention, and respecting which, in 
the various inquiries we made, we often had occasion to regret that 
the traditions of the natives furnished such scanty information, on a 
subject so interesting and important. This portion, however, though 



324 

small, and surrounded by an Incredible mass of fiction, is still worth, 
preserving. 

The general opinions entertained by the natives themselves, 
relative to their origin, are, either that the first inhabitants were 
created on the islands, descended from the gods, by whom they were 
first inhabited; or, that they came from a country which they called 
Tahiti. 

Many, as was the case with the chiefs at Maui, and also the 
governor at this place suppose that, according to the accounts of the 
priests of Tane, Tanaroa, and other gods, the first man was made by 
Haumea, a female deity. We have not, however, met with any who 
pretend to know of what material he was formed. 

Others, again, suppose the chiefs to have descended from Akea, 
who appears to have been the connecting link between the gods and 
the men; but this supposes the chiefs and the common people to have 
been derived from different sources. 

The accounts they have of their ancestors having arrived in a 
canoe from Tahiti, are far more general and popular among the 
people. 

When some of our party were at Towaihae, the subject was 
discussed. Mr. Young said, among the many traditionary accounts 
of the origin of the island and its inhabitants, one was, that in. 
former times, when there was nothing but sea, an immense bird 
settled on the water, and laid an egg, which soon bursting produced 
the island of Hawaii. Shortly after this, a man and woman, with 
a hog, a dog, and a pair of fowls, arrived in a canoe from the Society 
Islands, took up their abode on the eastern shores, and were the 
progenitors of the present inhabitants. 

Another account prevalent among the natives of Oahu, states, 
that a number of persons arrived in a canoe from Tahiti, and 
perceiving the Sandwich Islands were fertile, and inhabited only by 
gods or spirits, took up their abode on one of them, having asked 
permission of the gods, and presented an offering, which rendered 
them propitious to their settlement. 

HAWAIIANS PBOBABLY GAME FROM TAHITI. 

Though these accounts o not prove that the Sandwich Islanders 
cam originally from the Georgian Islands, they afford a strong 
presumption in favour of such an opinion. 

Tahiti is the name of the principal island in the group, called 
t>y Captain Cook the Georgian Islands. It is the Otaheite of Cook; 
-the Taiti of Bougainville; and the Taheitee, or Tahitee, of Forster. 

In the language of the Georgian and Society Islands, the word 
tahiti also signifies to pull up or take out of the ground, as heibs 
or trees are taken up with a view to transplantation, and to select 



325 

or extract passages from a "book or language, to be translated into 
another. Hence a "book of scripture extracts Is called^ words tahitihea. 

HAWAIIAN MEANING OF "TAHITI." 

In the language of the Sandwich. Islands, we do not know that the 
word is ever used in the latter sense, and very rarely in the former. 




An Idol on the Wall of a Heiau at Kailua, wnicft 
was Converted Into a Fort by Governor KuaktnL 

It is generally employed to denote any foreign country, and seems 
equivalent to the English word abroad, as applied to parts beyond 
the sea. But though this is the signification of the word among 
the Sandwich Islanders at the present time, it is probable that it 



326 

was primarily used to designate the whole of the southern group, 
or the principal island among them; and it may lead us to infer, 
either that Tahiti, and the Georgian and Society Islands, were all 
the foreign countries the Hawaiians were acquainted with, or that 
they considered the Marquesian Islands contiguous, and politically 
connected with them, and that these being the only foreign countries 
originally known to them, they have applied the term to every 
other part with which they have subsequently become acquainted. 

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INHABITANTS OF ISLANDS OF PACIFIC. 

It is an opinion generally received, that the various tribes 
inhabiting the islands of the Pacific, have an Asiatic, and probably 
a Malayan origin. Applied to a great part of them, this opinion 
is supported by a variety of facts; but with respect to those groups 
with which we are acquainted, additional evidence appears necessary 
to confirm such a conclusion. 

The natives of the eastern part of New Holland, and the inter- 
tropical islands within thirty degrees east, including New Cale 
donia, the New Hebrides, and the Figiis, appear to be one nation, 
and in all probability came originally from the Asiatic islands^ to 
the northward, as their skin is black, and their hair woolly or 
crisped, like the inhabitants of the mountainous parts of several of 
the Asiatic islands. 

But the inhabitants of all the islands to the east of the Figiis, 
including the Friendly Islands and New Zealand, though they have 
many characteristics in common with these, have a number essen 
tially distinct. 

The natives of Chatham Island and New Zealand, in the south; 
the Sandwich Islands, in the north; the Friendly Islands, in the 
west; and all the intermediate islands, as far as Easter Island, 
in the east, are one people. Their mythology, traditions, manners 
and customs, language, and physical appearance, in their main 
features, are, so far as we have had an opportunity of becoming 
acquainted with them, identically the same, yet differing in many 
respects from those of the islands to the westward of Tongatabu. 

The dress of the Figiians, &e., is not the same as that of the 
natives of New Zealand, Tahiti, and the other islands; they do not 
appear to wear the cloak or the tiputa. 

In war they throw long spears to a considerable distance, and 
use the bow and arrow, which the others only employ in their 
amusements. 

The difference in their physical character is greater; the dark 
complexion, woolly hair, and slender make, indicate them to be a 
different people. 



327 

RESEMBLANCE OF PACIFIC ISLANDERS TO AMERICAN INDIANS. 

Various points of resemblance might be shewn between the abori 
gines of America and the natives of the eastern islands of the 
Pacific, in their modes of war, instruments, gymnastic games, rafts 
or canoes, treatment of their children, dressing their hair, feather 
head-dresses of the chiefs, girdles, and particularly the tiputa of 
the latter, which, in shape and use, exactly resembles the poncho 
of the Peruvians, but it would lead too far at this time. 

LONG- VOYAGES IN CANOES. 

"We have every reason to believe the canoes of the natives were 
larger formerly than they are now, and yet we have known them 
make several long voyages, being sometimes a fortnight or three 
weeks at sea. 

In the year 1821, a large canoe arrived at Maurua from Burntu, 
and as it passed to the north of HuaMne, must have sailed 500 
miles, even supposing it had made a direct course. 

Since that time, a boat from Tahiti reached one of the islands 
near Mangea, almost 600 miles, in a direct course, but probably not 
half the distance actually sailed by the natives in the boat. 

Canoes are frequently arriving at Tahiti from some of the eastern 
islands. Two came recently from Hao, an island of which the 
Tahitians were before entirely ignorant. 

INFLUENCE OF TRADE WINDS ON EMIGRATION. 

Several canoes passing among the islands, have been blown out 
to sea, and have never returned; and the native teachers sent from 
the Society Islands to the various islands lying between them and 
the Friendly Islands, have met among them several of their country 
men. These voyages have always been in a westerly direction. 
"We never heard of one to the eastward. 

The trade-winds blowing within the tropics from the eastward 
more than three-fourths of the year, and their canoes not being 
adapted to sail close to the wind, render it difficult for the natives 
of the leeward islands to pass to windward. They never attempt it, 
except when the wind is somewhat westerly, which is but seldom, 
while it often blows steadily from the east for weeks together. 

These circumstances seem to favour the conjecture that the in 
habitants of the islands west of Tongatabu have an Asiatic origin 
entirely; but that the natives of the eastern islands may be a 
mixed race, who have emigrated from the American continent, and 
from the Asiatic islands; that the proximity of the Friendly and 
Figii islands may have given both a variety of words and usages in 
common, while the people to which the former belong have re 
mained in many respects distinct. 



S2S 

The nation Inhabiting the eastern parts of the Pacific has spread 
itself over an immense tract of ocean, extending upwards of seventy 
degrees north and south from New Zealand and Chatham Island to 
the Sandwich group, and between sixty and seventy degrees east 
and west from Tongatabu to Easter Island. This last is not farther 
from the islands adjacent to the continent than some of these groups 
are from any other inhabited island* 

The Sandwich Islands are above twenty degrees from the Mar 
quesas, and thirty-six from Tahiti, yet inhabited by the same race 
of people. 

ADVANCE OF WRITING AMONG- HAWAIIANS. 

The day after the conversation took place which led to the above 
remarks, the pilot-boat arrived at Kairua, on her way to Maul. On 
first coming to anchor, Kahiori, the master, said he should sail in 
the evening; but when I told him I would go with him if he would 
wait till the Sabbath was over, he cheerfully agreed to do- so. By 
him the governor received a note on business, written by Kamakau, 
the interesting chief of Kaavaroa, which, after he had read it, he 
shewed me, saying, he admired the diligence and perseverance of 
Kamakau, who, with but little instruction, had learned to write very 
well. "This letter writing," added the governor, "is a very good 
thing." 

It also appears to them a most surprising art, which, till they saw 
what had been acquired by the natives of the southern, islands, they 
imagined could never be attained by persons in their circumstances. 

Supposing it beyond the powers of man to invent the plan, of com 
municating words by marks on paper, they have sometimes asked 
us, if, in the first instance, the knowledge of it were not com 
municated to mankind by God himself. 

HAWAIIAN MARRIAGE CUSTOMS. 

In the governor's family is an interesting girl, who is called his 
daughter, and has been spoken of as the future consort of the young 
prince Kauikeouli, instead of Nahienaena his sister. 

Marriage contracts in the Sandwich Islands are usually concluded 
by the parents or relations of both parties, or by the man and the 
parents or friends of the woman. 

We are not aware that the parents of the woman receive any 
thing from the husband, or give any dowry with the wife. Their 
ceremonies on the occasion are very few, and chiefly consist in the 
bridegroom's easting a piece of tapa or native cloth over the bride, 
in the presence of her parents or relations. Feasting is general, 
and the friends of both parties contribute towards furnishing the 
entertainment. 



329 

The marriage tie is loose, and the husband can dismiss Ms wife 
on any occasion. 

MORE MALES THAN FEMALES DUE TO INFANTICIDE. 

The number of males is much greater than that of females in 
all the islands, in consequence of the girls being more frequently 
destroyed in infancy, as less useful than the males for purposes of 
war, fishing, &c. We do not know the exact proportion here; but 
in the Society Islands, in all our early schools, the proportion of 
girls to boys was as three to four, or four to five, though since the 
abolition of infanticide the numbers are equal. 

Polygamy is allowed among all ranks, but practised only by the 
chiefs, whose means enable them to maintain a plurality of wives. 

Among the higher ranks, marriage seems to be conducted on prin 
ciples of political expediency, with a view to strengthen alliances 
and family influence j and among the reigning family, brothers and 
sisters marry. 

INTER-MARRIAGE OF RELATIVES. 

This custom, so revolting to every idea of moral propriety, that 
the mind is shocked at the thought of its existence, appears to have 
been long in use; and very recently a marriage was proposed at 
Maui, between the young prince and princess, both children of the 
same parents; a council of chiefs was held on the subject, and all 
were favourable. 

The opinion of the missionaries there was asked. The chiefs 
assigned as a reason, that being the highest chiefs in the islands, 
they could not marry any others who were their equals, and ought 
not to form alliances with inferiors, as it was desirable that the 
supreme rank they held should descend to their posterity. 

They were told that such marriages were forbidden in the word 
of God, were held in abhorence- by all civilized and Christian nations, 
and had seldom boon known to leave any descendants to wear the 
honour or sustain the rank the contracting parties desired thus to 
perpetuate. 

MARRIA0B OF RELATIVES CHILDLESS. 

Several of the chiefs present made no profession of Christianity, 
and consequently were uninfluenced by some of the remarks, but the 
concluding observation appeared of importance to them all. 

They said they thought there was some truth in it; that the late 
king Tamehamoha, father of Bihoriho, had several wives, who were 
Ms near relations, and even. Ms daughter-in-law, yet left no children, 
except those of whom Keopuolani was the mother, and who, though a 
sacred chief of higher rank than her husband, was the grand- 



330 

daughter of a princess of another island, and distantly connected 
with his family, and that the same was the case with Rihoriho. 

The marriage was postponed; and it appears the opinion of the 
chiefs in general, that it ought not to take place. 

The individuals themselves are entirely passive in the affair; and 
we view it as a happy circumstance, subversive of an evil custom, 
and tending to produce moral feelings highly advantageous, and 
illustrative of the collateral advantages arising from the influence 
of Christian missionaries. 

FOREIGNERS IN HAWAII PRIOR TO CAPTAIN COOK. 

An interesting conversation took place this evening, relative to 
the first visits the islanders received from foreigners. 

The possession of pieces of iron, particularly one supposed to be 
the point of a broad sword, by the natives of Tauai, (Atooi,) when 
discovered by Captain Cook, induced some of his companions to 
think they were not the first European visitors to the islands. "We 
have endeavoured to ascertain, by inquiring of the most intelligent 
of the natives, whether or no this was the fact. 

They have three accounts of foreigners arriving at Hawaii prior 
to Captain Cook. The first was the priest, Paao, who landed at 
Kohala, and to whom the priests of that neighbourhood traced their 
genealogy until very recently. Of this priest some account is given 
in a preceding chapter. 

WHITE MEN ON HAWAII. 

The second account states, that during the lifetime of Opiri, the 
son of Paao, a number of foreigners (white men) arrived at Hawaii, 
landed somewhere in the south-west part of the island, and repaired 
to the mountains, where they took up their abode. The natives 
regarded them with a superstitious curiosity and dread, and knew 
not whether to consider them as gods or men. 

Opiri was sent for by the king of that part of the island where 
they were residing, and consulted as to the conduct to be observed 
towards them. 

According to his advice, a large present of provisions was cooked 
and carried to them. Opiri led the procession, accompanied by 
several men, each carrying a bamboo cane, with a piece of white 
native cloth tied to the end of it. 

When the strangers saw them approaching their retreat, they came 
out to meet them. The natives placed the baked pigs and potatoes, 
&c. on the grass, fixed their white banners in the ground, and then 
retreated a few paces. The foreigners approached. Opiri addressed 
them. They answered, received the presents, and afterwards con 
versed with the people through the medium of Opiri. The facility 



331 

with wMcli they could communicate their thoughts by means of Opiri, 
the governor said, was attributed to the supposed influence of Opiri 
with his gods. 

The foreigners they imagined were supernatural beings, and as 
such were treated with every possible mark of respect. 

After remaining some time on the island, they returned to their 
own country. 

No account is preserved of the kind of vessel in which they 
arrived or departed. 

The name of the principal person among them was Manahini; 
and it is a singular fact, that in the Marquesian, Society, and 
Sandwich Islands, the term manahini is still employed to designate 
a stranger, visitor, or guest. 

FOBEIG-NEBS AT KEALAKEKUA. 

The third account is much more recent and precise, though the 
period at which it took place is uncertain. 

It states that a number of years after the departure of Mana- 
hini-ma, (Manahini and his party,) in the reign of Kahoukapu, 
king at Kaavaroa, seven foreigners arrived at Kearake'kua bay, 
the spot where Captain Cook subsequently landed. They came in a 
painted boat, with an awning or canopy over the stern, but without 
mast or sails. They were all dressed; the colour of their clothes 
was white or yellow, and one of them wore a pahi, long knife, the 
name by which they still call a sword, at his side, and had a feather 
in his hat. The natives received them kindly. They married native 
women, were made chiefs, proved themselves warriors, and ultimately 
became very powerful in the island of Hawaii, which, it is said, 
was for some time governed by them. 

"EIIUS," SUPPOSED DESCENDANTS OF FOBEIG-NEES. 

.There are in the Sandwich Islands a number of persons distin 
guished by a lighter colour in their skin, and corresponding brown 
curly hair, called ehu, who are, by all the natives of the islands, 
considered as the descendants of these foreigners, who acknowledge 
themselves to be such, and esteem their origin by no means dis 
honourable. 

OTHEB TRADITIONS OF FOBEIGN ABBIVALS. 

Another party is said to have afterwards arrived at the same 
place, but the accounts the natives give of their landing are not 
very distinct; and we feel undecided whether there were two distinct 
parties, or only two different accounts of the same event. 

In addition to these, they have a tradition of some white men, 
called Kea, who lived wild in the mountains, occasionally coming 



332 

down to the streams, or towards the sea-shore, in an evening, much 
to the terror of the natives, particularly the females. 

We have heard from, one of the chiefs of Hawaii, that there is a 
tradition, of a ship having touched at the island of Maui prior to 
the arrival of Captain Cook; "but, with the exception of this chief, 
all the natives we have conversed with on the subject, and we have 
conversed with many, declare that they had no idea of a ship 
before Captain Cook was seen off Tauai. The ship they called 
motu, an island, probably supposing it was an island, with all its 
inhabitants. 

{Marvellous reports respecting the ships and people were circulated 
through the islands, between the first discovery of Tauai and the 
return of the vessels from the 1ST. W. coast of America. Aa mo, 
(skin of lizard's egg,) a native of Tauai, who was on board one 
of the ships, procured a piece of canvas, about a yard and a half 
long, which Tiha, king of Tauai, sent as a present to Poriorani, 
king of Oahu. He gave it to his queen Opuhani, by whom it was 
worn on the most conspicuous part of her dress in a public proces 
sion, and attracted more attention than any thing else. The piece 
of cloth was called Aa mo, after the man who had the honour of 
bringing it from the ships. 

The most unaccountable circumstance connected with the priest 
Paao, is his arriving alone, though he might be the only survivor 
of his party. If such a person ever did arrive, we should think he 
was a Eoman Catholic priest, and that reported gods an image and 
a crucifix. 

The different parties that subsequently arrived were probably, if 
any inference may be drawn from the accounts of the natives, 
survivors of the crew of some Spanish ship wrecked in the neigh 
bourhood, perhaps on the numerous reefs to the north-west; or 
they might have been culprits committed by their countrymen to 
the mercy of the waves. 

The circumstance of the first party leaving the island in the 
same boat in which they arrived, would lead us to suppose they 
had been wrecked, and had escaped in their boat, or had con 
structed a bark out of the wreck of their ship, as has subse 
quently been the case with two vessels wrecked in the vicinity of 
these islands. 

It is possible that one or other of the islands might have been 
seen by some Spanish ship passing between Acapulco and Manila; 
but it is not probable that they were ever visited by any of these 
ships. 

An event so interesting to the people would not have been left out 
of their traditions, which contain many things much less important; 
and, had the Spaniards discovered them, however jealous they might 



333 

be of such a discovery becoming known to other nations, that jealousy- 
would not have prevented their availing themselves of the facilities 
which the islands afforded for refitting or recruiting their vessels, 
which must frequently have been most desirable during the period 
their ships were accustomed to traverse these seas. 

These accounts, but particularly the latter, are generally known, 
and have been related by different persons at distant places. All 
agree respecting the boat, clothing, sword, &c. of the party who 
arrived at Kearake'kua. 

Among others, the late king Eihoriho gave us a detailed account 
of their landing, &c. only a short time before he embarked for 
England. W.o feel but little doubt of the fact; but the country 
whence they came, the place whither they were bound, the occasion 
of their visit, and a variety of interesting particulars connected 
therewith, will probably remain undiscovered. 

PREACHING- ABOUT NOAH AND THE FLOOD 

The 31st was the Sabbath. The stillness of every thing around, 
the decent apparel of those who were seen passing and repassing, 
together with the numbers of canoes all drawn up on the beach, 
under the shade of the cocoa-nut or kou trees, combined to mark the 
return of the la tabu, or sacred day. 

As unusual number attended family prayers at the governor's 
house in the morning; and at half -past ten the bell was rung for 
public worship. About 800 people assembled under the ranai, and 
I preached to them from Hob. xi. 7. And after a succinct account 
of the deluge, I endeavoured to exhibit the advantages of faith, 
and the consequences of wickedness and unbelief, as illustrated in 
the salvation of Noah, and the destruction of the rest of mankind. 

HAWAIIAN TRADITION OF THE FLOOD. 

After the conclusion of the service, several persons present re 
quested me to remain till they had made some inquiries respecting 
the deluge, Noah, &c. 

They said they were informed "by their fathers, that all the land 
had once been overflowed by the sea, except a small peak on the 
top of Mouna-Kea, whore two human beings were preserved from 
the destruction that overtook the rest, but they said they had never 
before heard of a ship, or of Noah, having always been accustomed 
to call it the kai a Kahinarii, (sea of Kahinarii.) After conversing 
with them some time, I returned to the governor's. 

DISCUSSION "WITH GOVERNOR CONCERNING THE FLOOD. 

The afternoon was principally employed in conversation with him 
on tho flood, and the repeopling of the earth by the descendants 
of Noah. 



334 

The governor seemed to doubt whether it were possible that the 
Hawahans could be the descendants of Noah; but said, he thought 
their progenitors must have been created on the islands. 

I told him the account in the bible had every evidence that could 
be wished to support it; referred him to his own traditions, not only 
of Hawaii's having been peopled by persons who came in canoes 
from a foreign country, but of their having in their turn visited 
other islands, and planted colonies, as in the days of Kamapiikai; 
the superiority of their war canoes in former days; the resemblance 
in manners, customs, traditions, and language, between themselves 
and other islanders in the Pacific, many thousand miles distant. 

The longevity of mankind in the days of Noah, also surprised 
him. Comparing it with the period of human life at the present 
time, he said, * ' By and by men will not live more than forty years. ' ' 

DISCUSSION WITH KUAKINI CONCERNING THE FLOOD. 

At half-past four in the afternoon the bell rang again, and the 
people collected in numbers about equal to those who attended in the 
morning. I preached to them from the words, "Be not weary in 
well-doing, for in due season ye shall reap, if ye faint not." Their 
attention was encouraging. 

Numbers thronged the governor's house at evening worship. The 
conversation afterwards turned upon the identity of the body at the 
resurrection, and the reward of the righteous in heaven. The governor 
asked if people would know each other in heaven; and when answered 
in the affirmative, said, he thought Christian relations would be 
very happy when they met there. 

Some who were present asked, "If there is no eating and drinking, 
or wearing of clothes, in heaven, wherein does its goodness consist?" 
This was a natural question for a Hawaiian to ask, who never had 
an idea of happiness except in the gratification of his natural appe 
tites and feelings. 

In answer to the question, they were, however, informed, that the 
joys of heaven were intellectual and spiritual, and would infinitely 
exceed, both in their nature and duration, every earthly enjoyment. 

At a late hour I took leave of the governor and his family, thank 
ing him, at the same time, for the hospitable entertainment we had 
received, and the great facilities he had afforded for accomplishing 
the objects of our visit. 

TRIP FROM KAILUA TO KAWAIHAE AND LAHAINA. 

About three o'clock in the morning, being awoke by the shouts of 
the men who were heaving up the anchor of the pilot-boat, I repaired 
on board, and immediately afterwards we sailed with a gentle breeze 
blowing from the land. The wind was light and baffling, and it was 



335 

noon before we reached Towaihae, where I learned with disappoint 
ment that the Nio had sailed to Oahu. On landing, I was welcomed 
by Mr. Young, with whom I remained till the pilot-boat was ready 
to sail for Lahaina. 

Late in the evening of the 2nd of September, after preaching to 
the people of the place at Mr. Young's house, I went again on board 
the pilot-boat, but found her so full of sandal wood, that there was 
not room for any person below, while the decks were crowded with 
natives. The weather was unfavourable for getting under way till 
nearly daylight; and every person on board was completely drenched 
by the heavy rain that fell during the night. 

During the forenoon of the 3d, we drifted slowly to the north 
ward, and about noon took in 800 dried fish, after which we made 
sail for Maui. The weather was warm, the wind light; and all on 
board being obliged to keep on deck, without any skreen or shade 
from the scorching rays of a vertical sun, the, situation was very 
uncomfortable. At three p. m. we took the channel breeze, which 
soon wafted us across to the S. B. part of Maui. 

As the shores of Hawaii receded from my view, a variety of 
reflections insensibly arose in my mind. The tour which, in the 
society of my companions, I had made, had been replete with in 
terest. The varied and sublime phenomena of nature had elevated 
our conceptions of "nature's God;" the manners and customs of the 
inhabitants had increased our interest in their welfare; while their 
superstition, moral degradation, ignorance, and vice, had called forth 
our sincorest commiseration. 

We had made known the nature and consequences of sin; spoken 
of the love of God; and had exhibited the Lord Jesus Christ as the 
only Saviour, the multitudes who had never before heard his name, 
or been directed to worship the holy and living G-od, and who would 
probably never hoar these truths again. We cherish the hope, that, 
under the divine blessing, lasting good will result, even from this 
transient visit 

Many of the individuals we have met on these occasions, we shall 
in all probability meet no more till the morning of the resurrection. 
May WG meet them then on the right hand of the Son of God! 

NATIVES SWIM ASHOBE AT LAHAINA 

At sun-sot we arrived off Molokai, but were shortly after becalmed. 
The current, however, was in our favour through the night, and at 
daylight on the 4th we found ourselves off the east end of the district 
of Lahaina, and about a mile distant from the shore. 

Many of the natives jumped into the sea, and swam to the beach, 
holding thoir clothes above their heads with one hand, and swim 
ming with the other. 



336 

About ten a. m. a canoe came alongside, in which I went on shore, 
where I was welcomed by the mission family, and by Mr. Bingham, 
who was there on a visit. Soon after I had landed, Karaimoku 
arrived from Oahu, by whom I learned that Mrs. Ellis, though very 
ill, was better than she had been at some periods since my departure. 

CHIEFS PRAY FOR RECOVERY OF KEOPUOLANI. 

I waited on Keopuolani, the king's mother, whom I found ill; 
Karaimoku, Kaahumanu, Kalakua, and several other chiefs, were 
reclining around her, weeping. After some time, Karaimo-ku pro 
posed that they should unitedly pray for her recovery, and his 
proposal was acceded to. 

At four p. m. a corpse was brought to the place of worship, and, 
previously to its being interred, I gave an exhortation to- a multitude 
of people. 

Towards evening, I visited the governor of the island, and also the 
king, who was then at Maui. The subsequent voyage of the latter to 
Great Britain, accompanied by his queen, and the melancholy event 
which terminated their lives while in London, excited considerable 
interest, and will probably be considered sufficient apology 'for a 
short account of them, although the event took place after my visit 
to Maui at this time. 

BIOGRAPHY OF KAMEHAMEHA II. 

The late king of the Sandwich Islands was the son of Tameha- 
meha, former king, and Keopuolani, daughter of Kauikeouli and 
Kakuiapoiwa. He was born in the eastern part of Hawaii, in the 
year 1795 or 1796. 

The name by which he was generally known was Bihoriho, which 
was only a contraction of Kalaninuirihoriho, literally, the heavens 
great black from Ka lani, the heavens, nui, great, and rihoriho, 
applied to any thing burnt to- blackness. 

On public occasions, ho was sometimes called Tamehameha, after 
his father, though names are not always hereditary Besides these, 
he had a variety of other names, the most common of which was 
lolani. The word lani, heaven or sky, formed a component part 
in the name of most chiefs of distinction. The following is a fac 
simile of the official signature of the late king. 

SIGNATURE OF KAMEHAMEHA II. 




337 

The early habits of Rihoriho did not warrant any great expecta 
tions. His natural disposition was frank, and humane. The natives 
always spoke of him as good-natured, except when he was under the 
influence of ardent spirits; his manners were perfectly free, at the 
same time dignified, and always agreeable to those who were about 
him. 

His mind was naturally inquisitive. The questions he usually 
presented to foreigners were by no means trifling; and his memory 
was retentive. 

KAMEHAMEHA II A "WELL-INFORMED MAN. 

His general knowledge of the world was much greater than could 
have been expected. I have heard Mm entertain a party of chiefs 
for hours together, with accounts of different parts of the earth, 
describing the extensive lakes, the mountains, and mines of North 
and South America; the elephants and inhabitants of India; the 
houses, manufactures, &e. of England, with no small accuracy, con 
sidering he had never seen them. 

He had a great thirst for knowledge, and was diligent in his 
studies. I recollect his remarking one day, when he opened his 
writing desk, that he expected more advantage from that desk than 
from a fine brig belonging to him, lying at anchor opposite the house 
in which we were sitting. 

KAMEHAMEHA II A STUDIOUS MAN. 

Mr. Bingham and myself were his daily teachers, and have often 
been surprised at his unwearied perseverance. I have sat beside 
him at Ms desk sometimes from nine or ten o'clock in the morning, 
till nearly sun-sot, during which period his pen or his book has not 
been out of his hand more than three-quarters of an hour, while he 
was at dinner. 

We do not know that Christianity exerted any decisive influence 
on his heart. He was willing to receive the missionaries on their 
first arrival availed himself of their knowledge to increase his own 
and, during the latter years of his life, was decidedly favourable 
to their object; declared his conviction of the truth of Christianity; 
attended public worship himself on the Sabbath, and recommended 
the same to his people. 

ANALYSIS OF CHARACTER OF KAMEHAMEHA II. 

His moral character was not marked by that cruelty, rapacity, 
and insensibility to the sufferings of the people, which frequently 
distinguish the arbitrary chiefs of uncivilized nations. 

He appears in general to have been kind; and, in several places on 
our tour, the mothers shewed us their children, and told us, that 

22 



338 

when Rihoriho passed that way, he had kissed them, a condescen 
sion, they seemed to think much of, and which they will probably 
remember to the end of their days. 

But though generous in his disposition, and humane in his conduct 
towards his suboeets, he was addicted to intoxication; whether from 
natural inclination, or the influence and example of others, is not 
now to be determined; frequently, to my own knowledge, it has been 
entirely from the latter. 

MOTIVES FOE VISITING ENGLAND. 

Had he in early life been privileged to associate with individuals 
whose conduct and principles were favourable to virtue and religion, 
there is every reason to suppose his moral character, with respect 
at least to this vice, would have been as irreproachable as his mental 
habits were commendable. But, alas for him I it was quite the reverse. 

Though not distinguished by the ardour and strength of character 
BO conspicuous in his father, he possessed both decision and enter 
prise: the abolition of the national idolatry waa a striking instance 
of the former; and his voyage to England, of the latter. 

The motives by v^hich he was induced to undertake a voyage so 
long and hazardous were highly commendable. They were, a desire 
to see, for himself, countries of which he had heard such various and 
interesting accounts a wish to have a personal interview with his 
majesty the king of Great Britain, or the chief members of the 
British government, for the purpose of confirming the cession of the 
Sandwich Islands, and placing himself and his dominions under 
British protection. 

It was also his intention to make himself acquainted with tho 
tenor and forms of administering justice in the courts of law the 
principles of commerce and other subjects, important to the welfare 
of the islands. 

The melancholy death of the king and queen, which took place 
shortly after their arrival in England, not only prevented the full 
accomplishment of these desirable objects, but awakened very gen 
erally a degree of apprehension that the people of the islands, un 
acquainted with the true circumstances of their death, would be led 
to suppose they had been neglected, unkindly treated, or even 
poisoned in revenge of the death of Captain Cook, and that the 
feelings of friendship with which they had been accustomed to regard 
the people of England, might be followed by enmity or distrust. 

TREATMENT OF KAMEHAMJSHA II IN ENGLAND, 

The fears of those who felt interested in the welfare of the Ha- 
waiians, though natural, were groundless. The British government 
had entertained the young ruler of the Sandwich Islands., his consort 



339 

and attendants, with, its accustomed hospitality; and when they 
were attacked by diseases incident to a northern climate, but un 
known in their native islands, every attention that humanity could 
suggest, and every alleviation that the first medical skill in London 
could afford, was most promptly rendered. 

After their decease, the highest respect was paid to their remains, 
and, in honourable regard to the feelings of the nation who had 
suffered this painful bereavement, a British frigate, under the 
command of Captain Lord Byron, was appointed to convey to the 
Sandwich Islands the bodies of the king and queen, that their sor 
rowing people might have the mournful satisfaction of depositing 
their ashes among the tombs of their ancestors. 

By the return of a highly esteemed missionary friend, Bev. C. S. 
Stewart, I have learned that the Blonde reached the islands in the 
month of May, 1825: the natives were in some degree prepared 
for the arrival, by the intelligence of the death of their king and 
queen, which they had received about two months before from 
Valparaiso. 

RETURN TO HAWAII OF BODIES OF KING AND QUEEN. 

Shortly after the vessel having the remains of the king and queen 
on board had anchored off Oahu, Boki, the principal chief, who had 
accompanied the king to England, attended by those of his country 
men who had also returned, proceeded on shore: on landing, he was 
met by his elder brother Kairaimoku, and other distinguished chiefs, 
and after the first emotions of joy at meeting again, and sorrow on 
account of the loss all had sustained, were somewhat abated, the 
survivors and thoir friends walked in solemn and mournful procession 
to the place of worship, where thanksgivings were presented to God, 
for the merciful preservation of those who were thus privileged to 
meet again, and supplications were made that the afflicting dispensa 
tion, which all so deeply felt, might exert a salutary influence in 
the minds of the surviving chiefs, and the sorrowing nation at large. 

Karaimoku, tho late prime minister, and present regent of the 
islands, then arose, and said, ""We have lost our king and queen, 
they have died in a foreign land; we shall see them no more; it is 
right that wo should weep, but let us not entertain hard thoughts 
of God. God has not done wrong. The evil is with us, let us bow- 
under his hand; lot all amusement eoase; let our daily avocations be 
suspended; and lot the nation, by prayer, and a cessation from 
ordinary pursuits, humble itself before God fourteen days." 

REPORT BY BOKI OF INTERVIEW WITH BRITISH KING-. 

Before the assembly separated, Boki stood up, and, in a brief out 
line of the voyage, narrated the most prominent events that had 



340 

transpired since his departure from tlie islands, calling their at 
tention in particular to the suitable and important advice he had 
received from his majesty the king of Gbreat Britain, in an audience 
with which he was graciously favoured: viz. To return to his native 
country, attend to general and religious instruction himself, and 
endeavour to enlighten and reform the people. 

The peculiar circumstances of the people at this time, the in 
creased satisfaction they had for some time felt in attending every 
means of instruction within their reach, and the pleasing change in 
favour of religion, which many had experienced, rendered this 
recommendation, so congenial to their feelings, from a source so 
distinguished, unusually acceptable. 

A deep and favourable impression was produced on all present, a 
new impulse was given to the means already employed for the in* 
struction and improvement of the people, from which most advan 
tageous results have already appeared. 

They were also made acquainted by Bold and his companions with 
the kind reception, generous treatment, and marked attentions, 
which the late king and queen and their suite had received while in 
England. This intelligence, communicated by those whose testimony 
would be received with the most entire credence, would at once 
confirm the attachment and confidence they have so long felt towards 
England. 

3S"o disturbance of the general tranquillity, nor change in the gov 
ernment of the islands, has resulted from this event. 

SUCCESSION" TO THRONE BY KAMEHAMEHA III. 

Eihoriho left a younger brother, Kauikeouli, about ten years of age, 
who is acknowledged by the chiefs as Ms successor. A regency will 
govern during his minority, and the executive authority will probably 
continue to be exercised by Karaimoku, and the other chiefs with 
whom Bihoriho left it when he embarked for England. 

ANALYSIS OF CHABACTER OF KAMEHAMARU, BIHOBIHO'S QUEEN. 

The queen, who accompanied him, and who died at the same time, 
has left a fond mother and an affectionate people to lament her 
loss: she was the daughter of Tamehameha and Kalakua, and was 
born about the year 1797 or 1798, being two years younger than 
Bihoriho, and about twenty-six years of age when she left the 
islands. 

Like aE the persons of distinction, she had many names, but that 
by which she was generally known, was Kamohamaru, (shade of 
Kameha,) from kameha, a contraction of her father's name, and 
maru, shade. She was distinguished for good-nature, and was much 
beloved by all her subjects. 



The poor people, when unable to pay their rent, or under the 
displeasure of the king and chiefs, or embarrassed on any other 
account, frequently repaired to her, and found a friend whose aid 
was never refused. 

She was also kind to those foreigners who might be distressed in 
the islands; and though she never harboured any, or countenanced 
their absconding from their ships, she has often fed them when 
hungry, and given them native tapa for clothing. 

Kamehamaru was at all times lively and agreeable in company; 
and though her application to her book and her pen was equal to 
that of the king, her improvement in learning was more gradual, 
and her general knowledge less extensive. 

BECAME STRONG- SUPPORTER OF CHRISTIANITY. 

She excelled, however, in the management of his domestic affairs, 
which were conducted by her with great judgment and address; and 
though formerly accustomed to use ardent spirits, from the time 
she put herself under Christian instruction, she entirely discon 
tinued that, and every other practice inconsistent with her profession 
of Christianity. Her attendance on the duties of religion was main 
tained with commendable regularity. 

Her influence contributed very materially to the pleasing change 
that has recently taken place, in connexion with the labours of the 
missionaries in the islands. Por the instruction and moral improve 
ment of the people, she manifested no ordinary concern. 

'Long before many of the leading chiefs were favourable to the 
instruction of the people, or their reception of Christianity, Ka- 
mehamaru on every suitable occasion recommended her own servants 
to serve Jehovah the living G-od, and attend to every means of 
improvement within their reach. 

It was truly pleasing to observe, so soon after she had embraced 
Christianity herself, an anxiety to induce her people to follow her 
example. 

ESTABLISHED A SCHOOL IN HONOLULU 

(At Honoruru she erected a school in which upwards of forty 
children and young persons, principally connected with her estab 
lishment, were daily taught to read and write, and instructed in 
the first principles of religion, by a native teacher whom she almost 
entirely supported. 

In this school she took a lively interest, and marked the progress 
of the scholars with evident satisfaction; in order to encourage the 
pupils, she frequently visited the school during the hours of in 
struction, accompanied by a number of chief women. She also 



342 

attended the public examinations, and noticed those who on these 
occasions excelled, frequently presenting a favourite scholar with a 
slate, a copy-book, pencil, pen, or some other token of her approbation. 

In her death the missionaries have lost a sincere friend, and her 
subjects a queen, who always delighted to alleviate their distresses 
and promote their interests. 

;Her disposition was affectionate. I have seen her and the king 
sitting beside the couch of Keopuolani, her mother-in-law, day after 
day, when the latter has been ill; and on these occasions, though 
there might be several servants in constant attendance, she would 
allow no individual but her husband or herself to hand to the patient 
any thing she might want, or even fan the flies from her person. 

INCIDENTS UPON HER DEPARTURE FOR ENGLAND. 

The circumstances attending her departure from the islands were 
peculiarly affecting. The king had gone on board the L'Aigle; the 
boat was waiting to convey her to the ship. She arose from the 
mat on which she had been reclining, embraced her mother and 
other relations most affectionately, and passed through the crowd 
towards the boat. The people fell down on their knees as she walked 
along pressing and saluting her feet, frequently bathing them with 
tears of unfeigned sorrow, and making loud wailings, in which they 
were joined by the thousands who thronged the shore. 

On reaching the water side, she turned, and beckoned to the people 
to cease their cries. As soon as they were silent, she said, ''I am 
going to a distant land, and perhaps we shall not meet again. Let 
us pray to Jehovah, that he may preserve xis on the water, and you 
on the shore." 

She then, called Auna, a native teacher from the Society Islands, 
and requested him to pray. He did so; at the conclusion, she waved 
her hand to the people, and said, "Aroha nui oukou:" (Attachment 
great to you:) she then stepped into the boat, evidently much 
affected. 

The multitude followed her, not only to the beach, but into the 
sea, where many, wading into the water, stood waving their hands, 
exhibiting every attitude of sorrow, and uttering their loud u el 
u el (alas! alas!) till the boat had pulled far out to sea. 

INCIDENTS IN ENG-LAND. 

The death of the king and queen, so soon after their arrival in 
England, was an event in many respects deeply to be deplored. 

The officers of the London Missionary Society were unable to 
gain access to them until they should have been introduced to Ms 
majesty; and one of them, I believe the king, died on the very day 
on which that introduction was to have taken place. 



343 

The same circumstance also prevented many Christian friends,* who 
felt interested in their welfare, from that intercourse with them 
which, under the blessing of God, might have been expected to have 
strengthened the religious impressions they had received from the 
instructions of the missionaries. 

In their visit to England they were accompanied by a suite, which, 
though much less numerous than that which invariably attended 
their movements in their native islands, included nevertheless several 
individuals of rank and influence. 

THE KING'S SUITE ON VISIT TO ENGLAND. 

Among the principal of these was Bold, the governor of the island 
of Oahu, and Liliha his wife; Kauruheimarama, a distant relation 
of the king's; Kakuanaoa and Kapihe, two of his favourite com 
panions; the latter of whom was a man of an amiable disposition, 
and, considering the circumstances under which he had been brought 
up, possessed general intelligence. He had made a voyage to Canton, 
in China, for the purpose of acquiring mercantile information; and 
from the circumstance of his commanding the finest vessel belonging 
to the king, a brig of about ninety tons burden, called the Haaheo 
Hawaii, (Pride of Hawaii,) he was sometimes called the Admiral, 
although that is an office to which there is nothing analogous in the 
present maritime system of the Hawaiians. 

With this individual, who died at Valparaiso on his return to the 
islands, and the others who survived the death of the king, particu 
larly with Bold, the officers of the London Missionary Society had 
several interviews, and received the strongest assurances of their 
continued patronage and support of the Christian mission established 
in the Sandwich Islands. Many benevolent individuals had also an 
opportunity of testifying the deep interest they felt in the civil, 
moral, and religious improvement of their countrymen. 

While they were at Portsmouth, the late venerable Dr. Bogue, 
tutor of the Missionary Seminary at Gosport, accompanied by several 
Christian friends, visited Bold and his companions, expressed his 
hopes that no unfavourable results would follow their visit to Great 
Britain, and offered up his prayers that God would preserve them, 
and bloss their return to their native islands. 

BOKI'S ATTITUDE TOWARD CHRISTIANITY. 

Boki, together with his elder brother Karaimoku, had invariably 
manifested his friendship towards the missionaries, by countenancing 
every effort to enlighten the people; and, before he left the islands 
to accompany his sovereign, we had reason to hope that his own 
mind had received favourable impressions of that system of religion 



344 

which, it had been our object to unfold; but we were not without 
serious apprehensions that his visit to England might considerably 
weaken, if not altogether obliterate, those religious impressions, and 
originate others of a character totally different. 

In this respect, however, we have been most agreeably disappointed. 
The death of the Mng and queen appears to have produced a salutary 
effect on his mind,* and, by letters recently received from the islands, 
I have been gratified to learn, that, since his return, he has taken 
a most decided stand in favour of Christianity, and has given evi 
dence of its influence on his heart so uniform and satisfactory, that 
he has been admitted a member of the Christian church in Oahu, and 
in the general tenour of his conduct exhibits to his countrymen an 
example worthy of their imitation, materially contributing to the 
advancement of civilization, education, and Christianity, throughout 
the islands. 

ATTITUDE OF CHIEFS TOWARD CHRISTIANITY. 

It is a pleasing fact, in connexion with the present circumstances 
of the nation, that not only Boki and his brother, the present regent, 
but almost every chief of rank and influence in the Sandwich Islands, 
are favourably disposed towards the instruction of the natives, and 
the promulgation of the gospel. 

A deep sense of the kindness of the late Dr. Bogue and his friends, 
by whom they were visited at Portsmouth, appears to have re 
mained on the minds of the Hawaiian chiefs long after their return 
to their native land; for when the Bev. C. S. Stewart, an American 
missionary, was about to leave the Sandwich Islands for Great 
Britain, Boki gave Mm a special charge to present his grateful 
regards to the Bishop of Portsmouth. Mr. S. told him he was not 
aware that there was such a dignitary; but Boki said, Yes, there 
was, for he visited him, with some of his friends, when they were 
on the point of sailing from England. Those who were acquainted 
with the venerable form and apostolic address of the late Dr. Bogue, 
will not be surprised at the mistake of the Sandwich chief, in his 
supposing he must be the Bishop of Portsmouth. 

A LETTER FROM BOKI 

Among the letters I was favoured to receive from the islands by 
the return of his majesty's ship Blonde, those from Boki and Liliha, 
or, as she was frequently called while in England, Madam Boki, 
were of a character so interesting, that I think I shall be pardoned 
for inserting one of them. It is from Boki, the chief who was with, 
the king in London. I shall translate it very literally. 



345 

"Calm. The first of the Twins is the month (answering to our 
October,) 1825. 

"Affection for you, Mr. Ellis, and sympathy with you, Mrs. Ellis, 
in your illness. This is my entreaty: Return you hither, and we 
shall be right. Grief was ours on your returning. Heard before 
this have you of the death of the king: but all things here are correct. 
We are serving God': we are making ourselves strong in His word. 
Turned have the chiefs to instruction: their desire is towards God. 
I speak unto them, and encourage them concerning the word of God, 
that it may be well with our land. 

"Attachment to you two, attachment to the 
Ministers, and the Missionaries all. 

"CAPTAIN BOKI." 

MR ELLIS RETURNS TO HONOLULU 

At ten o'clock in the forenoon, of the 9th, I took leave of my 
kind friends at Lahaina, and, in company with Messrs. Bingham 
and Richards, went on board the Tamahorolani, bound to Oahu. It 
was, however, four o'clock in the afternoon before the vessel hove 
up her anchor. We were becalmed till nine in the evening, when a 
fresh breeze sprung up; we passed down the channel between Mo- 
rokai and Banai; and between nine and ten in the forenoon of the 
10th, arrived ofT the harbour of Honoruru. 

On landing, I was grateful to meet my family in health and com 
fort, except Mrs. Ellis, who was confined by severe indisposition. I 
united with Messrs. Thurston, Bishop, and Goodrich, who had pre 
viously arrived, in grateful acknowledgments to God for the un* 
remitted care and distinguishing goodness which we had enjoyed in 
accomplishing the interesting tour, from which, under circumstances 
of no small mercy, we had now returned. 



APPENDIX. 



BEMABKS ON THE HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE. 

HAWAIIAN BOOK CARVINGS. 

In the course of our tour around Hawaii, we met with a few speci 
mens of what may perhaps be termed the first efforts of an uncivilized 
people towards the construction of a language of symbols. 

Along the southern coast, both on the east and west sides, we 
frequently saw a number of straight lines, semicircles, or concentric 
rings, with some rude imitations of the human figure, cut or carved 
in the compact rocks of lava. They did not appear to have been cut 
with an iron instrument, but with a stone hatchet, or a stone less 
frangible than the rock on which they were portrayed. 

On inquiry, we found that they had been made by former travellers, 
from a motive similar to that which induces a person to carve his 
initials on a stone or tree, or a traveller to record Ms name in an 
album, to inform his successors that he has been there. 

When there were a number of concentric circles with a dot or mark 
in the centre, the dot signified a man, and the number of rings de 
noted the number in the party who had circumambulated the island. 

When there was a ring, and a number of marks, it denoted the 
same; the number of marks shewing of how many the party consisted; 
and the ring, that they had travelled completely round the island; but 
when there was only a semicircle, it denoted that they had returned 
after reaching the place where it was made. 

In some of the islands we have seen the outline of a fish portrayed 
in the same manner, to denote that one of that species or size had 
been taken near the spot; sometimes the dimensions of an exceed 
ingly large fruit, &e. are marked in the same way. 

NO WRITTEN LANGUAGE IN HAWAII. 

With this slight exception, if such it can be called, the natives 
of the Sandwich and other islands had no signs for sounds or 
ideas, nor any pictorial representation of events. Theirs was entirely 
an oral language; and, whatever view we take of it, presents the 
most interesting phenomenon connected with the inhabitants of the 
Pacific. 

A grammatical analysis would exceed my present limits; a few 
brief remarks, however, will convey some idea of its peculiarities; 
and a copious grammar, prepared by my respected colleagues, the 
American missionaries in those islands, and myself, may perhaps be 
published at no distant period. 



347 
THE POLYNESIAN LANGUAGE. 

The language of tie Hawaiians is a dialect of what the mission 
aries in the South Seas have called the Polynesian language, spoken 
in all the islands which lie to the east of the Friendly Islands, in 
cluding New Zealand and Chatham Island. 

The extent to which it prevails, the degree of perfection it has 
attained, the slight analogy between it and any one known language, 
the insulated situation and the uncivilized character of the people by 
whom it is spoken, prove that, notwithstanding the rude state of 
their society, they have bestowed no small attention to its cultivation, 
and lead to the inference, that it has been for many ages a distinct 
language; while the obscurity that veils its origin, as well as that 
of the people by whom it is used, prevents our forming any satis 
factory conclusion as to the source whence it was derived. 

COMPARISON BETWEEN HAWAIIAN AND MALAYAN. 

The numerals are similar to those of the Malays; and it has many 
words in common with that language, yet the construction of the 
words and the rules of syntax appear different. 

In the specimen of languages spoken in Sumatra, given by Mr. 
Marsden in his history of that island, some words appear in each, 
common in the South Seas; and it is difficult to determine in which 
they preponderate. 

In looking over the Malayan grammar and dictionary by the same 
gentleman, many words appear similar in sound and signification; 
but there are a number of radical words common to all the Polynesian 
languages, as kanaka, man, ao, light, pouri, darkness, po, night, ra 
or la, sun, marama, moon, maitai, good, ino, bad, ai, to eat, and moe, 
to sleep, which, though very nearly the same in all the South Sea 
languages, appear to have no affinity with orang, trang, klam, inalam, 
mataari, and shcms, bulan, baik, buruk, makan, and tidor, words of 
tho same moaning in Malayan; notwithstanding this, there is a 
striking resemblance in others, and a great part of the language was 
doubtless derived from the same source. 

COMPARISON WITH LANGUAG-E OF MADAGASCAR. 

Since my return to England, I have had an opportunity of con 
versing with the Madagasse youth now in this country for the pur 
poses of education, and from them, as well as a vocabulary which 
I have seen, I was surprised to learn, that in several points the 
aboriginal languages of Madagascar and the South Sea Islands are 
strikingly analogous, if not identical, though the islands are about 
10,000 geographical miles distant from each other. 

With tho aboriginal languages of South America we have had 



348 

no opportunity of comparing it; some of the words of that country, 
in their simplicity of construction and vowel terminations, as Peru, 
Quito, pronounced Mto, Parana, Oronoko, &e. appear like Polynesian 
words. 

COMPARISON WITH HEBREW. 

In the Sandwich Islands, as well as the Tahitian language, there 
are a number of words that appear true Hebrew roots, and in the 
conjugation of the verbs there is a striking similarity; the causative 
active and the causative passive being formed by a prefix and suffix 
to the verb. 

In many respects it is unique, and in some defective, but not in 
that degree which might be expected from the limited knowledge of 
the people. 

The simple construction of the words, the predominancy of vowels, 
and the uniform terminations, are its great peculiarities. 

The syllables are in general composed of two letters, and never 
more than three. 

There are no sibilants in the language, nor any double consonants. 

HAWAIIAN SYSTEM. OF PRONUNCIATION. 

Every word and syllable terminates with a vowel; and the natives 
cannot pronounce two consonants without an intervening vowel; 
nor a word terminating with a consonant, without either dropping 
the final letter, or adding a vowel; hence they pronounce Britain, 
Beritania, boat, boti; while there are many words, and even sentences, 
without a consonant, as e i ai oe ia ia ae e ao ia, literally, "speak 
now to him by the side that he learn. " 

The frequent use of the k renders their speech more masculine 
than that of the Tahitians, in which the t predominates. 

The sound of their language is peculiarly soft and harmonious; 
great attention is also paid to euphony, on account of which the 
article is often varied; the same is the case in the Tahitian, in which 
the word tavovovovo, signifies the rolling of thunder. 

A LANGUAGE ADAPTED TO POETRY. 

Each of the dialects appears adapted for poetry, and none more 
so than the Hawaiian, in which the 1 frequently occurs. Whether 
the smoothness of their language induced the natives to cultivate 
metrical composition, or their fondness for the latter has occasioned 
the multiplicity of vowels, and soft flowing arrangement of the sen 
tences, which distinguish their language, it is difficult to conjecture. 

In native poetry, rhyming terminations are neglected, and the 
chief art appears to consist in the compilation of short metrical 
sentences, agreeing in accent and cadence at the conclusion of each, or 
at the end of a certain number of sentences. 



349 

Eude as their native poetry is, they are passionately fond of it. 
When they first "began to learn to read and spell, it was impossible 
for them to repeat a column of spelling, or recite a lesson, without 
chanting or singing it. 

They had one tune for the monosyllables, another for the dissyl 
lables, &e. and we have heard three or four members of a family 
sitting for an hour together in an evening, and reciting their school 
lessons in perfect concord. 

HISTORY PRESERVED IN SONGS. 

Most of the traditions of remarkable events in their history are 
preserved in songs committed to memory, by persons attached to 
the king or chiefs; or strolling musicians., who travel through the 
islands, and recite them on occasions of public festivity. 

The late king had one of these bards attached from infancy to 
his household, who, like some of the ancient bards, was blind, and 
who, when required, would recite a hura (song) on any particular 
event relating to the family of his sovereign. 

The office was hereditary; the songs transmitted from father to 
son; and whatever defects might attach to their performances, con 
sidered as works of art, they were not wanting in effect; being 
highly figurative, and delivered in strains of plaintive sadness, or 
wild enthusiasm, they produced great excitement of feeling. 

Sometimes their interest was local, and respected some particular 
family, but the most popular were the national songs. 

When I first visited the Sandwich Islands, one on the defeat of 
Kekuaokalam, the rival of Rihonho, who was slain in the battle of 
Tuamoo, was in the mouth of almost every native we met; another, 
nearly as popular, was a panegyric on the late king, composed on his 
accession to the government; and soon after his departure for Eng 
land, several bards were employed in celebrating that event. 

HOW SONGS "WERE FORMULATED 

In my voyage from Hawaii, three or four females, fellow-passen 
gers, wore thus employed during the greater part of the passage, 
which afforded me an opportunity of observing the process. They 
first agreed on two or three ideas, arranged them in a kind of metrical 
sentence, with great attention to the accent of the concluding word, 
and then repeated it in concert. If it sounded discordantly, they 
altered it; if not, they repeated it several times, and then pro 
ceeded to form a now sentence. 

THE USE OE "T" AND "K." 

The k in most of the islands is generally used in common inter 
course, but it is never admitted into their poetical compositions, in 
which the t is universally and invariably employed. 



350 

Tlie following Verses, extracted from a collection of Hymns in 
the native language, containing 60 pages, are a tianslation of lines 
on the "Sandwich Mission/* by W. B. Tappan, on the embarkation 
of the missionaries from New Haven, (America,) in 1822. The 
k is employed, though contrary to the practice of the natives. The 
original commences with 

"Wake, isles of the south, your redemption is near, 
No longer repose in the borders of gloom." 

HAWAIIAN. 

I na moku i paa i ka pouri mau, 
Uhia 'ka naau po wale rakou, 
Ano nei e puka no maila ke ao, 
Hoku Bet'lehema, ka Hoku ao mau. 

Huia ka rere a pau me ka kii, 
E hooreia ka taumaha a pau; 
I k'alana maitai rakou e ora'i, 
Tabu ka heiau na ke Akua mau. 

E ake rakou i nana wave ae, 
Ka wehea mai'ka araura maitai, 
A o ka kukuna J ka Mesia mau, 
"A kali na moku kona kanawai." 

ORIGINAL. 

On the islands that sit in the regions of night, 
The lands of despair, to oblivion a prey, 
The morning will open with healing and light, 
And the young star of Bethlehem will ripen to day. 

The altar and idol, in dust overthrown, 

The incense forbade that was hallow ; d with blood; 

The priest of Melehisedee there shall atone, 

And the shrines of Hawaii be sacred to God. 

The heathen will hasten to welcome the time, 
The day-spring the prophet in vision foresaw, 
When the beams of Messiah will 'lumine each clime, 
And the isles of the ocean shall wait for his law. 

A COPIOUS LANGUAGE. 

Notwithstanding its defects, the Hawaiian has its excellencies. 
Ideas are frequently conveyed with great force and precision; verbs 
not only express the action, but the manner of it, distinctly; hence, 
to send a message would be orero, to send a messenger, kono, 
to send a parcel, houna, to break a stick, haki, to break a string, 
moku, to break a cup, naha, to break a law, hoomaloka, &c. 

Considering it is a language that has received no additions from 



351 

the intercourse of the natives with other countries, and is devoid of 
all technical terms of art and science, it is, as well as the other 
dialects, exceedingly copious. Some idea of this may be formed 
from the circumstance of there being in the Tahitian upwards of 
1400 words conlmeneing with the letter a. 

The greatest imperfections we have discovered occur in the degrees 
of the adjectives, and the deficiency of the auxiliary verb to be, 
which is implied, but not expressed. 

The natives cannot say, I am, or it is, yet they can say a thing 
remains, as, ke waiho maira ka waa i raira, (the canoe remains 
there;) and their verbs are used in the participial form, by simply 
adding the termination ana, equivalent to ing, in English. 

Hence in asking a native, What he is doing? the question would 
be, "He aha-ana oeT ; (What-ing you?) The answer would be, He 
ai ana wau. Eating (am) I. The He denoting the present tense 
preceding the question, the answer corresponds; but if he wished to 
say, what ho was eating, the noun would be placed between the verb, 
and its participial termination, as He ai poe ana wau, literally, Eat 
poe-ing I. 

In every other respect their language appears to possess all the 
parts of speech, and some in greater variety and perfection than, 
any language we are acquainted with. 

HOW WRITTEN LANGUAGE WAS FORMULATED 

In reducing the language to a written form, the American mission 
aries adopted the Roman character, as the English missionaries had 
done before in the southern dialects. 

The English alphabet possesses a redundancy of consonants, and 
though rather deficient in vowels, answers tolerably well to express 
all tlie native sounds. 

The Hawaiian alphabet consists of seventeen letters: five vowels, 
a, e, i, o, u, and twelve consonants, b, d, h, k, 1, m, n, p, r, t, v, w, to 
which f, g, s, and z, have been added, for the purpose of preserving 
the identity of foreign words. 

Tho consonants arc sounded as in English, though we have been 
obliged to give them different names, for the natives could not say 
el or em, but invariably pronounced ela and ema; it being therefore 
necessary to retain the final vowel, that was thought sufficient, and 
the other was rejected. 

EUROPEAN PRONUNCIATION FOLLOWED. 

Tho vowels are sounded more after the manner of the continental 
languages than the English; A, as in ah, and sometimes as a in far, 
but never as a in fate; E, as a in gale, ape, and mate; I, as ee in 
green; e in me, or i in machine. 



352 

The short sound of i in "bit, seldom occurs, and the long sound of 
i in wine is expressed by the diphthong ai; O, as o in no and mote; 
U, as u in rude, or oo in moon. 

Several of the consonants are interchangeable, particularly the 1 
and r, the b and p, t and k. There are no silent letters. I have 
known a native, acquainted with the power of the letters, spell a 
word, when it has been correctly pronounced, though he had never 
seen it written; for in pronouncing a word, it is necessary to pro 
nounce every letter of which it is composed. 

THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 

Articles. They have two articles, definite (he) and indefinite 
(ke or ka,) answering to the English the and a or an. The articles 
precede the nouns to which they belong. 

Nouns. The nouns undergo no inflection, or change of termina 
tion, the number, ease, and gender, being denoted by distinct words 
or particles prefixed or added. Hence o, which is only the sign of 
the nominative, has been usually placed before Tahiti and Hawaii, 
making Otaheiti and Owhyhee, though the o is no part of the word 
any more than no the sign of the possessive, as no Hawaii, of Hawaii, 
and i the sign of the objective, as i Hawaii, to Hawaii. 

Pronouns The scheme of pronouns is copious and precise, having 
not only a singular, dual, and plural number, but a double dual and 
plural; the first including the speaker and spoken to, as thou and I, 
and ye and I; the second, the speaker and party spoken of, as he 
and I, and they and I. Each of these combinations is clearly ex 
pressed by a distinct pronoun. 

Adjectives. The adjective follows the noun to which it belongs. 
There are several degrees of comparison, though the form of the 
adjective undergoes no change; the degrees are expressed by distinct 
words. There is, properly speaking, no superlative; it is, however, 
expressed by prefixing the definite article, as k kiekie, ke nui, (the 
high, the great.) 

Yerbs. The verbs are active, passive, and neuter. The regular 
active verb in the Hawaiian dialect admits of four conjugations, as 
rohe, to hear, hoo-rohe, to cause to hear, rohe-ia, heard, and hoo- 
rohe-ia, to cause to be heard. Some of the verbs admit the second 
and fourth, but reject the third, as noho, to sit, hoo-noho, to cause 
to sit, and hoo-noho-ia, to cause to be seated. Others again allow the 
third and fourth, but not the second, as pepehi, to beat, pepehi-ia, 
beaten, and hoopepehi-ia, to cause to be beaten. The verbs usually 
precede the nouns and pronouns, as here au, go I, and e noho marie 
oe, sit still you, instead of, I go, and you sit still. 

The adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections, are 



353 

xmmerous; but a description of them, and their relative situation in 
the construction of their sentences, would take up too much room. 

NUMERALS RESEMBLE MALAYAN. 

Their numerals resemble the Malayan more than any other part 
of their language. 

Eleven would be either umi-kumu-ma-kahi, ten the root and one, 
or umi-akahi-keu, ten one over; this would be continued by adding 
the units to the ten till twenty, which they call iva-karua, forty 
they call kanahaa, or seventy-six they would say forty twenty ten 
and six, and continue counting by forties till 400, which they call a 
rau, then they add till 4000, which they call a mano, 40,000 they 
call lehu, and 400,000 a luiu; beyond this we do not know that they 
carry their calculations: the above words are sometimes doubled, as 
manoniano kinikmi, they are, however, only used thus to express a 
large but indefinite number Their selection of the number four in 
calculations is singular; thus, 864,895 would be, according to their 
method of reckoning, two kini, or 400,000s, one lehu, or 40,000, six 
mano, or 4000s, two rau, or 400s, two kanaha, or 40s, one umi, or ten 
and five. They calculate time by the moon; allow twelve to a year; 
have a distinct name for every moon, and every night of the moon,, 
and reckon the parts of a month by the number of nights, as po- 
akoru ainci, nights three ago, instead of three days ago. 



The following specimen of native composition will convey some idea 
of their idiom. The translation is servile; and with this I shall close 
theso remarks on their language. It is a letter written by the late 
king in answer to one I sent, acquainting him with my second arrival 
in the isalnds, on the 4th of Feb. 1823. 

"Mr. Ellis, oo. 
Mr. Ellis, attend. 

Aroha ino oe, mo ko wahine, me na keiki a pau a 
Attachment groat (to) you, and your wife, with children all of ye 
orua. 1 ola oukou ia Jehova ia laua o lesu Kraist. 
two. Preserved (have) you (been) by Jehovah they two Jesus Christ, 
Eia kau wahi olero la oo, Mr. Ellis, apopo a kela la ku a ahiahi, 
This (is) my word to you, Mr. Ellis, to-morrow or the day after when 
a ku hoi mai. I ka tabu a leila ua ite kaua. A i 
evening, tlion I return. On the Sabbath then (shall) meet we. But if 



354 

makemake oe e here mai ianei maitai no hoi. Ike ware oe i na'rii 
desire you to come here, well also. Seen indeed (have) you 
o Tahiti. Aroha ware na'rii o Bolabola. 
the chiefs of Tahiti. Attachment only to the chiefs of Borabora.* 

I ola oe ia Jehova ia Jesu Kraist. 

Saved (may) you (be) by Jehovah by Jesus Christ. 

IOLANI." 

* The term for the Society Islands. 

(Several pages of Hawaiian words and their English equivalents and of 
declensions of Hawaiian pronouns are omitted ) 

The End 



INDEX 



Page 

Adams, Jno , See "Kuakini" 
Adultery, Penalty for, .... 319 
Adze, Favorite tool . . ... 239 
Akea, First King of Hawaii, 

Founded Kingdom after death . 275 
Alcoholic liquor, See "Liquor". 
American Mission, Founding of.. 

28, 37 

American Missionaries, See "Mis 
sionaries". 

Anaana; See "Sorcery". 
Animals, See "Cattle", "Dogs", 

"Pigs", "Sheep". 

,A.nimals described . . 32, 33 
Appeal to Chiefs or King, Eight 

of 320 

Arapai, Chief of Waimanu . 

277, 280, 283 

Army, See "Battle", "War" 
Army, Hawaiian, no professional 110 
Assembly, Public, "When hold 321 

Auae, Chief, Bank of . 313 

Awa, Manufacture and use of . 287 

Bamboo Knives used 260 

Bananas . 147, 197, 252 

Barter, Customs of . . . . 319 
Basket, leie root made by natives 225 
Battle, See "Keei", "Puako- 
koki", "Nuuanu", "War", 
"Kekuaokalam", "ICeoua". 

Battle, Ethics most brutal 119 

Idols earned m 317 

Method of . .110, 115, 117 

To restore idolatry. . . 92 

Battles, Fought in daytime , . 115 
Beheading; See "Decapitation.". 
Bennett, Geo , Visit of to Hawaii, 

1822 7 

Berries of the Islands ... 

34, 54, 55, 172, 

176, 192, 194, 195, 226, 302, 304 
Birds of Hawaii described . 33 

Bishop, Artomas, Trip of around 

Hawaii 4, 7, 

44, 47, 49, 138, 224, 310, 812, 322 
Bishop, S. B., Reminiscences of . . 3 
Blatchely, Dr , Trip of to Mauna 

Koa 308, 304 

Boki, Letter to Ellis from,., 344, 345 
Member King's Suite on trip 
to England, character of, 
friendly to missionaries 

343-345 

Rank of 311 

Report by, of interview with 

King of England 339 

Boundaries, Land, flow marked . 262 

Breadfruit at "Waiakea 252 

Building; See "Houses". 

Burial Oaves, Described . . 10G, 270 

Biirial Customs, Hawaiian and 

South Pacific 269-272 

Burning the skin, a badge of 

mourning ... 137 

Butler, Missionaries entertained 

by at Lahama 58 

Byron's Bay, Description of . 251 
Byron, Lord. Visit of . ...7, 339 
Calabashes, Described . . 281 

Candle nut tree, See "Kukui". 



Page 

Canoe, Double ... . .255, 280 

Hawaiian, Construction and 

operation of 90, 159, 255, 256 

Kukui at Society Islands , 282 

Landing at Kehena described 212 

Long voyages in ... 327 

Canoe trips from Hilo to Laupa- 

hoehoe .. 241, 257 

Kohala to Kawaihae . .298 
Kona to Kau, 138, 140, 141, 143 
Waipio to Waimanu. . . . 277 
Cattle, Hunting in Hawaii . . 286 
In Hawaii .33, 303, 304 
Vancouver brought to Islands 35 
Census, See "Population" Ha 
waii, 1823 10 

Centipedes in Hawaii 33 

Cession of Islands to Great Brit 
ain . . 35 

Chamberlain, Description of Kilau- 

ea by . . . . 188, 189 

Chant, Example of Hawaiian . , . 205 
Chiefs, See "Customs" 
Chiefs, Common people property 
of, Power over people ... 

313, 315, 316, 319, 322 
Consulted by King ... . 321 
Customs upon death of 132-137 
Etiquette between . . . 313, 314 
Household, Description of . 

233, 280 

Monopoly of trading by. .. 311 
Rank of individuals set forth 

312, 313 

Rapacious and avaricious. . . . 322 

Tabu easy upon . 293 

Chiefs, Names of principal; See 
Boki, Hoakau, Hoapiri (Hoa- 
pih), Ihikama, Kaahumanu, 
Kahanaumaitai, Kahavaii, Ka- 
hekn (Kahekih), Kaikioeva, 
Kakuiapoiwa, Kalaimoku, Ka- 
laiopu, Kalakua, Kamahoe, Ka- 
makau, Kamapiikai, Kameha- 
maru (Kaniamalu), Kaoieioku, 
Kapihe, Ivapiolam, Kaumualu, 
Kauruheimarama, Keakealani, 
Keaveaheuru, Keeaumoku, Ke- 
kauiuohe, Kekuaokalani, Ke- 
kuanaoa, Keopuolani, Keoua, 
Kmao, Kiwalao, Koreamoku, 
Kuakmi, Kumaraua, Kumuoka- 
piki, Liliha, Maaro, Manona, 
Miomioi, Mini, Naihe, Nahiena- 
ena, Pauahi, Pna, Porioram, 
Rihonho (L/iholiho), Riroa (Li- 
loa), Rono (Lono), Taeo (Ka- 
eo), Taiana, Taraiopu, Teave- 
mauhiri, Teporiorani, T i h a, 

Umi, Wahinepio 
Christianity, Effect of upon games 

and gambling 149 

Effect of on infanticide. .246, 247 
Effect of on mourning cus 
toms 137 

Effect of on natives 121, 122 

Effect of on war . 121 

Kaxneharnaiu strong support 
er of .341 

Natives inclined toward 

152, 231, 232 



356 



Page 

Church, Erection of at Kailua . 

_ ... 3, 300, 305 

Citv of Refuge, at Honaunau and 
Waipio. . . . 109, 126-128, 273 

Origin of 128 

Rules relating to 127 

Climate of Island of Hawaii . 264 

Of Honolulu 30 

Cloaks, Feather, described. 116, 117 

Coeoanuts m Puna 203 

Coleridge, Estimate of value of 

this book by 5 

Common People, Pass with the 

land . 316 

Property of chiefs ... . 322 
Rank of; Labor required of, 
Status of .. 313, 315 

Cook, Capt , Burial cave of . . 97 

Character of reports by 17 

Body, Disposition of . 101-103 
Death, Details of 98-103 

Foreigners in Hawaii prior to 

330, 333 

Kamehameha present at death 

of 35 

Lava flow at time of . . 217 
Natives thought him a god, 

regretted death 99, 100, 101 

Reminiscences of . . 52 

Treatment of by natives 18 

Cooking, Hawaiian methods of. . 160 

Counting, Hawaiian method of . 353 

Courts, Constitution of, Right' of 

appeal 320, 321 

Crime, Penalty for . . .318, 319 
Hawaiian and So Pacific com 
pared . 258-261 

Cultivation, Extensive in Kona . 48 
Customs, See "Battle", "Bur 
ial", "Chiefs", "Cooking", 
"Dress", "Eating", "Eti 
quette", "Games", "Hospital 
ity", "Houses", "Housewarm- 
ing", "Hula", "Infanticide", 
"Labor", "Marriage", "Med 
icine", "Mercy", "Mourn 
ing", "Pets", "Sacrifices", 
"Seashore, Living at", "Sing 
ing", Social", "Surgery", 
"Tabu", Trading", "War". 

Daggers described .... 116 

Dancers, Rank of . . .... 313 

Dancing, See "Hula" 

Davis, Isaac, Capture of .... 35 

Dead, See "Burial", "Human 

Sacrifice" 

Death, Life after, discussed with 
natives . . . . 274, 275 

Death, See "Mourning Customs" 

Penalty for adultery . . 319 

Penalty for breaking tabu, 

How administered 290, 293 

Power of in King and Chiefs 319 
Decapitation, Penalty for adul 
tery ...... 319 

Diamond Hill . . 24 

Distilled Liquor; See "Liquor" 
Districts, Division and govern 
ment of . . 314 
Diviners, Consulted before battle 117 



Page 

Divorce, At will by husband . . 329 
Dixon & Portlock, Visit to Ha 
waii by 34 

Dogs, As pets 309 

Principal meat . 260, 261 

Wild, on Mauna Kea 304 

Douglas, Visit to Hawaii by . . 34 
Dress, See "Cloaks", "Maro". 
Dress of natives, described . . . 

...74, 79, 83, 84, 116, 145, 146 
Drunkenness, Encountered on trip, 
Increase of 129, 196, 287, 288 

Effect of on social etiquette. . 313 
Duel described . .... 118 

Dwellings, See "Houses". 

Eating, Customs . 45, 80, 95, 241 
Earthquake at Kaimu in 1823 . . 208 
Ehus, Descendants of foieigners 

prior to Cook . . . . 331 

Eleanor, Attempted capture of 

ship - . ... 34 

Ellis, Rev Wm , Biography of, In 
cidents relating to ... 
. 4, 7, 38-40, 56, 193, 334-336, 345 
Eloquence, Native, Example of. 113 
England, See "Great Britain" 
English Mission, Delegates go to 
Hawaii ... 38, 39 

Established m S Pacific ^ 36 
English missionaries, See "Mis 
sionaries, English". 
Eruption, See "Volcano" 
Etiquette of chiefs 79, 313, 314 

Fair American, Capture and de 
struction of ... . . .35 

Farmers, Rank of m society . . 313 
Feast, Hawaiian, described. .260-262 
Feudal system, G-overnment resem 
bled ... . . . 314 

Fighting, See "War" 
Firearms, Effect of m Hawaii . 121 
Fiie-making by fuction . 225 

Fish, Dried, an article of com 
merce . . . . - 203 

Fish not abundant . 33 

Fish pond, Kamehameha's at Ki- 

holo 306 

Fisheries and fishing methods of 
Hawaii and South Seas com 
pared 297, 298 

Fishing by torchlight, described 282 
Flag, Hawaiian, Origin and pic 
ture of . . . 311 
Flood, Hawaiian tradition of the 333 
Foreigners a curiosity . 146 
Foreigners, Distilled liquoi intro 
duced by ... . 287 
In Hawaii prior to Cook 

330-333 

Fort at Honolulu, Origin and 

status of ... 28 

Fort at Kailua... . 76, 77, 323 

Forts, Construction and defense of 

114, 115 
Friendly Islands, English mission 

at ... 36 

Fruit, See "Berries". 
Fruits of the Islands 

33, 34, 48, 123, 144, 252 
Funeral; See "Burial". 



357 



Page 

Furniture of chief's house de 
scribed . . ... 45, 280 

Gambling, Chief incentive for 
games ... . 149 
Methods described, Bad ef 
fects of 149 

Prevalence of . . 62 

Quarrels resulting from 149 

Games, Effect of Chustianity upon 149 
Gambling chief incentive of 149 
Hawaiian; See "Horua", 
"Konane'% "Maika", 
"Pahe", "Puhenehene", 
"Water Games' '. 

Tournaments of, held. 148 

Geese, Wild, on Hawaii 20, 180 

Georgian Islands, Tahiti one of 

. 69, 324 

Goats in Hawaii . 33, 304 

Gods, See "Idols", "Religious 

Beliefs", "Sacrifices" 
Gods, Described and named 

Akea, a god King of Ha 
waii . . 274, 275, 324 
Haumea . . . . . .324 

Hiatahoiteporiapele . 185 

Hiatanoholani . . 185 

Hiataopio . ... . 185 

Hiatarona 185 

Hiatataaravamata 185 

Hiatatabuenaena 185 

Hiatawawahilani . . . . 185 
Kalaipahoa, poison god 68, 69 
Kamupuaa, see "Kamapuaa" 
Kamohoani . .184 

Kaweapua, a Lanai god . . 67 

Kanonuuikea 88 

Kanoiuruhonua . . 88 

Kekuaaimaiiu 88 

Kuahiro ... 204, 272 

Kukaihmoku . . 72 

Makorewawahiwaa . 185 

Miru, a god and king, the 

Hawaiian Pluto 274, 275, 276 
Mooain, a Molokai god . 67 
Nohoarn . .... 154 

Pole, See "Pele". 
Tiaeapxia, a Lanai god ... 67 
Kooioowa, a Maui god . . . 66 
Bono, Cook thought to bo, 

Traditions of.. .100, 101, 217 
Rorarnaknelm .... 88 

Tain, a Hying god . . 00, 217 

Tanaroa 217, 324 

Tane 297, 324 

Tanohetin . . ... 1 84 

Tooalntamataua 185 

Tonaatopo 184 

Topohaitahiora 184 

Tu . . 217 

Uri, god of sorceiors . 217 
Gods, Manufacture of , 158 

Gods, Of Lanai and Molokai. . 67 

Of Maui 66 

Of the Sea 67 

Savage character of. Ill, 272 

Shark .97 

Volcano, Native visions of , 187 
War decided upon, by . . . Ill 



Page 

Goodrich, Rev Josepn, Canoeing 
through the surf by . . .138 

Description of Kilauea by 

. 188, 189 
Trip of around Hawaii. 

.4, 7, 44, 48, 51, 312, 322 
Trip of to top of Mauna Kea 

.... 301, 303, 304 
Government, See "Law". 
Government, Hawaiian system of 
described 110, 312, 314-322 

Good, Little progress in 

321, 322 

Grammar, See "Hawaiian Lan 
guage, Rules of Grammar of" 
Great Britain, Cession of Hawaii 
to . ... 35 

Visit of Kamehameha II to . 

. . 7, 338-340 
Green Lake, Puna, Description of 

218, 219 
Guns, Use of m Hawaii . . 121 

Haa, Chief, Rank of . 313 

Hades, Hawaiian and Society Is 
lands tradition of 101, 275, 276 
Hair, Cutting of, on death of a 

chief . . . 132, 133 

Halawa, Experiences at ... 286 
Kamehameha 's original pat 
rimony . , . 288 
Hale o Keawe described, picture 

of .... . 124, 126 

Hale o Riioa, Burial place of 

Riroa at Waipio . 273 

Hamnkua, Described 261, 262, 
264, 265-269, 272-274, 285, 301 
Status of natives of . 264 
Harbor dues belong to King, On- 

gm of . . . 316, 317 

Harwood, Mr , Accompanied dele 
gation around Hawaii 44, 255 
Haupokane, A foreign land visited 

by natives . ... 297 

Hawaii, Climate of Island of . . 264 
Compared with Tahiti . 19 

Description of Island of 19 

Exploration of . 10, 40, 44, 86 
Impoitance of ... 21 

Interior of unknown 20 

Journal of trip around, Au 
thors of ... . 4, 8 
Map of . . .16 

Pronunciation of 42 

Hawaiian Character, See "Hospi 
tality", "Licentiousness", 
' 'Drunkenness", ' 'Gambling* '. 
Hawaiian Chiefs, See "Chiefs, 

Names of Principal' ' 
Hawaiian Chiefs, Physical descrip 
tion of . 32 
Hawaiian Customs; See "Cus 
toms" 

Hawaiian Dress, See "Dress" 
Hawaiian etiquette, See "Eti 
quette". 

Hawaiian gods, See "Gods" 
Hawaiian government, See "Gov- 

einment' ' 

Hawaiian hospitality; See "Hos 
pitality' ' 



358 



Page 

Hawaiian Houses, See "Houses" 
Hawaiian Islands, Commercial 

importance of 34 

Description of . 19 

(See Each Island by name.) 

Map of .... 33 

Social conditions of .... 18 
Hawaiian language, See "Lan 
guage" 
Hawaiian Language, a copious 

one 350 

A poem in. . . .... 350 

Compared -with others .347, 348 

First printing in 6 

Numerals named 353 

Pronunciation of. . 348, 349, 351 

Remarks on 346-354 

Rules of grammar of . . 352 
Social conditions, Repoits by 

Cook superficial . .... 18 
Specimen of idiom of . 353 

Spelling explained... 41, 42, 43 
Traditions same as Tahitian 69 
Warfare, Methods of, See 

"Warfare". 

Weapons, See "Weapons". 
Women, See "Women, Ha 
waiian". 

Written, How formulated. 6, 351 
Hawaiian s , See " Native s ' ' . 

Cleanliness of . 45 

Origin of . 323, 324, 326, 327 
Hebrew language compared with 

Hawaiian 348 

Heiau, Kamehameha's at Ko- 

hala 290 

Heiau at Kawaihae described 71, 73 

Kanekaheilam 89 

Haleotairi 89 

Hina 88 

Kauaikahaloa 88 

Kuura 88 

Kilauea 192 

Mairikini . . . 73 

Ukampo .... . . 97 

Waipio . 272 

Heiau of Ahuena, at Kailua, de 
scribed .... ... 323 

Honaunau described . . 124 

Karepa in Puna . . . 213 

Oaraiauo at Kilauea 192 

Pele in Hamakua 262 

Wahaula at Pulana, described 203 
Heiaus, Kona, described , 

88, 89, 91, 97, 124 

Helmets, described . 116 

Herbs, Medical treatment with 

. . .. . .249, 250, 251 

Hevaheva, high priest, advised 
abolition of idolatry and tabu 

95, 96 

Appearance of in battle . 118 
Hieroglyphs ... ... 346 

Hilea, Experiences at . . 155 

Hilo, description of district 

227, 257, 263 

Market fair at 242 

Hihiu, Village of ... 297 
History preserved in song 349 

Hoakau, A Hawaiian Nero . .274 
Hoapiri, Chief 157 



Page 

Hokukano, Spring of water at, 
Experiences at . ... 97, 155 

Holua, Game of between Pele and 
Kahavali ... .... 220-223 

Game of desciibed . . 219-220 
Holualoa, Kona, Experiences at . 88 
Honaunau; See "City of Refuge" 

Described 12, 123, 124 

Drunkenness at 129 

Experiences at 129 

Picture of 124 

Population of 123, 130 

Volcanic curiosity at'. . . .130-132 
Honokane Valley, Experiences at 285 
Honokea Valley passed . 285 

Honolulu, Described, population, 

shipping .27 

Fort, Origin and status of . 28 

Geological description of 24 

Weather record at, 1821-22 30 

Honomalmo, Experiences at . . 138 

Honoruru, village in Puna. . . 223 

Honuamo, Kona, Expenences at . 96 

Honuapo, Description of .... 12 

Primitive conditions at . 151 

Honuaula, Lava flow at .... 218 

Hookupu, gift custom . . . 317 

Hopu, Thos , instructor at Kailua 

48, 305 

Horses in Hawaii... . 33 
Horua (sledding) described. 219, 220 
Hospitality, Customs described 286 
Hawaii and South Sea island 
ers compared 259, 260 

at Halawa 286, 287 

at Honokane ... . ... 285 

at Kamaili 213 

at Keei . .106, 107 

at Waimanu . ... 277, 283 
at Waipio . . . 266, 276 

and lack of at Kealakomo . 

197, 198, 201, 206 

Lack of at Honaunau and 

Keokea 123, 129 

Houses, Ceremonies connected 

with "building . . 240 

Hawaiian, Character, con 
struction, durability, di 
mensions, furnishings of. . 

236, 

238, 239, 240, 280, 281, 288 
Housewarmmg customs . . . 317 

Hualalai, Ascent of, Active in 
1823, Active in 1800 . 47, 53, 54 
Height of measured . 80 

Land formed by last lava 
now from ..... . 308 

Hula, Described 59, 78, 79, 80, 81 
Picture of . . 75 
Human Sacrifices, Described, 
Method of securing and offer 
ing 71, 

73, 111, 112, 119, 185, 203, 323 

By King Umi 272 

Humuula, Village, Experiences at 258 
Husband, See r 'Marnage", "Di 
vorce". 



359 



Page 

Idolatry, Abolition of 6, 37, 94, 95 
Abolition did not affect su 
perstition .... 11 
Battle to restore in 1819 . 92 
Native sentiment re abolition 

of 150, 152, 210 

Idol at Waipio 273 

Idols, Carried in battle, Functions 

of . 117 

Existing m 1823 . . . 89 

Native beliefs concerning: . 263 
Picture of ... ... 323 

Sundry Hawaiian, described 

66-69, 118, 124, 126, 306, 325 
Ihikama, Chiefess of Honokane 285 
Implements, See "Tools". 
Incantations, See "Sorcerers" 
Indians, Resemblance of Pacific 

Islanders to . 327 

Infanticide, Effect of Christianity 
on ... 247 

In Society Islands 244, 246, 329 
Kainehameha's judgment con- 

ceimng . . . 243 

Prevalence, evidence and 

causes of .10, 32, 243-248, 329 

Prohibited by Kuakmi . 247 

Specific instance of ... 243 

Inheritance of land, Law of .318 

Inter-island, See "Shipping". 

Travel described 

. 56, 65, 305, 334-336 
Int<?r-inarnaG , See "Matriage". 
Interment, See "Burial" 
Intoxicating liquor , See "Liquor", 
lolani, one of Kamohameha 2's 

names , . , . . . 354 

Iphiffima, Attempted capture of 

ship .... 34 

Iron, Natives possessed prior to 
Cook's arrival 330 

Javelins, described . . . 110, 116 
Journal of trip around Hawaii, 
Author of American edition of 
4, 6, 8 

(If a word is not found under 
"K", look under "T".) 
"K" and "T", Alternative use 

of 349 

Kaahumami, Rank of .813 

Prayer by . . ... 336 

Repudiates pnostess of Pele 199 

Kaahua, Village of. .... 265 

Kaalaala, District of, described 161 

Kaawnloa, Description of... 49 

Experiences at ... .97, 104 

Burial cavo of Capt Cook at 97 

Kahaluu, Experiences at .... 90 

Kahanaumaitai, Chief, Bank of. . 813 

Kahavari, Game of holua with 

Polo . 220-223 

Kahokii (Kahekilif), king of Maui 

at time of Cook 313 

Kahilis described 275 

KahooJawo, Description of... 22 
Kahuku, Kan, Bluff, described . . 143 
Kahuna, Attempts of to cure dis 
ease 248 

Kahuwai, village 223 

Kai-a-ka-hi-na-rii, Hawaiian for 
the flood 333 



Page 

Kaiana, Chief, See "Taiana" 
Kaikioeva, Chief, a surfing expert 279 

Bank of 313 

Kailua, Churches at . . 9, 300, 305 
Description of ... .45-47 

Fort at, described 76 

Life at, described .... 44, 50 

Picture of 77 

Population of , 12, 53 

Kaimu, Description, Population 
of ... 12, 209, 210 

Experiences at . . . 204 

Great earthquake at . . 208 
Kain, Idol of, described. . . . 118 
Kakuiapoiwa, a chief . 336 

(lalahild, Description of countiy 
south of ... 138 

Experiences at ... 132-137 
Kalakua, one of Kamehameha's 

queens . . ... ,56 

alaloa, Village of . . . . 301 

Kalaimoku, alias Wm Pitt, a 
chief, a surfing expert . 279, 312 
Acting as a judge . 320 

Discussion of Cook's death 

by . 100 

Dwelling of, described . 240 
Favored missionaries ... 38 
Independence of . . 134 

Opposed Kamehameha, now 

Prime Minister ... . 28, 109 
Statement of in re infanti 
cide 243 

Treatment of captives by 121 

Regent of Islands . . 29 

Kalaipahoa, Poison God . . 68, 69 
Kalakua, Kamehameha's Queen 

. . .56, 336 

FCalama, Village of 103 

Kalapana, Village of . . ... 204 
Kalehu, Village of . . . . 144 
Kamahoe, a chief . . . . 157 

JSjimaili, Experiences at . 213 

Kamakau, Ability to write 328 

Character of, References to 

12, 49-52, 97, 104 

Rank of 313 

Kamapukai, Tradition of Voyage 

of . . . 296, 297 

Kamapuaa, See "Pele". 

A god, Tradition of, Combat 

with Pele 186, 196 

Kamehamaru, Queen of Kameha 
meha II, Biography of , 340-342 
Kamehameha I, See "Keoua" 

Bathing pool of 89 

British Government presented 

a schooner to ... . 38 

Cession of Islands to Great 

Britain by . . . . 35 
Conquest of Oahu by 27 

Death, Date of , . . 6 

Bones of, Disposition of ,270 
Engineering work by, Tales 

of ... .. 289, 290, 306 

Eruption of Hualalai stopped 

by 47 

Friendly to English 38 

Heiau of, at Kohala . . . .290 
Hoiau of Wahaula built by 203 
Home of, Land originally 
owned by 288, 289 



360 



Page 

Judgment' on infanticide 243 

Lands divided "by . 314 
Message from after death 

275, 276 

Miomioi, a friend and favor 
ite of 286-288, 290, 295 
Present at murder of Ke- 

oua 157 

Present at death, of Capt 

Cook 35 

Prophecy conceining 107 

I and II, Sacrifices by . 273 

Spelling of name explained 41 
War of with Kauikeouh (Ki- 

wala-o) ..105, 108, 109 

War of with Keoua. 156, 157 

Wives many, children few . 329 
Kamehameha II, See "Rihoriho". 
Abolition of idolatry and 

Tabu, by, Motives for 95 

Accesion to throne 6 
Biography and signature of 

. . . 336-340 

Death of on trip to England 7 

Description of . 58 

First King of all Islands . 314 

Housewarmmg by 317 

Letter from, to Ellis 353 
Revolt of Kekuaokalani 

against .... 92 

Suite of, on trip to England 343 

Kamehameha III, successor of 

Kamehameha II 340 

Kana, Tradition of adventures of 296 
Kanenuiakea, a god 296 

Kaoreioku, brother of Keoua . 157 
Kapaau, Village of. 295 

Kapapahanaumoku, Kingdom after 

death . 275 

Kapapala, Description of, Expe 
riences at . ... 154, 161 
Kaparaoa, Village of, Idols at 306 
Kapauku, Experiences at. . 150 
Kapihe, Accompanied King to Eng 
land .... . 314, 343 
Kapiolani, Mission station located 
through influence of, Character 
of . . ... 103 
Statement in re infanticide 243 
Visit of to Kilauea, Defiance 

of Pele by . .199, 200 

Kapoho, Description of . 218 

Kapua, Experiences at, Descrip 
tion of . . . . 138, 139 
Kapuahi, a cave dwelling, de 
scribed, Experiences at 167 
Kapulena, Village of, visited . . 265 
Kapuokaahi village, Visit to . 226 
Karaimoku, See "Kalaimoku" 
Karepa, Heiau of 213 
Kau, General description of 

..139, 140, 143, 144 
Kauaea, Village of, Experiences at 214 
Kauai, See "Kaumualn", 
Kauai, Cession of to Kameha 
meha ... 29 
Description of . . ... 28 

Population of 29 

Fort at . . .... 29 

Language of, Difference in 29 
Rebellion on .... 29 



Kauikeouh, See "Kamehameha 

III". 
Kauikeouh, alias for Kiwala-o 

Scene of battle with Kame 
hameha 

Kaukau, a Chinese word . . 
Kaula, Description of Island of . 
Kaulanamauna, boundary of Kau 
Kaulu, Description, Experiences 
at ... . .... 

Kaumualu ; See ' 'Kauai' '. 
Kaumuahi, a chief; Pronuncia 
tion of 

Champion surfer of the Is 
lands 

Missionaries favored by 
Submission of to Kameha 
meha, Death of ... 
Kaura, Valley, Experiences at . 
Kauruheimarama, accompanied 

King to England . . 
Kawaihae, Description of ... 
Heiau at, described. 
Jno Young visited at 

Keoua murdered at 

Salt' ponds at. 

Size of 

Warm springs at . . . 
Kawelohea, Legend of 
Kea, name of whites who lived in 

mountains . 

Keaau, village, described 
Keahialaka, Village of, Experi 
ences at' 

Kealakekua, Foreigners at before 
Cook .... 

G-eology and burial caves of 
ECealaala, Volcanic Activity at . 
fCealakomo, Experiences and con 
ditions at . .196, 201, 202, 
Travelers from act as guides 
Keanakakoi ciater, Activity of 
Keapuana, a cave dwelling, de 
scribed, Experiences at 
Kearakaha, Village of 
Keauhou described, Population of 
Keawaiti, a port of refuge, Ex 
periences at 
Keawe, House of, See "Hale o 

Keawe' ' 

Keaveaheuru, a chief 157, 

Keeaumoku, Mourning for 

Murder of Keoua by 157, 
Warrior of Kamehameha , fa 
ther of Kaahumanu 
Keei, Battle of .105, 

Experiences at 

Kehena, Village of desmbed . 
Kekauluohi, Kamehameha ' s 
daughter . . 56, 

Keakealam, Queen of Hawaii . . 
Kekuanaoa, accompanied King to 
England . . 314, 

Kekuaokalani, Battle of, to re 
store idolatry . . . 

Monument to 
Keokea, Experiences at . . . 



Page 



108 

105 

291 

30 



145 

44 

280 



29 
262 

343 

12 

71 

266 

157 

299 

300 

299 

150 

331 

224 

214 

331 
106 
200 

264 
167 
195 

168 

264 

91 

141 



158 
135 
158 

108 
156 
105 



57 

89 



343 



94 
129 



361 



Page 

Keopuolani, Illness of, Prayers 
for . . .... 336 

Mother of Kamehameha II, 
Attitude toward mission . 

38, 58, 59, 60, 62, 329 
Mourning for . . .135, 136 

Mourning 1 customs changed 

fiom death of . . 137 

Keoua, Army of destroyed by 
volcano . 156, 186, 187 

Son of Kalaiopu, brother of 

Kamkeouh . 156 
War and surrender by, Mur 
der of 156-158 
Governor of Maui . . 58 
Kuakim's wife, Tapa mak 
ing by 82, 88 

Keouohana, Village of 211 

Kiholo, Kamehameha's fish pond 

at . , 300 

Kilauea, Approach to described . 

169, 173 

Described , . . 173-194 

Ellis paity first whites to 

visit . . . 4, 193 

Eruption of, destroys army 

. . . 156, 186, 187 
Pictures of ..174, 175 

Tiaditions and mythology of 

183-186, 207 

Kilauea-iki described . . 192 
Kinao, Governor of Puna, Dis 
cussions with . 214 

King, Oapt , Account of death of 
Oapt Cook by .99 

Description of Loa and Kea 

by . 194 

Status of women m Hawaii, 

by ... . 2&4 

King; See "Law", "Kings of 
Hawaii " , " Kaumualn ' ' . 

Chief magistrate ... . 320 

Chiefs consulted by on im 
portant matters . . . 321 
Etiquette toward . . 313, 314 
Land i everts to, on death of 

holder ... . 318 

Perquisites and monopolies 

Of 316, 317 

Supreme authonty of . 

312, 314, 319 

pings of Hawaii; See "Kameha- 
ineha 1'', "Kamehamoha II", 
"Kamohameha III". 
fCmgs of Hawaii at time of Oapt 
Cook named ... . . .313 

^Cingn of Hawaii named and de 
scribed . 

Akea 274 

Uoakau, a Hawaiian Noro 274 
Kahokii > , . . . 813 

Kumaraua, of Molokai .... 68 
Miru . . .... . 274 

Hiroa 273, 274 

Rono . . 100, 101. 217 

Tanuopu, Kmg at time of 

Cook . .. 98, 313 

Taoo .... ... 313 

Umi 272-274 

Kiwala-o; Soe "Kauikeouli" 
Kohala, Description of . .295, 301 
Kamehamoha's home and 
surroundings at . . 288-290 



Page 

Koloaha, Village of, visited. . 263 

Kona, Cultivation m . .48 

Description of . .87, 91, 92, 139 

Population of . ... 139 

Konane, Game of described . 158 

Koreamoku, originator of art of 

medicine 250 

Kou trees, Numerous 

47, 58, 60, 63, 89, 203, 209, 213 

Kuahiro, a god 204, 272 

Kuakini, alias Jno Adams, Gov 
ernor of Hawaii, Appreciation 
of by missionaries 9, 45 

Church built by, at Kailua 305 
Description of domestic cus 
toms of . 45, 78-80 
Discussions with 79, 81, 85, 323 
Housewarming by . . . 317 
Infanticide discussed by . . 243 

Prohibited by 247 

Portrait of .... . 79 

Bank of . 313 

Kuamoo, scene of battle in sup 
port of idolatry 92 

Kukaihmoku, Kamehameha's war 

god 72 

Kukui tree, "Uses made of. .281, 282 
Kumaraua, King of Molokai . . 68 
Kumuokapiki, Chief of Waimea . 301 
Kupahua, Village of described "204 

Labor, required of common people 315 
Laborers, Custom regulating hire 

of 319 

Lae-Mano, a point formed by last 

Hualalai flow 308 

Lahama, Descuption of , . 57, 63 
Lahaina, Mission established at 21 
Lanai, See "Ranai". 
Land boundaries, how marked . 262 
Land, Common people pass with 316 
Disposition of on death of 

holder 318 

Divided among followers of 
Kamehameha . . . . 314 

Bent and taxes paid on. . 315 
System described 313, 314-319 
Tax free m certain cases . . 316 
Tenuie, Description and ef 
fect of . 314, 316, 318, 322 
Titles, Status of, m case of 
war .... . . . 120 

Landslide, Great, at Laupahoe- 

hoe . 284 

At Pololu 285 

Language, See "Hawaiian lan 
guage", "Malay language", 
"Madagascar language", 
"South American language", 
"Hebrew language", "Tahitian 
language", "Written language". 
Dilteiences and similarities 

in groups of Pacific . 326 
Hawaiian, Bemarks on 

6, 38, 40-43, 346-354 
Plawan, Same as Tahitian 39 
Polynesian discussed, com 
pared with others .347, 348 
Laniakea Cave at Kailua, de 
scribed, Port' at . . 46, 78 
La Perouse, Visit to Hawaii by 34 
Laupahoehoe, Hilo, Canoe trip to 
241, 257 



362 



Page 

Laupahoehoe, Hamakua, Descrip 
tion of formation of "by land 
slide 284 

Lava at Kilauea, described. . . . 191 
Lava flow, See "Honaunau", 
"Hualalai", "Volcano". 

Flow near Malama 218 

Law, See "Courts", "Inheri 
tance", "Divorce", "Mar 
riage", "Penalties", "Tabu". 

Traditional code of ... . 317 
Lawyers, none allowed ... 321 
Laziness, principal cause of infan 
ticide 245 

Legends; See "Traditions" 
Life after death, See "Death, 
Life after". 

Belief of natives in . ... . 211 
Lihohho, See "Rihoriho" 
Liliha, accompanied King to Eng 
land 343 

Liholiho, See "Kamehameha II". 
Liquor, Distilled, Introduced by 

foreigners . . 287 

Made from cane, potatoes 

and ti 129, 196 

Lono; See "Rono". 

Maaro, Chief of "Waiakea . . . . 

. .. .63, 224, 225, 227, 228, 

233, 234, 241, 248, 249, 254, 313 
Madagascar language, compared 
with Hawaiian ..... . . 347 

Mahuka, Volcanic activity at . 200 
Maika, G-ame of described . . . 148 
Makaaka, described, Experiences 

at 159, 161 

Makanau, scene of final surrender 

of Keoua 156 

Makaena, village, Description of 209 
JkCakoa, guide around Hawaii, de 
scribed, Picture of.... 86, 87, 154 

Gets drunk .... . . 129 

Address of to natives ..211, 264 
Malama, Lava Flow at . . . 214, 218 
Malanahae, Tillage of, visited 265 
Malay language, compared with 

Hawaiian 347, 353 

Manahim, "White visitor to Ha 
waii before Cook 331 

Manienie, Village of . . 264 

Manona, wife of Kekuaokalam, 

dies with him . . 93 

Monument to . . 94 

Manu, Lava flow at 218 

Market fairs held at Hilo . . 242 
Maro, worn in battle . 116 

Marquesas, Customs of compared 
with Hawaiian . . . 253, 258-260 

English mission at 36 

Voyages to 296, 297 

Marriage ; See ' 'Polygamy' ' 
Marriage and divorce, Customs in 

re . .328, 329 

Between royal families of 
Hawaii and Tahiti, pro 
posed .... . 70 
Of relatives prevalent . 329 
Mauae, guide, Reception to, Chant 

to 141, 143, 204-206, 211 

Maui, Description of, Population 
of 21 



301-304 

. . . 303, 304 
..19, 193, 194 
313 



250 
250 



34 



. . 3, 



Page 

Maukareoreo, a giant ..... 89 
Maunakea described ......... 19 

Legends of white men on . 304 
Trip of Blatchley and Rug- 
gles to ............. 303 

Trip of Goodrich to top of, 

Description of 
Wild animals on 
Maunaloa described 
Mechanics, Rank of 
Medicine, Foreign, Native dispo 
sition towards ... . 249, 

Tradition of origin of art.. 

Meles; See "Songs" 

Mercy, to vanquished.. .11, 119, 120 

Metcalf, Visit to Hawaii by . . 

Miomioi, a friend and favorite of 

Kamehameha, Reminiscences by 

..... . . .286, 288-290, 295 

Mission station on Kauai . . 29 

Established at Lahama . 21 

Mission stations, Locations rec 
ommended . ......... 11, 12 

Missionary, preaching to natives, 

Picture of, Description of 153, 307 
Missionaries, American, Arrival of 
and location of m Hawaii .4, 6, 11 
Chiefs friendly to, See Boki, 
Kaahumanu, Kamakau, Ka- 
mehamaru, Kapiolani, Kau- 
niualii, Keopuolani, Kua- 
kini, Maaro 

English to South Pacifi . . 
First whites to visit Kilauea 
Opposition to ... 

Report of on trip around Ha 
waii ........... 

Sentiments of natives toward 235 
Written language formulated 
by ............ 

Moanalua, Salt Lake at, described 
Mokini, temple built by Paao, 
white priest . .... 295 

Mokuohai, scene of Kamehame- 
ha's crucial battle ...... 108 

Money, Use of .... ... 315 

Morokai described, Population of 23 
Morokim, Description of . . . . 22 

Mourning, Burning a badge of 137 
1 Changes in custom effected 

by Christianity . . . 137 
Customs ...... 132-137 

Customs of S Pacific . . 134 
For Keopuolani ..... 135, 136 

Song, Fine example of . . 135 

Tattooing tongue badge of . 136 

Murder, Penalty for ........ 318 

Muscovy ducks in Kau . . . 160 

Musicians and dancers at Kailua 
............. 74, 78-80 

Rank of ...... . 313 

Mythology, See "Kilauea", 
"Pele", "Kamapuaa", "Tra 
ditions", "Religion". 

Fahienaena, sister of Kameha- 
meha ............ 328 

Nahoaarn, Hawaiian god . . .154 

Naihe, Character of, References to 
............... 12, 103, 157 



4 
4 
38 

9 



351 

28 



363 



Page 

Native tools; See "Tools" 

Traditions, See "Traditions". 
Houses, See "Houses" 
Houbes, compared with those 

of Society Islands . 236 

Opinion of idolatry, Christi 
anity, tabu 150, 152, 210, 211 
Natives; See "Chiefs", "Com 
mon people", "Hawaiian'*. 

Causes of decrease .10, 235, 236 

Ornaments of . . 145 

Physical description of . 32 

Status of at Kau . 145, 145 

Status of at Honuapo.. . 151 

Naval battles described... . '115 

Necklaces of bone and hair 117 

New Hebrides, Superstitions of 

similar to those of Hawaii 178 
New Zealanders, Hawanans iden 
tical with 326 

Niihau, Cession of to Kameha- 
meha, Description of ... 29 

Mats, Description of .... 30 
Ninole, descubed, source of re 
productive pebbles, source of 
sling stones . ... 158 

Numerals, Hawaiian named . . 853 
Nuuanu, Battle of described .25-27 

Valley described 24 

Nuuhiwa, See "Marquesas,". 

Oahu, Conquest' of by Kameha- 

meha 27 

Described, Population of 23, 28 

Oculists and surgery 250 

Ohelos, See "Berries". 

Ohelo berries, sacred to Pele.. 173 

Ohiokalam, name of N peak of 

Kilnuea , ... 205, 228 
Oil, See "Kukui" 

Olaa, Sandalwood collecting m. 227 

Tapa produced at ... 203 

Village and distiict described 226 

O-o, affricxiltural tool, described 146 

Opihikao, Village of, Experiences 

at . . 213 

Opiri, son of Paao, the white 

pnest 330 

Oraelos, Practise of m Hawaii 72 

Orator, National, Office hereditary 321 

Ordonls for trying accused. 320 
Origin of Hawaiian, Tradition 

and probabilities of 

. 323, 324, 326, 327 
Orthography, Hawaiian explained 

... ... 40, 41, 42, 43 

Ouh, Village of 301 

Owawarua, Village of 297 

Paao, a white priest; Traditions 

of 295, 330 

Pacific; Seo "Polynesian". 
Pacific Islanders, Differences . . 326 
Resemblance of to American 

Indians 327 

Traditions and probabilities 

of origin of 

323, 324, 326, 327 

Tabu peculiar to 291 

Paho, Game of described .... 147 
Pakarann, City of Refuge of . . 273 
Papapohaku, Kau, People of de 
scribed 145, 146 



Page 

Parker, American resident at Po- 
lolu, Waimea . ...286, 301 

Patani, Preaching at 142 

Pauahi, wife of Kamehameha II 157 
Pauepu, District of, White priest, 

Paao, located at 295 

Peace, Method of concluding . . 121 
Ti an emblem of ... . 197 

Pearl Harbor, References to . . 23 
Pebbles, Reproductive, of Ninole 158 
Pele, Controversy with a priestess 

of, at Hilo 228-230 

Combat of with Kamapuaa . 

^ 186, 196, 207 

Defiance of by Kaahumanu 

and Kapiolani 199 

Game of Holua with Kaha- 

vaii 220-223 

Priestess of, Vengeance 
threatened by ... 198, 230 
Traditions, Native fear of . 
11, 154, 164, 173, 
178, 181, 183, 187, 198, 231 
"Worship of in Hamakua, 

Heiau to 262 

Pele's hair described . .. 190 

Penalty, See "Tabu, Violation 

of" 

Penalty foi crime ... 318, 319 
People; See "Common People", 

"Chiefs". 

Personal property, Insecunty of 322 
Pestilence at the Islands . . . 32 
Petroglyphs described . . . 346 
Pets, dogs and pigs . ... 162 

Pickering, John, Hawaiian writ 
ten language based on plan by 6 
Picture-writing described . . . 346 
Pigs as offeimgs. . .73, 185, 192 

Tabu of 66 

Pigs as pets . . . . . . 162 

Pna, a chief, Rank of 313 

Po, Souls of dead went to . . 275 
Polygamy, prevalent among chiefs 329 
Poem, Specimen of chant , . 205 
Poison god Kalaipahoa described 



Pololu, Land slide at 285 

Valley, described . . 285, 286 

Ponahawai, village, visited , . 232 

Ponahoahoa, Volcanic activity at, 
Picture of . . 162-166 

Population of Islands, Number 
and causes of decrease ....10, 32 

Central Kona 12, 91 

Honaunau ... . . .130 

Honokane . . .... 285 

Honolulu 27 

Kaalaala and Kapapala, thick 
ly settled . . . 161 
Kahoolawe ... . . 22 
Kailua . . .12, 53, 91 

Kauai 29 

Keauhou 91 

Lanai .23 

Maui 21 

Nnhau . 29 

Oahu . 28 

Waipio . . 274 

Molokai 23 

Poriorani, King of Oahu at time of 
Cook 332 



364 



Page 

Prayers, See "Sorcery", "Sor 
cerers". 
Precipice trails along Hamakua 

bluffs 285 

Prickly pear in Kona . . . 123 

Priest, High, Hewahewa advised 

abolition idolatry and tabu.. 95, 96 
Priests, abolished as a class. . 37 
Printing, First in Hawaii ... 6, 38 
Prisoners; See "Sacrifices", 

"Slaves". 

Pronunciation , See ' 'Hawaiian 
language, Pronunciation of" . 
Property, See "Personal prop 
erty", "Land", "Common peo 
ple". 

Puako, Village of . . . . .301 

Puakokoki, Battle of, final defeat 

of Keoua .... . 156 

Pualaa, Village of, Experiences at 217 
Public assemblies, When held. 321 
Puhenehene, Game of, described . 61 
Pukalani, Village of, in Waimea . 301 
Pukohola, Heiau of described 71 

Puna, described . ..194, 195, 203 
Punahele, Definition of term . 313 

Punaluu, visited 159 

Punchbowl, Reference to . 24 

Puu o Kahavari hill described . 223 
Puukapu, Village of, in Waimea.. 301 

Bamfall of Islands . ... 30-32 
Eanai described, Population of . 

22, 23, 57 

Raspberries; See "Berries". 
Real Estate; See "Land", "Land 

tenure' '. 
Rebellion on Kauai. . . ... 29 

To restore idolatry . 92 

Refuge, See "City of Refuge" 
Religious beliefs, See "Gods", 
"Sacrifices". 

Discussions and services, Ha- 
waian . . 66, 69, 71-73, 
90, 91, 97, 107, 210, 211, 
226, 263, 274-276, 282, 283 
Religious controversy with a 
priestess of Pele . . . 228 
Discussion with three priests 

217 

Services at Heiau of Kawai- 

hae described ... .71 

Worship of Pele , . . 262 

Rent, Land, How payable. . 315 

Reptiles, Absence of 33 

Residence, See "Houses". 
Resurrection, after death, Belief 
in ... ... . 274 

Richards, Rev, References to 22, 63 
Rihoriho; See "Kamehameha II". 

Meaning of word . . 336 

Robbery, Penalty for ... 319 

Riroa, King of Hawaii 195, 273 

Roads, Character of ... 266 

Rono, a god, Cook thought to be, 

Traditions of ...100, 101, 217 

Ruggles, Mr., Trip of to Mauna- 

kea 303 

Rum and diseases of foreigners 
worse than Pele . . . . 230, 231 



Page 

Russian Port built at Honolulu. . 28 

Russian vessels at Honolulu ... 28 

Russians, Tiadmg salt with. . . . 299 
Sabbath, Observance of by natives 

62, 305-309, 323 

Services, Picture of 307 
Sacrifices, See "Human sacri 
fices" 

By diviners prior to war. .111, 112 

By Kamehameha I and II . 273 

In battle 119 

Of animals . . Ill, 112 

To volcano gods 185 

Sale, Law of. . . 319 

Salt Lake at Moanalua described 28 
Salt, Manufacture and use of in 

Hawaii and Society Islands . 299 

Ponds at Kawaihae 299 

Trade in 28 

Sandalwood collecting-, in Kohala 

295, 298 

In Waiakea . . . ... 227 

In Waimanu 277 

In Waipio ... ... 273 

Sandalwood, tree, Preparation of 

and trade m, described ...35, 227 

Schools established 38, 305 

Sea, See "Naval Battles" 

Seashore, Why natives live at . . 203 

Sham fights as preparation for 

war Ill 

Shark god, Heiau to . . . 67, 97 

Sharks, Natives afraid of ... 280 

Sheep in Hawaii . .33, 304 

Shipping at Honolulu in 1823. . 27 

Inter-island, Number and size 301 

Supplies furnished to. 310, 311 

Shoes, Substitute for. .81 

Sick, Indifference toward . . 233 

Sickness, Incantations to cure . 248 

Superstitions of natives in re 

. . . . 215, 249 

Single combat, described . . 118 
Singing at night, Custom of .258 
Slaves, Defeated in battle became 

... .. .. 120, 316 

Slings described . 110, 116 

Stones obtained at Ninole . 158 
Social Customs, See "Customs". 

"Chiefs". 
Social Customs, Rank of Chiefs, 

How decided 312, 313 
Society, Rank in, Division of 

. .312, 313 
Society Islands, Canoes made of 

kukui in 282 

English mission at . . 36 

Hospitality at . 286 

Invasion of not contemplated 290 

Suigery in . 250 

Traditions of Hades at .. 276 

Use of salt in . . . 299 

Songs, History presented in ... 349 

How formulated . . . 349 

Sorcerers, Status and powers of 

... . ... 215, 217 

Sorcery to cure sickness 248, 249 
Soul, Discussions with natives 

concerning . 274 



365 



Page 

South. Pacific, See "Pacific", 
"Tahiti", "Marquesas", "So 
ciety Islands" 

Customs of compared with 

Hawaiian . 258-260 

English mission in 36 

Fisheries of compared with 

Hawaiian . 297, 298 

South American languages com 
pared with. Hawaiian 347, 348 
Spanish discovery of Hawaii, 

Possible . . . 330-333 

Spelling, Hawaiian, explained 

40, 41, 42 

Speais described . 116 

Sports, See "Games" 
Spouting Horn at Tamtn 142 

Stewait, Rev, References to 

22, 58, 59, 62 

Strawberries , See ' 'Berries' '. 
Sugar Cane at the Islands 

34, 48, 147, 150, 195, 218 
Used as a food . . . 170 
Used for intoxicants . 105 

Sulphur beds at Kilauea . 179, 180 
Sunday, See "Sabbath" 
Supeistitions, See "Pele", "Ki- 
lauea" 

Superstitions, Re building houses 240 
Re curing sickness 215-217, 248 
Re volcano gods . 187 

Prevalence of , . 11, 26 

Similar to those of New 

Hebrides . . 178 

Supplies furnished to shipping . 

, , . 310, 311 

Suif iiding, described 277-280 

Surf canoeing, described . . 279 
Surf, Missionaries canoeing thru 

138, 140, 141 

Surgery; See "Medicine". 
Surgexy, Practice of .... 250 

Sweet potato liquor . . . 129 

Swimming, Adeptness of natives 
at . 278, 335 

(If a word is not found under 
"T", look under "K" ) 
"T" and "K", Alternative use 

of , . ... .349 

Tabu, Abolition of, Motives of 

. 37, 94, 95 

Easy for chiefs and priests 293 
Effect of abolition of 96 
Effect of on women 95, 294 
Instances of application . 66 
Length of term of ... 292 
Meaning of, Practice of in 
Polynesia, Penalities for 
breaking . . 290-293 
Opinion of natives re aboli 
tion of 150 

Violation of punished by 

burning 290, 293 

Taeo (Kaoo), King of Kauai, 
slain in battle on Calm 27 

King of Tauai at time of 
Cook ... 313 



Page 

Tahiti compaied with Hawaii 19 

Conditions in ...253-255 

Hawanans came from 324 

Intermarriage proposed with 

royal family of . . 70 

Origin and meaning of word 

. . 324, 326 

Treatment of sick in . .234 

Traditions same as Hawaiian 69 
Yoyages to and from . . . 

. . . 296, 297, 327 
Tahitian language, Peculiarities 

of 351 

Tahaur awe ; See * ' Kahoolawe ' ' . 
lahuata, See "Marquesas" 
Taiana, Slam in battle of Nuuanu 27 
Sunender of Keoua to ... 156 
Tain, a flying god ... 72, 90 

Taintu, Description of, Experi 
ences at .... .... 141 

Talking at night, Custom of.. . 258 
Tapa, Coloring, Methods of 84 

Cultivation, manufacture and 
varieties of described 82, 
84, 159, 162, 168, 203, 269 
Taraiopu, King at time of Cook . 

18, 98, 213, 313 
Taro described, Methods of cook 
ing 144, 160 

Tattooing compared to that of 
New Zealand, Tahiti and Mar 
quesas . . 151, 152 
The tongue badge of mourn 
ing, Method of . ..134, 136 
Tauai; See "Kauai" 
Taumuam, See "Kaunrualii". 
Taureonanahoa, rock pillars off 

Kona ... . 138 

Tax free, Certain lands are 316 

Taxes paid on land, No fixed . 315 
Taxation, Diffeient forms of 317 

Oppressive .... 311 

Teavemauhiri, King of Hawaii . 213 
Tenure; See "Land" 
Teponorani, King of Oahu at 

time of Cook . . 313 

Teeth, Knocked out on death of 

chief 133 

Temple; See "Heiau", "City of 

Refuge" 

Theft, Penalty for . 318 

Thurston, Rev. Asa, Adventure of 
at Kilauea . . 182 

Canoeing through the surf 

. . . 138, 141 

References to . . 44, 

47, 48, 49, 51, 123, 300, 301 
Return of to Honolulu. 322 

Trip of around Hawaii .4, 7 
Tilia, King of Kauai at time of 

Cook ,. . . 332 

Ti plant, described, Uses of foi 
liquor, food, building, clothing 

105, 196-198 

Tobacco pipe used as an orna 
ment . 146 
Produced in Hawaii 47 
Smoking, Emblem of hospi 
tality . . . .266 
Toll for crossing Wailuku River 241 



366 



Page 
Tools; See "Adze", "Oo". 

Bamboo knives 260 

Used by natives 239 

Tongue, Tattooing, badge of 

mourning .... 136 

Tournaments of sports aie popu 
lar 148 

Toumoarii, Tillage of . . 264 

Tour around Hawaii, The start 

from Kailua 86 

Towaihae, See "Kawaihae". 
Trade winds, Influence of on 

emigration . 327 

Trading, Customs of 319 

Inter-district at Hilo 242 

With shipping 311 

Tradition, Hawaiian, a specimen 

of 222 

Medicine, Origin of art of 250 

Paao, a white priest. . . 295 

"Voyage of Kamapiikai. .296, 297 

Traditions, Adventures of Kaua,. 296 

Of the Flood 333 

Of foreigneis in Hawaii prior 

to Cook 295, 330-333 

Of game of Holua between 

Pele and Kahavari 220-223 

Of Mauna Kea 304 

Of Kawelohea 150 

Of a giant 89 

Of Hades . .101, 275, 276 

Of Kilauea . . 184-186 

Of origin of Hawanans 

323, 324, 326, 327 

Of voyages to Marquesas and 

Tahiti 296, 297 

Traditional code of law. . 317 

Trans-Pacific Toyages, See ''Voy 
ages" 

Travel, See * 'Inter-island travel", 
"Tahiti, Voyages to and from" 
Trial by ordeal. .... .. 320 

Of causes, Methods of 320, 321 
Truce, Ti used as a flag of .197 
Tyerman, Rev DanL, Visit of to 
Hawaii, 1822 7 

Ulumaikia, Game of, See "Maika". 
Umi, King, Human sacrifices by. 

272-274 

Uri, god of the sorcerers 217 

Vancouver, Visits of to Hawaii. 

14, 35, 41, 42 

Vegetables of the Islands . 

33, 34, 48, 195, 198 

Volcano; See "Kilauea", "Hua- 
lalai", "Ponahoahoa". 

Activity at Kealaala and Ma- 

huka 200 

Conditions in Kau ... 140 
Eruption at Malama. 214 

Formations near Kilauea, de 
scribed . .170, 171, 172 
formations at Honaunau.. 130-132 

Native fears of 154 

Voyages; See "Intei -island 
travel". 

Long, in canoes 327 

To Marquesas and Tahiti 

296, 297 



Page 

Waiakea, Village and district de 
scribed 225 

Waimanu, Description of 12 

Waimea, District of, visited. . . 265 

Waipio, Description of 12 

Whaling industry, Beginning of 35 
Wahaula, Heiau of described . 203 

Wahmepio, Bank of 313 

Waiakahiula, Village, Visit to 224 

Waiakea, Description of ....12, 225 

Bay, Description of .... 251 

Population of 253 

Products of 252 

Village of in Waimea ..... 301 

Waikaloa, Village visited 301 

Wailau, visited 159 

Wailuku River, Hilo, described; 

Toll for crossing 241 

Waimanu, Description of 

12, 277, 280, 282 

Waimea, District, Population, De 
scription of 265, 301 

Waiohmu, described, Experiences 

at 146, 147 

Waipio Valley, described . ... 

12, 266, 273, 274 

Celebrated in song and tradi 
tion 274 

Picture of 267 

Population of .... .... 274 

War, See "Battle", "City of 
Refuge", "Cloaks", "Dress", 
"Forts", "Helmets", "Land 
titles ", " Naval battles ", 
"Peace", " Prisoners ' ', 
"Single combat", "Weapons", 
"Women". 

Addresses prior to .. .112, 113 
Ganips in preparation for . 114 
Cities of refuge used in time 

of . . . \in 

Diviners consulted before en 
gaging in . . . . Ill, 112 

Fought in daytime 115 

God, See "Idols". 

Messengers 114 

Method of preparation for. . 

113, 114 

Shirkers, Punishment' of ... 

113, 114 

Prevalence of 32 

Status of, Defeated in. 119, 120 
Ti leaf a flag of truce . 197 
Warfare, Hawaii a scene of con 
stant 109 

Hawaiian method of 110 

Warm Springs at Kawaihae . .299 
Water pools at' the volcano.... 179 

Scarcity of 

.. .45, 50, 130, 138, 139, 141 
Stream of at Keaau . . . 
Stream of at Waiohinu 146 

Waterfalls on Waipio bluffs 

277, 285 

Water Games; See "Games, 
Water", "Surf riding", "Canoe 

surfing", described . .278 

Water melons at Kalehu, Kau . 144 
Weapons, See "Slings", 
' 'Spears' '. 



367 



Page 
Weapons, Differences in groups of 

Pacific 326 

Hawaiian, descubed .... 

110, 116, 288 

Weather record, Honolulu, in 

1821-22 30-32 

Wlialeships at Hawaii, Numbers 

of, Trading by . 35, 36, 311 

White priest, Tiadition of a .295 
Whites in Hawaii pnor to Oook . 

295, 304, 330-333 

In Hawaii in 1823 , See 
"Parker", * ' Young, 
John". 
Wihwili tree, Description and 

uses of 166 

Windows, none in houses 238 

Women, Hawaiian, paiticipants in 

battle 93, 109 

Status of in Hawaii . . . 222 
Status of under tabu.. .95, 294 



Page 
Work; See "Labor" 

Worship; See "Pele", "Relig 
ious worship". 

Wrestling, piacticed by Hawai- 
ians in 

Written Language, Hawaiian 
How formulated . ... 6, 38, 351 
Hieroglyphics discussed . . . 346 

Writing, Advance of among Ha- 
wanans 328 

Tarns, raised on Kauai and Nii- 

hau 30 

Young, John, Capture of 35 

Description of 71 

Relations with mission . . . 

266, 298, 322 

Traditions stated by 324 



102601